Arabic Bulgarian Chinese Croatian Czech Danish Dutch English Estonian Finnish French German Greek Hebrew Hindi Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Italian Japanese Korean Latvian Lithuanian Malagasy Norwegian Persian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swedish Thai Turkish Vietnamese
Arabic Bulgarian Chinese Croatian Czech Danish Dutch English Estonian Finnish French German Greek Hebrew Hindi Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Italian Japanese Korean Latvian Lithuanian Malagasy Norwegian Persian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swedish Thai Turkish Vietnamese

definition - Newton_OS

definition of Wikipedia

   Advertizing ▼


Newton OS

Newton OS
Newton logo.png
Company / developer Apple Inc.
Working state Historic
Source model Closed source
Latest stable release 2.1 / March 21, 1997; 15 years ago (1997-03-21)
Supported platforms Apple Newton
Kernel type Microkernel
Default user interface GUI
License Proprietary EULA

Newton OS was the operating system for the Apple Newton PDAs produced by Apple from 1993-1997. Newton OS was written entirely in C++ and trimmed to be low power consuming and use the available memory efficiently. Similar to the original Apple Macintosh, many applications were written in the ROM of the Newton to save DRAM and flash space for user applications.



Newton OS featured many interface elements that even Mac OS didn't have at the time, such as drawers and the "poof" animation. An animation similar to this is found in Mac OS X, and parts of the Newton's handwriting recognition system have been implemented as Inkwell in Mac OS X.

  • Sound responsive — Clicking menus and icons makes a sound; this feature was later introduced in Mac OS 8.
  • Icons - Similar to the Macintosh Desktop metaphor, Newton OS uses icons to open applications.
  • Tabbed documents — Similar to tabbed browsing in today's browsers and Apple's AtEase interface, documents titles appear in a small tab at the top right hand of the screen.
  • Screen rotation — In Newton 2.0, the screen could be rotated to be used for drawing or word processing.
  • File documents — Notes and Drawings can be categorized. E.g. Fun, Business, Personal, etc.
  • Print documents — Documents on the Newton can be printed
  • Send documents — Documents can be sent to another Newton via Infrared technology or sent using the Internet by E-Mail, or faxed.
  • Menus — Similar to menus seen in Mac OS, but menu titles are instead presented at the bottom of the screen in small rectangles, making them similar to buttons with attached "pop-up" menus.

Many features of the Newton are best appreciated in the context of the history of Pen computing, which is quite extensive.[1][2]


Shortly after the Newton PDA's release in 1993, developers were not paying much attention to the new Newton OS API and were still more interested in developing for the Macintosh and Windows platforms. It was not until two years later that developers saw a potential market available to them in creating software for Newton OS. Several programs were made by third-party developers, including software to enhance Newton's initially disappointing (in OS 1.x) hand writing recognition technology.

The basic software that came with Newton OS:

  • Works — A program for drawing and word processing, with typical capabilities such as: rulers, margins, page breaks, formatting, printing, spell checking and find & replace tools.
  • Notes — Used for checklists, as well as both drawing and writing in the same program either with a newton keyboard or a stylus pen.
  • Dates — Calendar program where you can schedule appointments and other special events.
  • Names — Program for storing extensive contacts information in a flexible format.
  • Formulas — Program that offers metric conversions, currency conversions, loan and mortgage calculators, etc.
  • Calculator — A basic calculator with square root, percentage, MR, M+ and M- functions additional to the basic functions found on a calculator.
  • Clock — A small floating window type application, known as a desktop accessory on the Macintosh. The Newton clock also included features for an alarm, minute timer and the date.

  Version history

Date released OS version
August 3, 1993 1.0
October 30, 1993 1.1
? 1.2
March 4, 1994 1.3
March 14, 1996 2.0
March 21, 1997 2.1

  Handwriting recognition

The Newton used the CalliGrapher word-based handwriting recognition engine developed by ParaGraph International Inc, led by former Soviet scientist Stepan Pachikov[3][4]

The earliest versions had weaknesses that resulted in bad publicity and reviews.[citation needed] However, with the release of Newton PDAs based upon version 2.0 of the OS, the handwriting recognition had substantially improved, partially being a product of ParaGraph and an Apple-created recognizer pair: Apple's Rosetta and Mondello. Newton's handwriting recognition, particularly the print recognizer, has been considered by many reviewers, testers, and users to be the best in the industry, even 10 years after it was introduced.[5] It was developed by Apple's Advanced Technology Group, and has been described as "the world's first genuinely usable handwriting recognition system".[6]

The Newton could recognize hand-printed text, cursive, or a mix of the two, and could also accept free-hand "Sketches", "Shapes", and "ink text". Text could also be entered by tapping with the stylus on a small on-screen pop-up QWERTY keyboard. With "Shapes", Newton could recognize that the user was attempting to draw a circle, a line, a polygon, etc., and it would clean them up into "perfect" vector representations (with modifiable control points and defined vertices) of what the user was attempting to draw. "Shapes" and "Sketches" could be scaled or deformed once drawn. "Ink text" captured the user's free-hand writing but allowed it to be treated somewhat like recognized text when manipulating for later editing purposes ("ink text" supported word wrap, could be formatted to be bold, italic, etc.).[7] At any time a user could also direct the Newton to recognize selected "ink text" and turn it into recognized text (deferred recognition). A Newton Note document (or the notes attached to each contact in Names and each calendar event) could contain any mix of interleaved text, ink text, Shapes, and Sketches.[8]


Newton OS ran applications written in C++, along with an interpreted, user-friendly language called NewtonScript. These applications are stored in packages.

  See also



  1. ^ Notes on the (relatively unknown) History of Pen-based Computing
  2. ^ Annotated Bibliography in Pen Computing
  3. ^ Calore, Michael (23 January 2007). "Stepan Pachikov Wants to Study Your Handwriting". WIRED. http://blog.wired.com/monkeybites/2007/01/stepan_pachikov.html. Retrieved 6 February 2009. [dead link]
  4. ^ Luckie, Douglas. "Newton Hall of Fame". https://www.msu.edu/~luckie/hallofame.htm. Retrieved 6 February 2009. 
  5. ^ HWR accuracy:
  6. ^ Smykil, Jeff (June 2005). "In the Loop with Larry Yaeger: part I". Ars Technica. http://arstechnica.com/apple/news/2005/06/504.ars. Retrieved February 27, 2012. "Also at Apple, in the Advanced Technology Group, [Larry Yaeger] was Technical Lead in the development of the neural network-based handprint recognition system, the world's first genuinely usable handwriting recognition system, showcased in second generation Newton PDAs and Mac OS X's "Inkwell."" 
  7. ^ Pen Computing's First Look at Newton OS 2.0
  8. ^ Read about HWR, ink text, Sketches, & Shapes in Apple's MessagePad Handbook available in Apple's Newton Manuals collection

  External links

  Additional resources & information




All translations of Newton_OS

sensagent's content

  • definitions
  • synonyms
  • antonyms
  • encyclopedia

Dictionary and translator for handheld

⇨ New : sensagent is now available on your handheld

   Advertising ▼

sensagent's office

Shortkey or widget. Free.

Windows Shortkey: sensagent. Free.

Vista Widget : sensagent. Free.

Webmaster Solution


A windows (pop-into) of information (full-content of Sensagent) triggered by double-clicking any word on your webpage. Give contextual explanation and translation from your sites !

Try here  or   get the code


With a SensagentBox, visitors to your site can access reliable information on over 5 million pages provided by Sensagent.com. Choose the design that fits your site.

Business solution

Improve your site content

Add new content to your site from Sensagent by XML.

Crawl products or adds

Get XML access to reach the best products.

Index images and define metadata

Get XML access to fix the meaning of your metadata.

Please, email us to describe your idea.


The English word games are:
○   Anagrams
○   Wildcard, crossword
○   Lettris
○   Boggle.


Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.


Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !

English dictionary
Main references

Most English definitions are provided by WordNet .
English thesaurus is mainly derived from The Integral Dictionary (TID).
English Encyclopedia is licensed by Wikipedia (GNU).


The wordgames anagrams, crossword, Lettris and Boggle are provided by Memodata.
The web service Alexandria is granted from Memodata for the Ebay search.
The SensagentBox are offered by sensAgent.


Change the target language to find translations.
Tips: browse the semantic fields (see From ideas to words) in two languages to learn more.

last searches on the dictionary :

1949 online visitors

computed in 0.124s

I would like to report:
section :
a spelling or a grammatical mistake
an offensive content(racist, pornographic, injurious, etc.)
a copyright violation
an error
a missing statement
please precise:



Company informations

My account



   Advertising ▼