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North Karnataka

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North Karnataka (Kannada: ಉತ್ತರ ಕರ್ನಾಟಕ), is a relatively arid expanse of plateau, lying between 300 and 700 meters elevation, in southern India and within the Karnataka province. It includes the districts of Belgaum, Bijapur, Bagalkot, Bidar, Bellary, Gulbarga, Yadgir District, Raichur, Gadag, Dharwad, Haveri, Koppal and Uttara Kannada District. It is drained by the Krishna River and its tributaries the Bhima, Ghataprabha, Malaprabha, and Tungabhadra. It mostly lies within the Deccan thorn scrub forests ecoregion, which extends north into eastern Maharashtra.

Contents

Introduction

Mallikarjuna temple and Kashi Vishwanatha temple at Pattadakal

North Karnataka is known for the great freedom fighters, Social Reformers, great Hindustani musicians, great personalities related to literature, law, Science and technology. World heritage sites, Communal harmony.

North Karnataka has many Jain monuments belonging to Kadambas, Rashtrakutas, Badami Chalukyas, Kalyani Chalukyas, Sevuna, Vijayanagara period (Karnataka Through Centuries[1]). North Karnataka is a land accompanied by majestic cliffs, rocky landscapes and magnificent monuments that date back to 5th century. Aihole is called the cradle of Hindu rock architecture with over 125 temples and monuments. Rashtrakuta monuments at Lokapura, Bilgi and Kuknur and Kalyani Chalukyas monuments built in the Gadag style at Lakkundi, Gadag, Koppal District and the famous Vijayanagar empire temples at Vijayanagara are the best that it offers. Badami Chalukyas monuments at Pattadakal, Aihole, and Badami are a sight to be seen. Hampi in Bellary District is world famous with some fifty four world heritage monuments and six hundred and fifty national monuments.

North Karnataka fate that with rich history, culture, having many Tourist attractions. It is still waiting for the overall developments to happen.

History of North Karnataka

North Karnataka's history[1][2] and culture takes us back to pre-historic times. The earliest find of the stone age period in India was a handaxe at Lingasugur in Raichur district. The Ashoka's rock edicts found in the state indicate that major parts of Northern Karnataka were under the Mauryas. Adding new dimensions to the cultural and spiritual ethos of the land, many great dynasties left their imprint upon the aesthetic development of North Karnataka's art forms. Prominent among them were the Chalukyas, Vijayanagara Empire, Rashtrakuta, Deccan Sultanates and Western Chalukyas.

Sangankal hills in Bellary District, which is known as the earliest village settlement of South India[3] dating back to the Neolithic Age.

The early inhabitants of Karnataka particularly North Karnataka knew the use of Iron[4] far earlier than the North India, and Iron weapons dating back to 1200 B.C have found at Hallur in Dharwad District.

Western Chalukya

Extent of Western Chalukya Empire, 1121 CE

This dynasty is sometimes called the Kalyani Chalukyas after its regal capital at Kalyani, today's Basavakalyan in Karnataka and alternatively the Later Chalukya from its theoretical relationship to the sixth century Badami Chalukyas.

The Western Chalukyas (ಪಶ್ಚಿಮ ಚಾಲುಕ್ಯ ಸಾಮ್ರಾಜ್ಯ) developed an architectural style (also called Gadag style) known today as a transitional style, an architectural link between the style of the early Chalukya Dynasty[5] and that of the later Hoysala empire.

The Chalukyas built some of the earliest Hindu temples in India. The most prominent ones are: the Mahadeva Temple (Itagi) in the Koppal District, the Kasivisvesvara Temple at Lakkundi in the Gadag District, the Mallikarjuna Temple at Kuruvatti and the Kallesvara Temple at Bagali, both in the Davangere District. The monuments notable for their craftsmanship are the Siddhesvara Temple at Haveri in the Haveri District, the Amrtesvara Temple at Annigeri in the Dharwad District, the Sarasvati Temple in Gadag, and the Dodda Basappa Temple at Dambal, both in the Gadag District. Aihole turned up as an experimental base for the dynamic creations of architects.


Rashtrakuta

Core territory of Rashtrakuta empire of Manyakheta (Malkhed in Gulbarga District)

During the rule of Dantidurga, built an impressive empire with the Gulbarga region in modern Karnataka as its base. This clan came to be known as the Rashtrakuta[6][7] s (ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಕೂಟ) of Manyakheta, rising to power in South India in 753. During their rule, Jain mathematicians and scholars contributed important works in Kannada and Sanskrit. Amoghavarsha I was the most famous king of this dynasty and wrote Kavirajamarga, a landmark literary work in the Kannada language. Architecture reached a milestone in the Dravidian style, the finest examples of which are seen in the Kailasanatha Temple (Kailash Temple) at Ellora and the sculptures of Elephanta Caves in modern Maharashtra as well as in the Kashivishvanatha temple and the Jain Narayana temple at Pattadakal in modern North Karnataka, all of which are UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Scholars however concur that the kings of the imperial dynasty in the eighth to tenth century made the Kannada language as important as Sanskrit. Rashtrakuta inscriptions are in the two languages of Kannada and Sanskrit and the kings encouraged literature in both languages. The earliest existing Kannada literary writings are credited to their court poets and royalty.


Kailash Temple is a splendid achievement of Dravidian art. This project was started by Krishna I (757- 773) of the Rashtrakuta dynasty that ruled from Manyakheta in present day Karnataka state, It is 40 km from Gulbarga city. Manyakheta (modern Malkhed) on the banks of Kagini River in Gulbarga district

Kadambas of Hangal

Extent of Kadamba Empire, 500 CE

Kadambas(ಕದಂಬರು) were an ancient dynasty of south India who primarily ruled the region which is present day Goa state and nearby Konkan region (part of modern Maharashtra and Karnataka state). The early rulers of this dynasty established themselves at Vaijayanti or Banavasi in 345 AD and the ruled as independent rulers for more than 2 centuries. In 607 AD, Chalukyas of Vatapi sacked Banavasi and Kadamba kingdom was incorporated into the expanding Chalukyan empire. In eighth century AD, Chalukyas of Vatapi were overthrown by Rashtrakutas who ruled supreme in south India till the 10th century. In 980 AD, descendants of Chalukyas and Kadambas rose against Rashtrakutas and the Rashtrakuta empire fell, resulting in the establishment of a second Chalukyan dynasty (called Western Chalukyas). Chatta Deva, a scion of Kadamba family who helped Western Chalukyas in this coup, re-established Kadamba dynasty. He was mostly a feudatory of Western Chalukyas but his successors enjoyed considerable independence and were almost sovereign rulers of Goa and Konkan till 14th century AD. The successors of Chatta Deva occupied both Banavasi and Hangal and are known as Kadambas of Hangal. Later Kadambas kept paying nominal allegiance to other major power brokers of Deccan like Yadavas and Hoysalas of Dorasamudra and thus maintained their independence. Four different families of Kadambas ruled in southern India which were Kadambas of Hangal[8], Kadambas of Goa, Kadambas of Belur and Kadambas of Banvasi.

Vijayanagara empire

Vijayanagara[9][10], the greatest of all medieval Hindu empires and one of the greatest the world over, fostered the development of intellectual pursuits and fine arts. Abdur Razzaq the Persian ambassador had said, The eye of the pupil has never seen a place like it and the ear of intelligence has never been informed that there existed anything to equal it in the world.

Deccan Sultanates

The Vijayanagara Empire with its capital at Hampi fell a victim to the marauding army of the Deccan Sultanates[11] in 1565 A.D. As a consequence of this, Bijapur became the most important city of the region. Bijapur is a land of monuments and perhaps no other city except Delhi has as many monuments as Bijapur. Bahmani Shahis and Adil Shahis (Bahmani Sultanate) of Bijapur have played an important role in the history of Karnataka by their contribution to the field of art and architecture and also by their propagation of Islam in the state.

Bidar Sultanate was part of Deccan sultanates, founder - Qasim Barid.

Historically Important Places

  • Belagaon / Belgaum

Belgaum / Belagavi earlier known as Venugrama (Bamboo Village) is one of the oldest, strong, prominent and well cultured historical place nestling high in the Western Ghats. The old town area with cotton and silk weavers stands gloriously besides the modern, bustling, tree-lined British Cantonment.

Belgaum is the District Head Quarters and was also Divisional Headquarters till recently, on the Bangalore-Pune National Highway. It was the capital of the Rattas who shifted to this place from Saundatti during the close of 12th century A.D. The place has a fort inside which built by one Ratta Officer called Bichirajain 1204 A.D. exhibits the execution of a totally refined style of temple architecture. It has excellently and artistically carved Kamala Basadi having huge protruding lotus petals of stone (Kamala) in its ceiling and this beautiful structure in Chalukya style houses Neminatha Teerthankara image. The place came under the Sevunas (Yadavas) and Vijayanagara and later conquered by Mahamood Gawan in 1474 on behalf of the Bahamanis. The fort was strengthened by the Adilshahis and there is an excellent structure, Safa Mosque with three entrances, has rich floral and impressive calligraphic designs. Two of its pillars have Kannada Inscriptions in Nagari Scripts, one of 1199 of Ratta King Kartaveerya IV and another of 1261 is of Seuna (Yadava) Krishna.

Due to its proximity to the states of Maharashtra and Goa, Belgaum has acquired the cultural flavour of these states and blended it with the local Kannada culture to create a rich heritage, which is unique in its manifestation. It is also known as Malenadu or Rain Country and the vegetation here is verdant green throughout the year.

This city is famous for Belgaum Kunda.

Bellary is a district headquarters. It has spread round two rocky hills, and one of them called Balahari Betta has a temple. The fort built round the hill in Vijayanagara times is still intact. It passed into the hands of Bijapur, Marathas, the Nizam and Haider. After the fall of Tipu, the town was ceded to the British by the Nizam. The Durgamma (Ballaramma) temple here has the deity represented by the heap of earth. The place has two large mosques. A Government Medical College was founded here in 1961 Bellary now has grown as a great centre of apparel manufacturing.

Arabic University Mahmud Gawan, Bidar

Bidar, the District headquarters, described as Viduranagara, a place ofMahabharatha times. It must have existed as a minor but powerful fort during the days of Kalyani Chalukyas (AD 1074- AD 1190). It passed on to the control of the Kakatiyas of Warrangal. In A.D.1322, Prince Ulugh Khan captured the town of Bidar. Subsequently, it was annexed by Sultan Muhammad-bin- Tughlaq of Delhi. With the establishment of the Bahmani dyanasty (AD 1347), Bidar was occupied by Sultan Alla-Ud-Din Bahman Shah Bahmani. During the rule of Ahmad Shah I (1422-1486 AD), Bidar was made the capital city of Bahmani Kingdom.

The Bahmani Shahi rulers made it their capital, in c, 1426 and fortified it. It is still intact. Inside it are the Solha Kamb mosque (1423) and palaces like Takht Mahal, Chini Mahal and Rangeen Mahal; some of them are highly decorated with mosaic and wood work etc. The fort has magnificent doorways and massive bastions. Gawan’s Madrasa in the town is a gorgeous imposing building of Indo-Saracenic style. After the decline of Bahamanis, the Barid-Shahis ruled over Bidar and it was taken over by the Bijapur rulers in 1619. Later it fell to Aurangzeb, and finally it came under the Nizam. Jharani Narasimha temple here is quite famous. Astur near Bidar has tombs of Bahmani Sultans which are tall structures, and one of them has paintings. The Gurudwara at Bidar is built at Nanak Zhira, which is described as a fountain created by Guru Nanak during his visit.

Bidar boasts of several religious centers: The famous Nanak Jheera - the largest Sikh temple at least in Karnataka, carries the tale that Guru Nanak - the first guru of the Sikhs visited this place and got rid of the scarcity of drinking water in the region. A popular spot is the Sikh temple, Guru Nanak Jheera, where fresh crystal clear spring water appears from nowhere. To visit the Narasimha Jheera, you have to tread for at least a furlong inside a cave with waist deep water to seek the a view of Lord Narasimha. Papanaash is a temple of Lord Shiva. The historical fort of Bidar was a stronghold of the Bahamani Kings in the 14th and 15th centuries. The fort is surrounded by three miles of walls with 37 bastions, most of them surmounted with cannons. This fort was a source of irritation to the Mughal rulers of Delhi, and was finally conquered by Aurangazeb. The fort now lies in ruins.

Bidar is famous for Bidriware

Gulbarga and the area around it was a part of the ancient dynasty Badami Chalukyas. The origin of the town of Gulbarga goes back to the local Kakatiya rulers of Warangal. It witnessed a lot of turmoil in the early medieval period. In the early part of the 14th century, it became the part of the Delhi Sultanate. It was captured by Ulugh Khan, one of the generals belonging to the Tughlaq dynasty of Delhi Sultanate, and later captured by Mohammed bin Tughlaq, the Sultan of Delhi.It remained a part of the Delhi Sultanate until the death of Mohammed bin Tughlaq. Later it became a part of the Bahamani kingdom. The Bahamani kings made it their capital from 1347 to 1428. In the 17th century, it was annexed by Aurangzeb, the last great Mughal ruler and inducted into the Mughal Empire. In the 18th century, Gulbarga came under the erstwhile rulers of Hyderabad.

Gol Gumbaz in Bijapur, North Karnataka

Bijapur, the district headquarters, is one of the most important centres of Indo-Saracenic art, being the capital of the Adil Shahis of Bijapur (1489-1686). The place is mentioned as Vijayapura in as inscription of 12th Century A.D. The Gol Gumbaz here has the biggest dome in India. It is the second largest dome in the world after St Peters Basilica in Rome. 126 feet in diameter at its base and is the Mausoleum of Mohammed Adilshah (1626-56). It has an astonishing whispering gallery and it covers an area of 15,000 square feet. Ibrahim Rauza is a marvelous mausoleum of Ibrahim II (1580-1626) which stands on a platform supported by rows of arches, and at one end is the mosque and at the other the tomb. Henry Cousens called this, the Tajmahal of the South. Anand Mahal, Gagan Mahal, Asar Mahal etc. are the other important monuments of this place. Jama Masjid mosque has one of the largest remains Adil Shahi's Dynasty.

Dharwad, a district headquarters on the Pune-Bangalore Road, is the cultural headquarters of North Karnataka. Mentioned as Dharawada in a record of the 12th century of the Kalyani Chalukyas, the place came under the Seunas, Vijayanagara, Bijapur, Mughals, Marathas, and Haider and Tipu. The Vijayanagara rulers built a fort here which was strengthened by Bijapur rulers. Its door-frame alone remains now.It was the home of Alur Venkatrao, the father of Karnataka Unification Movement, poet Dr. D. R. Bendre and outstanding Hindustani Vocalists Mallikarjuna Mansur. Now a part of Hubli-Dharwad Corporation, Dharwad became the district headquarters when it came under the British from the Marathas in 1818, and grew to be a centre of learning due to the English School opened in 1848, high school opened by the Basel Mission in 1868 and the Training College was initiated in 1867 which became the centre of Kannada Movement. The Karnataka Vidyavardhaka Sangha (1890) sowed the seeds of Kannada Renaissance.

The Durgadevi temple near the fort is renovated now and the Someshwara on Kalghatgi Road has a Chalukyan temple and a tank. The Mailara Linga temple at Vidyagiri is a Kalyani Chalukyas monument converted into a mosque by Bijapur army but again changed as a temple by the Peshwas. The place hasmany temples like Venkataramana, Nandikola Basavanna, Dattatreya, Ulavi Basavanna etc. The Murugha Matha is a centre of religious activity.

Basavana Bagewadi in Bijapur District. is 43 km. to the east of Bijapur and is a Taluk headquarters where Sharana Basaveshwara was born (12th Century). It was an agrahara. Basaveshwara was the son of the head of this institution. The main temple here the Basaveshwara, is of Chalukyan style, but called as Sangamanatha in records. The Samadhis of Siddharameshwara and Gurupadeshwara of the Inchageri school of spiritual pursuit are seen here. A spot here identified as Basava’s ancestral house is declared as protected zone by the Trust.

Western Chalukya architecture

Western Chalukya architecture[12] wonders are still alive at Sudi, Lakkundi, Gadag, Annigeri, Haveri, Lakshmeshwar, Chaudayyadanapura, Galaganatha, Mahadeva Temple (Itagi).

File:Pillars at Sarasvati Temple in Gadag.JPG
Sarasvati Temple in Gadag

Gadag-Betgeri (Kaldugu is the old name of Gadag and Battakere(Round Tank) of Betgeri) is a twin city, It is a great centre of Kalyani Chalukyas art with the large Trikuteshwara temple, originally Rashtrakuta, later expanded by the Kalyani Chalukyas into a vast complex, and it has Trikuteshwara temple complex triple shrines once housing Shiva, Brahma and Surya. The Saraswati temple in itsprecinct has the finest shining decorative pillars, is the finest examples of Chalukya Art. The place has the Someshwara and Rameshwara temples of Chalukyan style, is also known for its religious harmony. The Veeranarayana temple of Chalukya times, completely renovated in Vijayanagara times including the image of Narayana too replaced. The great Kannada poet Kumaravyasa composed his famous Karnataka Bharatha Kathamanjari by staying in this temple.

Gadag has a mosque of Adil Shahi times, highly artistic. There is a Church too of the Basel Mission (Now C.S.I.). Betageri has many artistic herostones, some dating back to 9th-10th centuries. Gadag-Betageri are famous for weaving industry, and of late, Gadag has excelled in printing. To reach Lakkundi, Dambal, Itgi and Kuknur, Gadag is the gateway.

Mahadeva temple at Itagi (Ittagi), it is about 7 km from Kuknur, it is in Yalburga Taluka in Koppal District. The temple is one of the beautiful temples built by Chalukyas, that’s the reason this temple called as Emperor among temples. The nearest Historical and Tourist place is Lakkundi.

File:Lakkundi Brahma Jainalaya.JPG
Jain temple at Lakkundi, near Gadag, (Western Chalukya monuments), North Karnataka, India

* The Kasivisvesvara temple, Lakkundi

* Brahma Jinalaya (Basadi) at Lakkundi

Lakkundi[14] was a place of prominence during the ninth and 14th centuries and it came under the rule of Chalukya, Yadava and Hoysala kings. It was the capital of Hoysala king Ballala II (Veeraballala) in 1192 A.D.

Lakkundi (Known as Lokkigundi)situated at 12 km from Gadag, was once famous for its rich cultural heritage. Lakkundi finds mention in the inscriptions dating back to the 11th and 12th centuries. In these inscriptions, Lokkigundi has been compared to Amaravati, the capital of Lord Indra in terms of wealth.

  • Haveri
File:Siddhesvara Temple Haveri.JPG
Siddhesvara Temple at Haveri

The Siddhesvara Temple at Haveri in the Haveri District

Siddhesvara Temple at Haveri, a staggered square plan with dravida articulation and superstructure, 11th century CE

File:Amrtesvara Temple at Annigeri.JPG
Amrtesvara Temple in Annigeri

The Amrtesvara Temple at Annigeri in the Dharwad District

Amrtesvara Temple in Annigeri was built in the Dharwad district in 1050 CE with dravida articulation. This was the first temple made of soapstone

File:Dodda Basappa Temple.JPG
Dodda Basappa Temple at Dambal

The Doddabasappa Temple at Dambal in the Gadag District

Dambal or Dhammavolal now in Gadag dt. is 21 km from Gadag. It is also known as Dharmapolalu in ancient inscriptions. It was a Buddhist Centre too. The Doddabasappa and the Someshwara are the two notable Chalukya temples here and the Doddabasappa has multigonal star-shaped garbhagriha. With fine sculptural representations and a huge Nandi image. The Someshwara could have been an old basadi. In the old ruined fort, there is a huge Ganapati image in a small shrine. The town has a 400 year old vast tank. There is the Thontada Siddhalingeswara Matha at the place.

Dodda Basappa Temple at Dambal, a unique 24-pointed, uninterrupted stellate (star-shaped), 7-tiered dravida plan, 12th century CE

Tank at Badami

Badami has a set of four elaborately carved cave temples and one natural Buddhist temple. The caves are located half way up a low hill and can be approached by stairs.

the third cave quite interesting with its almost 3-metre high sculptures. Between the second and the third caves, there are stairs that go up to the top of the hill where there are some fortifications from the Chalukya era.

The caves overlook the ancient Agatsyateerth pond, built sometime in the 5th century.

Just behind the archaeological museum, there is a long stairway that leads to the fortification on the top of the hill. Most people who come to Badami don't venture this way, this is the best thing about the place.

The pond shimmers in the glory of the early morning sun, reflecting the cliffs on the other side. A perfect Kodak moment. There are a couple of Chalukya temples on the top covered with intricate carvings.

On the northern side of the pond, is a group of Shiva temples called the Bhoothnath temples, which are also worth exploring.

File:Durga temple Aihole.JPG
Durga temple at Aihole

There are more than a 100 temples in the village dating from the 6th to the 12th centuries. Of these around 30 temples are within an enclosed area and the others are spread all over the village.

Aihole was the first capital of the early Chalukyas and is a veritable treasure trove of ancient temples. Actually quite similar to Hampi, only much more ancient and much less publicized.

The most famous of the temples is the photogenic Durga temple within the enclosed complex, lying in the midst of lush green lawns. The temple is apsidal in plan, topped by a curvilinear shikhara. A pillared corridor runs around the temple. The pillars are beautifully carved with sculptures depicting incidents from the Ramayana. Another notable temple is the Lad Khan temple, also within the compound. The temple has beautifully carved pillars and is named after a Muslim saint who lived here sometime in the late 19th century. There are several other smaller shrines and a small museum within the same complex.

The Revalphadi Cave, dedicated to Shiva, is remarkable for its delicate details.

Not to be missed is the Konthi Temple Complex (Kwanthi Gudi), the Uma Maheswari Temple with a beautifully carved Brahma seated on a lotus, the austere Jain Meguti Temple and the two storeyed Buddhist Temple.

Mahakuta, once a great center of shaiva cult, Mahakuta is a beautiful place surrounded by hills. The Mahakuteshwara temple dedicated to Shiva, is built in the Dravidian style.

Naganath Temple, located in a forest on the way to Mahakuta, it is one of the early Chalukyan temples dedicated to Shiva.

The temple is dedicated to Banashankari or Shakambari (a form of Parvati) is located at Cholachagud popularly called Banashankari. A famous fair and festival is held here in January - February.

Hubli-Dharwad

File:Chandramouleshwara temple Unkal 2.JPG
Hubli Chandramouleshwara Temple Unkal, North Karnataka

Hubli City, situated about 20 km east of Dharwad, is the commercial centre of the district. Cotton and peanuts (called groundnuts locally) are grown aplenty in the surrounding rural areas, and Hubli is a major trading center for both commodities. Fish from Karwar, a coastal town 165 km away, is packed and shipped from Hubli. It is also an important city for the Indian Railways, being The zonal headquarters of South Western Railway and the Hubli Division. It also has a wagon workshop.

Hubli is an important industrial centre, with more than 1000 allied small and medium industries already established. There are machine tools industries, electrical, steel furnitures, food products, rubber and leather industries and tanning industries. With the establishment of Bhoruka textile Mill, N.G.E.F and K.M.F. it has gathered momentum in industrial development.

Dharwad is the cultural capital of Northern Karnataka. It is home of great maestros of Hindustani classical music such as Kumar Gandharva, Basavaraj Rajguru, Gangubai Hanagal, Bhimsen Joshi, Mallikarjun Mansur and soon...

Hubli-Dharwad is the largest city in North Karnataka. It ranks to next to Bangalore in terms of population. It now has population around 1.5 Million. Hubli-Dharwad is the cultural/educational/economic hub of North Karnataka.

Famous for Dharwad peda

History of Kannada language

Origins of Kannada languages

Linguistic history of India : Linguistic history of India#Origins of Kannada

Kannada is one of the oldest Dravidian languages with an antiquity of at least 2000 years. The spoken language is said to have separated from its proto-Dravidian source earlier than Tamil and about the same time as Tulu. However, the archaeological evidence would indicate a written tradition for this language of around 1500-1600 years. The initial development of the Kannada language is similar to that of other Dravidian languages and independent of Sanskrit. In later centuries, Kannada, along with other Dravidian languages like Telugu, Malayalam, etc., has been greatly influenced by Sanskrit in terms of vocabulary, grammar and literary styles.

Links to Kannada and Karnataka(North)

Dravidian race

The Monier-Williams Sanskrit Dictionary lists for the Sanskrit word draviḍa a meaning of "collective Name for 5 peoples, viz. the Andhras, Karnatakas, Gurjaras, Tailangas, and Mahārāstras".[16]

Jaina contribution to Kannada literature

evidence required on Jaina authors in Kannada are far more numerous than in Tamil. whatever is just said cannot become fact. Any satement made should be substantiated.!

Jaina contribution to Kannada literature,[17] The earliest cultivators of the Kannada language were Jainas. The oldest works of any extent and value that have come down to us are all from the pen of the Jainas. The period of the Jainas predominance in the literary field may justly be called the Augustan Age of Kannada Literature. Jaina authors in Kannada are far more numerous than in Tamil. To name only a few, we have Pampa, Ponna, Ranna, Gunavarman, Nagachandra, Nayasena, Nagavarman, Aggala, Nemichandra, Janna, Andayya, Bandhuvarma and Medhura, whose works are admired as excellent specimens of poetical composition. It is only in Kannada that we have a Ramayana and a Bharata based on the Jaina tradition in addition to those based on Brahmanical tradition. Besides kavyas written by Jaina authors, we have numerous works by them dealing with subjects such as grammar, rhetoric, prosody, mathematics, astrology, medicine, veterinary science, cookery and so forth. In all the number of Jaina authors in Kannada is nearly two hundred.

Hindustani music

The golden era of Hindustani music in North Karnataka[18][19] came with the rise of five great vocalists - Mallikarjun Mansur, Gangubai Hangal, Kumar Gandharva, Bhimsen Joshi and Basavaraj Rajguru. These five rich rivers of Hindustani Music not only contributed generously to Hindustani classical music but also left behind a large number of their disciples and promising vocalists.

It is worth to mention the names include Narayanrao Mujumdar, Ganpatrao Gurav and Mrityunjaya Puranikmath. From Belgaum include Kagalkarbua, Utturkarbua, Uma Maheshwarbua, Pandit Rajwade, Sangmeshwar Gurav, Pandit R N Joshi and Pandit Rambhau Vijapure. These vocalists were immensely talented and contributed tremendously.

Golden era of Hindustani music in North Karnataka

North Indian artists, invited to perform in Mysore, especially during the Dussera celebrations, often broke their journey at Dharwad where they found the weather as pleasant as the people. Connoisseurs like vakil Pitre housed them and conducted baithaks to which attendance was free. Zamindars in Jamkhandi and Sangli were equally ready to play hosts and patrons. The ashrams in that region had swamijis with a taste for songs in praise of the Lord. The blind vocalist Ganayogi Panchakshari Gawayi (Ganayogi Panchakshari Gavayi) set up the Vireshwar Punyashram in Gadag town, a music school which gives precedence to blind pupils.

Dharwar flowered quite suddenly in the 20th century into a great centre for Hindustani music. Before the 1880s, the region had Carnatic musicians of local fame.

Abdul Karim Khan from village Kirana in the north made extended stays in Dharwad and Hubli. On a visit to Kundgol Khansaheb happened to notice a boy humming the Bhairavi, this was Ramrao (Sawai Gandharva). Sawai Gandharva attracted disciples like Bhimsen Joshi, Firoz Dastur, Basavaraj Rajguru and Gangubai Hangal. He cast such a spell on them that Joshi holds an annual festival in his guru's name in Pune, and unfailingly performs in Kundgol on the master's anniversary. There he is joined by fellow sishyas like Gangubai.

Sawai Gandharva, Mallikarjun Mansur and Basavaraj Rajguru had put in early stints on the stage. Gangubai Hangals humming of natyasangeet made the family decide to train her in Hindustani rather than Carnatic music practised by her mother Ambabai and grandmother Kamalabai.

Two eminent singers from Dharwad started with the same guru from the Gwalior gharana, and worked in drama companies, but developed their own original music. Mallikarjun Mansur was born in a family of agriculturists in Mansur village. His exposure to music came from brother Basavaraj of Wamanrao Master's drama troupe. A restless spirit was Basavaraj Rajguru who spent his lifetime learning from as many sources as possible. An astonishing twelve gurus from many parts of India and several gharanas tell their own tale.

Karnataka Gandharvas

There are many Gandharvas[20] in the Indian Classical Music

Sawai Gandharva, Kumar Gandharva, Bhoo Gandharva, Swar Raj Chhota Gandharva, Bal Gandharva, Dev Gandharva, Maharashtra Gandharva, Anand Gandharva

Rambhau Kundgolkar. Born in Kundgol in Karnataka, 15 km away from Hubli on the Banglore Hubli Railway route, Sawai Gandharva was disciple of Ustad Abdul Karim Khan of Kirana Gharana.

The contribution of Sawai Gandharva is classical music is by way of creating disciples like Pandit Bhimsen Joshi. Pandit Bhimsen Joshi got the inspiration of Santwani from the Bhajans of Sawai Gandharva. His other disciples are Dr. Gangubai Hangal, Sangameshwar Gurav, Pandit Phiroz Dastur. Sawai Gandharva Sangeet Samaroh held at his birth place Kundgol.now the kirana gharana tradition has been continued by pt. madhav gudi of dharwad. the most eminent vocalist of kirana gharana.

Many new ragas like Madh Surja, Chaiti Bhoop, Gandhi Malhar and several bandishes were created and composed by him. Geet Varsha, Mala Umajalele bal Gandharva are also his compositions. He never accepted the rigid rules of Gharana and created his own Gharana.

Shivaputra Sidhharamaiya Komkali born in a Lingayat family at Sulebhawi near Belgaum, he used to imitate many singers in his childhood. At 8, he came down to Bombay and started living with Dr. Ba. Ra. Devdhar at his Music Class near Opera House where he had a privilege of listening to many top singers like Ustad Bade Gulam Ali Khan, Shine Khan etc. His entire learning of music and up bringing took place here at the Deaodhar's Indian Music School under the instructions and observations of Dr. Devdhar. At a young age, he had problem of lungs and had to change his gayaki style. He was asked not to sing for 2years and his first baithak took place at Puna where he sang for an hour. Surprisingly he sang very well in spite of having no riyaz.

Hindustani classical musicians

North Karnataka is home to many Hindustani classical musicians of repute who have sung their way to dizzying heights.[21]

Bhimsen Joshi is from Gadag District. He got Bharat Ratna award for his contribution to Indian music. This is the highest award North Karnataka got first time.

Dr Gangubai Hangal[22] was born in the family of musicians on 5 March 1913 at Dharwad. Her mother Smt Ambabai was a renowned carnatic singer and father Sri Chikkurao Nadiger of Ranebennur was an agriculturist.

Dr Gangubai was Initiated into music by her mother. She learnt music under the guidance of Sri Krishnamacharya Hulgur and later under Sri Sawai Gandharv alias Sri Rambhau Kundgolkar a disciple of late Ustad Abdul Karim Khan, the main architect of kirana gharana school of music.

The blind singer Ganayogi Panchakshari Gawayi belonged to Gadag. His music school is famous, very shortly going to get an entry in Guinness book. Kannada film Ganayogi Panchakshari Gawayi made on his life story. Kumareshwara Krupaposhitha Panchakshari Gawayi Natya Sangha Gadag.

Vocal

  • Arjunsa Nakod
  • Ashok Huggannanavar
  • Omkarnath Havaldar
  • Panchakshari Swami Mattigatti
  • Parameshwara Hegde
  • Puttaraja Gawai
  • Rajabhau Sontakke
  • Rajashekhara Mansur
  • Sanjeev Chimmalgi
  • Sangameshwara Gurav
  • Shantaram Hegde
  • Sheikh Hannumiya
  • Vinayak Torvi

Bansuri

Tabla

  • Raghunath Nakod
  • Rajendra Nakod
  • Ravindra Yavagal
  • Vishwanath Nakod

Harmonium

  • Vyasamurthy Katti

Three generations of the Godkhindis : Pandit Venkatesh Godkhindi (60), his son Pravin Godkhindi (30) and grandson Shadj Godkhindi (6)

Universities and great Colleges of North Karnataka

  • Institute of Information Technology Hubli-Dharwad (IIIT-HD), IT Park Hubli [5]
  • BLDEA's Medical college,Hospital & Research Center Bijapur [14]
  • BLDEA's Dr P. G. Halakatti College of Engineering & Technology Bijapur [15]

Industries in North Karnataka

IT,BT,ITES,BPO Companies

Player at STPI Hubli [17]

Hubli-Dharwad

  • N S Infotech Ltd
  • Sankalp Semiconductor
  • Neilsoft Ltd-Pune
  • Katwa Infotech Ltd
  • Transparent Technologies Pvt Ltd
  • Ritescribe Medinfo Pvt Ltd
  • Penarbour Infotech Pvt Ltd
  • Able Design Engineering Services Pvt Ltd
  • Aalpha Information Systems India Pvt Ltd
  • IBSI India Pvt Ltd
  • Shrinivas Technologies (MLM/Network Marketing software)
  • First Source (ICICI One source)
  • Augen Technology Software Solutions
  • Viz-tek BPO Solutions Private Limited
  • Intense Software Solutions (India) Private Limited
  • Akshateck Solutions Private Limited
  • Squteck Private Limited
  • Inetsystems Web SOlutions

Belgaum

  • Esoftzone
  • EQuest SEZ (EQeust Bangalore /USA)
  • Leadingminds Ltd
  • Katwa Infotech Ltd
  • Gokulscribe Pvt Ltd
  • Deltra software
  • Rachanasoft Belgaum
  • BTP infoserve Pvt Ltd
  • G5 Solutions Pvt Ltd
  • Vayavya Labs Pvt. Ltd
  • Prosoft Solutions Belgaum
  • K2 Technology Solutions helathcare division
  • Conquest Infotech & Software ServicesMumbai

Nesargi, Tal: Bailhongal, Dist:Belgaum

  • Karnataka Microelectronic Training Centre Pvt Ltd,

Tourism

Tourism Circuits of North Karnataka

Dandeli-Yellapur region :

The places include Dandeli, Syntheri rocks, Skypoint Ambikanagar, Ulavi, Kavala caves, Sathodi Falls, Lalguli Falls, Yellapur, Jenkal gudda, Kavadi kere, Magod Falls.

Saundatti / Savadatti region  :

The places include Saundatti Fort, Parasgad Fort, Yallammagudda, Navilateertha, Hooli, Sogal, Murgod.

Gadag region :

The places include Gadag, Lakkundi, Annigeri, Mahadeva Temple (Itagi), Dambal, Sudi, Kuknur and Gajendragad.

Haveri region :

The places include Haveri, Kaginele, Hangal, Bankapura, Chaudayyadanapura, Ranebennur, Galaganatha, Kuruvatti, Rattihalli, Balligavi, Mundgod, Attiveri, Harihara, Haralahalli.

Badami region :

The places include Badami, Banashankari, Mahakuta, Aihole, Pattadakal.

Kudalasangama region :

The places include Kudalasangama, Almatti Dam, Almati rock garden.

Karwar region :

The places include beaches between Karwar and Ankola, Gokarna, Murdeshwara.

Kittur region :

The places include Kittur, Degaon, Halasi, Nandagad.

World heritage sites

Hampi near Hospet, in Bellary district is a renowned World heritage site.

Hampi in Bellary District, North Karnataka

Hampi, the seat of the famed Vijayanagara empire was the capital of the largest empire in post-mogul India, covering several states. The empire reigned supreme under Krishnadevaraya, the Emperor. The Vijayanagara empire stretched over at least three states - Karnataka, Maharashtra, and Andhra Pradesh. The destruction of Vijayanagar by marauding Moghul invaders was sudden, shocking and absolute. They reduced the city to ruins amid scenes of savage massacre and horrors beggaring description.

Pattadkal was the second capital of the Chalukyas and it is where the kings were crowned. All the temples date to between the 7th and 8th centuries AD and are located on the banks of the scenic Malaprabha river.

It is basically a collection of nine temples, four of which are in the south Indian Dravidian style, four in the Nagara style of north India and the last one, the Papanatha temple represents a coming together of the two styles.

Pattadkal, perhaps one of the greatest ever experiments in the history of Indian temple architecture, is an art historian's delight.

The Sangameshwara, Chandrashekhara, Jambuling and Kadasideeshwara are the other major temples here, and Pattadakal has also a Jaina basadi of Rashtrakuta times with two beautiful elephants in this front. The Galaganath here which is dilapidated, has caurvilinear (rekhanagara) shikhara.

Wild life Sanctuaries of North Karnataka

The unique Sloth Bear sanctuary is situated very close to this heritage site. Situated only 15 kilometers from Hampi, Daroji Sloth Bear Sanctuary is the only such sanctuary in North Karnataka

Spread over 834.16 km2 the Dandeli wildlife sanctuary[30] is the second largest in Karnataka and it is contiguous with the Mahaveer sanctuary in Goa. Prime Wildlife Attractions of Dandeli Wildlife Sanctuary) are Sloth Bear, Bush Grail, Deer, Elephant, Sambar, Tiger, Gaur, Panther and Partridge are some of the many inhabitants of this sanctuary. Around 35 km from Dandeli National Park is Syntheri rocks, awesome monolithic granite structure amidst thich forest, with the perennial river Kaneri flowing by its side. There are innumerable trekking trails and fishing spots at Dandeli.

Ranebennur blackbuck sanctuary[31] in haveri district (declared a wildlife sanctuary on the 17th of June 1974 to protect blackbuck). Spread over 119 square kilometers, it is divided into three blocks namely hulathi, hunasikatti and alageri for administrative purposes. It has a core area of 14.87 km and a buffer zone of 104.13 km wherein the tourists are allowed. The vegetation here comprises mainly of scrub forests and extensive eucalyptus plantations. The fauna here comprises the wild pig, fox, jackal, wolf, blackbuck, etc.

  • Attiveri Bird Sanctuary

Attiveri Bird Sanctuary is around 15 km from Mundgod in Uttara Kannada (Karwar) District of Karnataka. Spread over an area of about 2.23 km2, the sanctuary is located in and around the Attiveri reservoir.

The agricultural fields surrounding the sanctuary attract a variety of aquatic creatures. The part of the sanctuary surrounding the reservoir has riverine and deciduous forests. Birds that inhabit this area include Indian shag, cattle egret, little cormorant, spoonbill, pied kingfisher, white ibis, white-breasted kingfisher, common grey hornbill and common swallow.

  • Deva Raya Wildlife Sanctuary

Deva Raya Wildlife Sanctuary in Bellary District (private sanctuary) The sanctuary is named after kings of the Vijayanagar Empire. An eco-tourism area due to its unique terrain, flora and fauna is near to Hampi. Sanctuary protects leopards, bears, hyenas, wolves, pythons, deer, peacocks, monkeys like langur and rhesus, crocodiles, anteaters, porcupines, wild bear and variety of plants and other animals.

The peacock sanctuary in Bankapura is the only second sanctuary in the country that is exclusively engaged in the conservation and breeding of peacocks. Bankapur Fort, situated in Bankapur village of Shiggon taluk, is just 2.5 km from the Pune-Bangalore national highway NH4, 22 km from Haveri town towards Hubli. An historical site, Bankapura is famous for the temples of Ranganatha Nagareshwara and Siddheshwara. Bankpur Fort is home for not only for peafowl, but also a number of other birds like wood pecker, great-horned owl, babbler, magpie, robin, green bee eater, nightjar, spotted maina, paradise flycatcher, Indian robin, spotted dove, parakeets, kingfisher, grey hornbill, blue tailed bee eater, blacked winged kite, tailor bird etc. There are more than 50 popular archaeological monuments like Siddeshwar temple and Galaganatheswar temple in Haveri taluk, Shiva temple in Chowdayyadanpur of Ranebennur, Tarakeshwar temple at Hangal, etc, in the district.

Waterfalls in North Karnataka

Near to Hubli-Dharwad and Sirsi

Sathodi Falls

50 feet. About 32 km away from Yellapur in Uttara Kannada district close to Sirsi , several unknown streams converge near Kallaramane Ghat

File:Saatoddi Falls.JPG
Saatoddi Falls, Yellapura Taluk, Uttara Kannada District

Magod Falls

650 feet . The mesmerising Magod Falls are located 80 km from Karwar.

Lalguli Falls

located about 15 km north of Yellapur in Uttara Kannada District.

Shivagange Falls

It is in a unique point of Western Ghats, on the border of three taluqs of North Kanara district (Sirsi, Yellapur, Ankola). At about 45 km away from Sirsi.

Benne Hole Falls

A tributary of the river Aghanashini by name beNNe hoLe flowing through the dense forests of the Devimane Ghats region of the Western Ghats falling from a height of about 200 feet (61 m) forms a spectacular visual treat.

Waate Halla Falls

This beautiful waterfall is at few kilometers distance from Unchalli Falls. A tributary to the Aghanashini River makes this wonderful falls some 30 km away from the Sirsi Town falling from a height of around 100+feet.

Vibhooti Falls

It is 50 km from Sirsi in North Kanara district and is around 8 km away from the Yana.

Burudu Falls

This wonderful waterfall is around 22 km from Siddapur and 57 km from Sirsi, on Siddapur-Kumta road. The way to get down to the river is through a small creek which is dry in summer.

Unchalli Falls (Lushington Falls)

116 metres - About 35 km from Jog Falls. Go to Bilgi, 10 km from Siddapur, then trek down 4 km or via Heggarne, a dreamy hamlet in Uttara Kannada district, is just 35 km from Siddapur. A further 5 km trek from Heggarne through dense forests brings you to the picturesque Unchalli Falls.

http://www.orkut.co.in/Main#AlbumZoom.aspx?uid=5536444923815580662&pid=1227677330334&aid=1227613968$pid=1227677330334

Near to Belgaum / Belagavi

Gokak Falls

Located 65 km from Belgaum, Gokak gets its name due to the Goki trees found in abundance in these areas. Close to the town is the Gokak Falls

Godachinamalki Falls

20 km from Gokak. You could carry on your encounter with nature at the Godachinamalki falls. Be prepared for a brisk trek through a picturesque forest before you see the river Markendeya jump 25 mts.

Vajrapoha Falls

Situated amidst enchanting hilly surroundings of the Jamboti forest is a fine spot. To reach it one has to travel from Jamboti up to a point four km beyond Chapoli and then cross the river (only in December and January) Mahadayi twice (in between is a small hill) finally leading to an elevated flat hillock.

Dudhsagar Falls

It’s exactly on the border between Karnataka and Goa on the Konkan Railway.

Madagh Masur Falls [18]

Located 40 km from Ranebennur Its in Hirekerur Taluk. Water falls from Madagh Masur Lake & forms river "Kumadvathi" which flows all the way in Hirekerur & Ranebennur Taluks & joins river Tungabhadra in Ranebennur Taluk.

Places Around Karwar

Make your Tour to Karwar memorable by visiting these famous tourist places near Karwar

Karwar Harbour : The Karwar bay, apart from its scenic beauty, also boasts of an excellent harbour which is fit for use during all seasons. Devbagh beach is the most attractive beach in Karwar. Other beaches are Binaga (3 km) and Arga (5 km) south of the town.

River Kalinadi : The river Kalinadi, flows through the town into the Arabian sea. Motor launches are available for boating up the river Kali.

Kurmagad Island : The Kurmagad Island nearby has an old fort and a Narasimha shrine, worth a visit.

Ankola : Located 37 km south of Karwar, is a small town with 15th century ruined walls of king Sarpamalika's fort and the ancient Shri Venketaraman Temple. Near the temple there are two giant wooden chariots carved with scenes from the 'Ramayana'.

Gokarna : The Coastal town of Gokarna is a famous pilgrimage centre as well as a centre of Sanskrit learning, 56 km from Karwar. It is famous for the Mahabaleswar Temple with the 'Atmalinga' (a revered Shiva lingam) dedicated to Lord Shiva. There is an enormous chariot, which is taken out in a procession on Shiva's birthday in February. The Tambraparni Teertha (River) here is considered sacred to perform obsequies of the dead. Gokarna is also famous for its beautiful deserted beaches like Kutle, Om, Half moon, Paradise etc.. which rival Goan Beaches.

Om Beach Gokarna, North Karnataka
File:Yana near Sirsi and Yallapur.JPG
Yana near Sirsi / Yallapur, North Karnataka

Yana : Situated 60 km from Karwar, Yana or Bhairavakshetra is a deserted town ship and an important pilgrim centre with unique rock formations. Located in a beautiful valley, one has to trek a distance of about 10 km by foot amidst thick forest to reach Yana. It is a popular rock climbing haunt. There is a shrine of Bhairaveswara on a hillock 100metres high. A fair is held here during Shivaratri.

Ulavi : Ulavi, a famous pilgrim centre is located 75 km from Karwar (via Kumbarawada). Thousands come here to pay homage to the samadhi of Veera Shiva Saint Channabasavanna, who took refuge here from the army of 'Kalachurias'. Ulavi 'Jatras' attracts devotees from all over.

Honnavar : Honnavar, situated 90 km from Karwar, has a Portuguese fort. There is also a fort in Basavaraja Durga Island, amidst the sea which can be reached by a sail upstream on river Sharavathi. Geresoppa the old capital of the Queen Chanabhairavi, 30 km from here has a beautiful 14th century Chaturmukha Basti. The boat trip to Gerosoppa with coconut groves and lush greenery covering the banks, is memorable

Dandeli : Located 93 km from Karwar, Dandeli is a popular holiday resort and an industrial township. The wildlife sanctuary here in an area of 207 km2 abounds with a variety of rare animals. The watch tower inside the sanctuary are inaccessible during the monsoon months of June to October. This forest region is famous for its paper, plywood, teakwood and Ferro-manganese factories. The cave with Shivalinga-like laterite formations is also worth a visit

Lushington Falls : 110 km from Karwar, the famous Lushington Falls or Keppa falls is located in Siddhapur Taluk on the Shimoga border. The falls where the river Aghanashini thunders down from the height of 116 meters is named after a District Collector who discovered it in 1845.

Magod Falls : The Magod is 125 km from Karwar. The river Gangavathi emerging from the Western ghats takes a leap into a chasm of 183metre (600 ft) down, in a series of cascades over the cliffs presenting an enchanting sight.

Rabindranath Tagore beach : Situated about 3 km away from Karwar is Devbagh, a hub for diving and snorkeling. This beach, the most attractive one in Karwar, is said to have motivated Rabindranath Tagore to write his first play.

Kurumgad Island : Karwar's beauty lies in the three islands visible from the coast. Kurumgad is one among the three known for its flora and founa. The island is 10 km inside the sea and has great resorts for the visitors. Boats are available from Karwar shore to go here for the tourists and is a very exciting ride.

Naval Base : Karwar has one of the important naval base in the country. The naval base in Karwar is towards south of the karwar coast and will serve as one of the primary naval bases based on its strategic location. Lot of developments are happening in the Karwar City because of the newly built Naval Base

Murudeshwar : Murudeshwar is around 60 km from Karwar towards the southern direction. The place carries mythological history and has famous temple. Hindus all over the country visit the place to have Darshan. The place has also a lovely beach

The famous Forts in North Karnataka

No tourist survey is complete without mentioning about North Karnataka's historical forts. The whole range of ancient capitals of Bidar, Gulbarga, Bijapur, Vijayanagara, Badami, Basava Kalyan, etc. had their forts.

Gulbarga Fort

Gulbarga fort, originally built by Raja Gulchand was later strengthened by Ala-ud-din Bahmani. The fort contained 15 towers and 26 guns of which one was 8 metres long. Within the ramparts of the fort, there is an imposing mosque, which resembles the great mosque of Cordova in Spain.

Bidar Fort

The imposing fort of Bidar is a magnificent fort, the main gateway of which was originally built by Bahamani Sultan Ahmad Shah Wali in 1429 AD. Further improvements to the citadel were carried out by the Barid Shahi Sultans. Ahmad Shah Wali (1422 - 35) the ninth Bahamani Sultan decided to shift his capital from Gulbarga to Bidar for reasons of health.

Hill forts

Pilgrimage In North Karnataka

Popular pilgrimage

Temples of North Karnataka

Temples of North Karnataka Can be categorised as Historical temples and modern days temples.

Historical temples

Temples built during Chalukya (Chalukya Architecture)[32]

Early Temples

1. Aihole, Temple of meguti, Temple of Lad Khan, Kont-Gudi, Sarang-Gudi, Durga temple, temple in field No. 270, Temple in field No. 268, Two old temples in the village, five old shrines near Lad Khan's temple, temple at junction of river, miscellaneous temples.

2. Mahakuta, Mahakutesvara, Mallikarjuna temple.

3. Badami, Malegitti Sivalaya, Bhutanatha group of temples, Lakulisa temple, Temples on the north side of tank.

4. Pattadakal, Sangamesvara temple, Temples of the queens of Vikramaditya II, Virupaksha temple, comparison between Virupaksha and Kailasa at Elora, Mallikarjuna temple, Papanatha temple, old Jaina temple, Lokapalesvara, Kasivisvanatha, Galagnatha, Kadsiddhesvara, Jambhulinga, Chandrasikhara.

5. Kuknur, Navalinga temple, Kallesvara temple.

Later Temples

  • Lakkundi, Bhrama Jinalaya, Kashivishweshvara, Nannesvara temple.
  • Itagi, Mahadeva Temple
  • Chaudayyadanapura, Muktesvara temple.
  • Haveri, Siddhesvara temple.
  • Niralgi Siddharamesvara temple.
  • Haralhalli, Somesvara temple.
  • Galaganatha, Galagesvara temple.
  • Hangal, Tarakesvara, Ganapati temple.
  • Harihar, Harihara temple.
  • Bankapura, Arvattukhambada temple.
  • Kundgol Sambhulinga temple.
  • Tilavalli, Santeshwara temple.
  • Anavatti, Kaithabeshwara temple.
  • Kuruvatti, Mallikarjuna temple.
  • Rattihalli, Kadambesvara temple.
  • Balligavi (Balagamve), Kedareshwara, Tripurantaka, Panchalinga temple.

Other historical and modern days temples

  • Murdeshwar Temple at Murdeshwara
  • Narada Temple at Naradagadde
  • Narasimha Temple at Kaginelli
  • Navalinga Temples at Kuknur
  • Pattabhirama Temple at Hampi
  • Ranganatha Temple at Anegondi
  • Sangameshwara Temple at Kaginele
  • Siddheshwara Temple at Bankapura
  • Someshwara Temple at Kaginele
  • Suryanarayana Temple at Lakkundi
  • ViraNarayana Temple at Gadag
  • Virabhadra Temple at Kaginele
  • Virupaksha Temple at Hampi
  • Vithala Temple at Hampi
  • Bhatkal, Chandranathesvara, Ketapai Narayana Devasthana, Joshi Samkara Narayana Devasthana, Santappa Nayak Tirumal Devasthana, Adike Narayana Devasthana, Reghunatha Devasthana.
  • Hadavlli, Chandranatha Swami Basti, Gundin Basti.

Great personalities of North Karnataka

Also refer List of people from Hubli Dharwad

The land which gave personalities like Dr. D.R. Bendre, Girish Karnad, Suresh Heblikar, Gangubai Hangal, Patil Puttappa and many more[33].


Literature

Modern littérateurs

D.R. Bendre, Dr. V. K. Gokak, Chandrashekhara Kambara, Sri Chennaveer Kanavi, Betgeri Krishna Sharma, Giraddi govindaraj, Shri Alur Venkatgiri Rao, Dr. Panchakshari Hiremath, Prof. Bhusnurmath, Shri Patil Puttappa, Shri Shambha Joshi, Dr. Shankar Mokashi Punekar, Dr. K S Narayanacharya, Shri Saali Ramachandra Rayaru

Classical littérateurs

Nripatunga Amoghavarsha, Ranna, Janna , Adikavi Pampa , Sri Ponna, Shivakotiacharya, Muddana, Andayya Gangadevi, Kumaravyasa, Basavanna, Akka Mahadevi, Sarvajna, Tirumalamba, Kanaka Dasa, Shishunaala Sharif Saheba


Humorist


National level award winner from this place

Jnanpeeth Awardees [34]

  • Prof. Vi. Kru. Gokak for Bhaaratha Sindhhu Rashmi

Padma Awardees

Padmabhushan : Sri Basavaraj Rajguru, Smt. Gangubai Hangal, Dr. Mallikarjun Mansur

Padma Vibhushan : Sri Bhimsen Joshi

Padmashri : Dr. R. B. Patil

Academy Award : Dr. Shankar Mukashi Punekar

Dr. D. R. Bendre


Bendre is considered as colossal of modern Kannada poetry. Progenitor of bhavgeets or lyrical poems, many veterans in both English and Kannada languages think that some of his poems deserve a place in world literature. "Bendre's poetry shows vivid imagination, grace and power of expression characteristic of the best poetry" has said Masti Venkatesha Iyengar, a great short story writer of Kannada.

Bendre was born of a culturally rich but materially very poor Chitpavan Brahmin family in 1896 in Dharwad. His Grand father was a Dasagranthi (Master of ten volumes of sacred lore) and scholar in Sanskrit classical literature. His father was also learned in Sanskrit. But he caught scrofula (TB of lymphatic glands of neck) and after twelve years of suffering and also mental illness, died when Dattatraya was twelve. His Granny (mother's mother) and mother ran a khanavali (eatery) to support and educate the family. Both the brave women left a lasting impression on this brilliant lad who later paid rare poetic tribute to his granny Godubai. He adopted the pen-name of Ambikatanayadatta (Datta, son of Ambika) after his mother and immortalized her.

Music

Shri Kumar Gandharva, Shri Basavaraj Rajguru, Shri Bhimsen Joshi, Smt Gangubai Hangal, Shri Mallikarjun Mansur, Shri Vasant Kanakapur, Shri Madhava Gudi, Shri Jayateerth V Mevundi, Smt Sangeeta Katti.

Artists

Shri Girish Karnad (Theatre), Smt Leena Chandavarkar (HIndi Movies), Shri Sriranga (Theatre), Sri Aasif Farooki (Theatre/Films)

Persons associated with Indian film industry

Politicians

co-operative movement : K.H. Patil

Former Chief Ministers of Karnataka : Ramakrishna Hegde, S. Nijalingappa, Veerendra Patil, S.R.Bommai, Dharam Singh, S.R.Kanti, B D Jatti.

Social reformers, saints and freedom fighters

Basaveshwara, Saint, Reformer of Hinduism; declared that work was worship; noted Kannada poet who sang Vachana or Promise poems

The great mystic and social reformer, Mahatma Basaveshwara. In our history of social reform, Mahatma Basaveshwara stands out as an extraordinary personality. He wielded temporal power and, at the same time, had a spiritual bent of mind. He fought against ritualism and social rigidities and for a more human social order. He was a crusader against untouchability and worked to establish a classless and casteless society. It is a token of our admiration and deep regard for him that we are all gathered here today.

Mahatma Basaveshwara was a great son of India, and a great spiritual leader of Karnataka. He admitted people of all castes to his fold and stressed the importance of the equality of man. His religious academy, Anubhava Mandap, was a concrete example of social democracy. Its scope went beyond religious discourse. It was dedicated to the awakening of the consciousness of people.

Basaveshwara, North Karnataka

A contemporary of Shivaji Maharaj, Chennamma bravely fought to protect the tiny kingdom against the British rulers.

Rani Chennamma, who was the Queen of the tiny principlity of Kittur in North Karnataka, is considered the morning star of India's freedom struggle and is in fact, an earlier version of Rani Laxmibai of Jhansi.

Rani Chennamma[35], the warior queen of Kitur who waged a heroic freedom struggle against te British was born in 1778. Rani Channamma was married to Raja Mallasarja, one of the most illustrious rulers of Kittur, a small princely state in Belgaum District. After her husband's death in 1816, Rani Channamma took over the reins of the State though the nominal head was Mallasarja's son Shivalinga Rudrasarja who was an invalied. After the latter's death in September 1824, she continued as Regent of the State on behalf of Shivalinga Rudrasarja's adopted son, Shivalingappa. Lord Wellesley opposed it, ruling that only natural born children could be inheritors. Rani Channamma personally led her forces to resist the alien dimination. In a grim battle that ensured, the British army was defeated and Thackeray, their Chief, was killed on October 23, 1824. Several British soldiers and their families were taken captives but they were treated generously by Rani Channamma.

Chaplin, Commissioner of Deccan thereupon callected a considerabe force from Pune, Madras, Mysore, etc. and again attacked Kittur in December 1824. The British followed a divide and rule policy and overpowered the Kittur army. Rani Channamma was kept as prisoner in Bailhongal Fort where she died on February 21, 1829.

Kitturu Rani Channamma, North Karnataka
  • Belawadi Mallamma

Belawadi belongs to Bailhongal taluk, Belgaum District. Mallamma the brave warrior queen of Belawadi. In 17th century she formed the first women’s army to fight against the British. Belawadi Mallamma fought against Shivaji Maharaj(the Maratha king) and defeated.

  • Sarvgna

Sarvagna was a poet in the Kannada language. He is famous for his pithy three-lined poems (tripadis or vachanas). The period of Sarvagna's life has not been determined accurately, and very little is known about him. Based on studies of his literary style and the references of later writers, historians estimate that he might have lived during the first half of the 17th century. Some references in his works indicate that his real name was Pushpadatta - Sarvagna appears to have been his penname.

  • Kanaka Dasa

Kanaka Dasa (1508-1606), he hailed from Kaginele (Bada), in Haveri district in North Karnataka. Kanaka Daasa was a devotee of Lord Vishnu and was highly attached to a beautiful Vishnu temple in Kaginele. One of the great Bhagavatha Maha Purushas Karnataka gave. Thimmappa , son of Birappa, a poligar chief of Kuruba community came to be called Kanaka Nayaka as he found a treasure-trove of gold. He was initiated by Vyasaraya. He lived at Tirupathi in his last days. He has composed Hari Bhakti Sara, Nala Charitra, Mohana Tarangini, Nara Simhastava, and devotional songs in Kannada. His signatures were 'Kagineli Kesava', 'Velapuri Kesava', etc.

Mudras: udupi, AadikEshavaa, Kaaginele AadikEshavaa, Kagineli Kesava, Velapuri Kesava

  • Sri Siddharudha Swami

Sri Siddharudha Swami, Siddhappa was the youngest son of Guru Shantappa and Devi Mallamma. He was born and brought up in the town of Vanshadurga (Bidarkoti). Like his parents Siddhappa was a devotee of Shiva. As a child he learnt philosophy from Vedas and Upanishads from Virabhadra Swami. Even as a child he realised the need of a Guru. One day he left his home in search of a Guru. After moving from town to town, Siddhappa came to Aamargudda (near Srishail). Here Siddhappa met the head of the matth; Guru Gajadanda Swami. The Swami initiated Siddhappa and gave him the mantra "Om Namah Shivay". Later Guru Gajadanda swami asked Siddhappa to travel around teaching people the path of Namasmaran.

Siddharudha travelled many places and finally settled in Hubli. For days Siddharudha would assume moun, and meditate. He would sit under some tree far away from the town, so that nobody would disturb him. People and some evil passersby thought of him as a madman and treated him so. Still the Swami had nothing but love for everyone.

People realised who he was, when one day he corrected a Shastri who was giving a speech on a Vedic Rucha. The Shastri was pleased and asked Swami to conduct a seven day lecture. From then on, Swami found many followers.

He built a mattha in Hubli. Swami taught the importance of namasmaran. He also taught the way to practice namasmaran the day to day life.

  • Sangolli Rayanna

Sangolli Rayanna was born in Sangolli, during the rule of Rani Chennamma he was the army chief of the Kingdom of Kittur. He fought against the British.

Shishunala Sharif, the first ever Muslim poet in Kannada literature, born in Shishuvinahala, Haveri district, Karnataka. He composed moral poems in Kannada called Tatvapada.

Persons related to science and technology

Sudha Murthy

Did anybody know that there was a strong Tata connection to Infosys?

Meet Ms Sudha Murthy, the better half of the Infosys chairman, NR Narayana Murthy. On a down-the-memory-lane visit here after 25 years, Ms Murthy, who is now heading the Infosys Foundation, said it was a chance association with the house of Tatas when after topping the graduating class in computer science from the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, she came across a job advertisement in February 1974, which said Telco (Tata Engineering and Locomotive Company) wanted bright young graduates. However, much to her disappointment, she found in the footnote it was written "female candidates need not apply." Her ego deeply hurt, she shot off a 'postcard' to JRD Tata asking him how a leading and progressive house like the Tatas, "which always thought ahead of time, could put such a restriction." "After posting it I forgot about it," she said. A pleasant surprise awaited her. A telegram soon arrived asking her to appear for an interview "with a promise of reimbursement of first class fare both ways," she said.

Selected as a GT (graduate trainee) and as the first lady technical officer at Telco, she was first posted to Pune and was later shifted to Telco Jamshedpur "for a short stint." She was thereafter shifted to Bombay House, She had later learnt that JRD had himself intervened in the matter following her letter and had instructed the board that "if she was found up to the mark in her subjects, she should be taken." She recalls how after having put in her papers in February 1982, after having served Telco for eight years, she wanted to meet JRD to convey her gratitude.

  • M.Tech in Computer Science (secured I Rank) in 1974 from Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore
  • BE in Electrical (secured I Rank) in all semesters in 1972 from BVB College of Engineering, Hubli
  • SSLC with highest marks in 1966 from New Education Society Girls English School, Hubli

Dr. Shrinivas Kulkarni

An Astrophysicist based in California. The John D. and Catherine T. McArthur professor of astronomy and planetary science at Caltech discovered the millisecond pulsar-distant stars emitting very high-frequency radio waves-and has conducted stand-out observational astronomy in virtually the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Shrini also discovered brown dwarfs-stars whose radii are less than the Chandrashekhar Limit (the theory that won Subrahmanyam Chandrashekhar the Nobel) and which decay into less luminous (brown), smaller gas masses instead of collapsing into black holes. Shrini's primary interests are the study of neutron stars and gamma-ray bursts, and the search for extra-solar planets through interferometric and adaptive techniques. Dr. Shrini is related to Narayana Murthy (Sudha Murty's Husband and founder of Infosys technologies) and Gururaj "Desh" Deshpande.

Arun Netravali

Arun Netravali, the ninth president in Bell Labs' history, was also Lucent's chief technology officer and chief network architect during his tenure. Netravali, now Lucent's chief scientist, continues to work with the academic and investment communities to identify new technologies that will be relevant to Lucent's mission, and acts as an advisor to Lucent's senior management on technical and customer issues.

Born in a small town, Ankola in Karnataka, Netravali grew up in Matunga, Mumbai. After five years in municipal school, he joined King George High School and later Elphinstone College. After a brilliant career in IIT Bombay, where he graduated with a BTech in EE in 1967, Netravali went to Rice University, Houston for his PhD. After his graduate school, he joined NASA for two years before he landed up in the Mecca of research, Bell Labs, in 1972. Since then he has steadily risen to now become its president.

Gururaj Deshpande

Co-founder and Chairman of Sycamore Networks, Inc.Born and brought up in Dharwad, Karnataka. Sycamore is his third start-up. He left Coral Networks, his first venture, after differences with his partner in 1990; Cascade Communications was his second. Deshpande grew up in a middle-class family; his father was a labor commissioner in the first post-British Indian government. After a degree in electrical engineering from IIT, Madras, he enrolled in the University of New Brunswick's graduate-level engineering program at the age of 22. His next stop was Queen's University in Kingston, Ont. for PhD studies in data communications. His goal at that time was to teach at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology or Bell Labs. Peter Brackett, an entrepreneur-turned-Queen's professor, lured Deshpande away from academia.

Nandan Nilekani

Nandan Nilekani is the co-founder and co-chairman of Infosys Technologies Ltd, an information technology services company in India. He is also the co-founder of National Association of Software and Service Companies (NASSCOM) and chairperson of Bangalore Agenda Task Force (BATF). He was born in Sirsi, Karnataka.


Dr S S Mahant-ShettiDr S S Mahant-Shetti from Bailhongal, with 16 years of experience in research laboratories of Texas Instruments and three in TestChip Technologies conducts the course and manages the Design Centre activities. Karnataka Microelectronic Design Centre Pvt Ltd has emerged as a team with in-depth acumen in Memory, High Performance Digital, Analog, RF and Mixed Signal domains. A unique feature of the Design Centre is that its members are drawn exclusively from KarMic Training Centre Pvt. Ltd., after a year of postgraduate training emphasizing strong team spirit as well as practical aspects of IC design.

Anant Koppar

Anant Koppar is a technocrat businessman from Karnataka, India. He was the Founder President of Kshema Technologies, one of India's first venture capital funded software services companies. He has currently started a new company called KTwo Technology Solutions, an Indian Origin Global Products company that focuses on developing innovative products for Healthcare and Automotive sectors. Earlier he was the President of the Technologies Division of MphasiS post the acquisition of Kshema by MphasiS.

North Karnataka Crafts

Cushion covers, bedspreads, quilts, dinner mats, and bags; accessories such as spectacle cases, pouches and purses; traditional garments; ornaments made from dyed and block printed fabric; mirrors, beads, and traditional jewellery; and Lambani crafts can be found in Bijapur, Sandur, and Gulbarga in North Karnataka.

Bidar Bidriware

Bidar in North Karnataka is a famous centre for Bidriware, a well-developed craft that involves the use of metal plate on an alloy made of zinc, copper, tin, and lead. Finely crafted hookahs, goblets, paan boxes, bowls, plates, pen holders, letter openers, and bangles exquisitely embellished with interwovenvines and floral patterns are a treat to the eye. The effect of the delicate silver filigree against the metallic ebony background is striking.

Embroidery

Kasuti, a form of embroidery practised especially in Dharwad and Hubli districts, is known for its intricate and stunning workmanship. Four kinds of stitches are commonly used in Kasuti, and the designs are many and intricate. They are influenced by the architectural patterns of temples and are symbolic of rituals and life around temples. The other style of embroidery is the Banjara style, popularised in Sandur.

Bijapur sarees, jewellery and handlooms

Handlooms from Guledgudda (Khancholi,) handwoven Ilkal sarees, clay toys, Kinnala Paintings, and Lambani jewellery are specialities of North Karnataka.

Gokak toys

Bright, colourful replicas of vegetables and fruits, images of deities, cradles, toys, masks, and palanquins are available at Gokak in Belgaum District. Exquisite pottery, and gold and silver jewellery are also available.

Kinhal Craft

Kinhal, located 13 km from Koppal, in the Koppal District of Northern Karnataka is home to this craft.

There are approximately 30 craftspersons who practise this craft. Hereditary artisans called chitragaras ( literally one who draws or paints) produce a range of products such as painted murals and wall hangings on Puranic themes like Dasavataras, Navagrahas, and Ashta-Dikhapalas ( guardians of the directions).

It is believed that the art of Kinhal painted woodenware dates to the Vijayanagar empire founded in 1500. The craft flourished due to the patronage of the Vijayanagar rulers in whose reign the arts had reached their zenith.

Textiles of Northern Karnataka

Manufacture of National Flag at Garag

Garag, a tiny town, Located 15 km north of Dharwad (Dharwad District of North Karnataka)

Dharwad Taluk Kshetriya Seva Sang at Garag (licensed center) established by the freedom fighters.

Garag was the sole producer of the National Flag and the hand-woven khadi for the manufacture of National Flag. Garag has now lost its monopoly to nearby towns.

Ilkal Saree

The Ilkal saree enjoyed a pride of place in festivities and weddings in North Karnataka and towns of Maharashtra bordering Karnataka. A must in every bride's trousseau was a Chandrakali saree - a blue-black indigo-hued saree with a crimson border and a pallu with a crimson tope-teni design. This was presented to her on the day of Sankranti.

A typical accompaniment to the llkal saree is the blouse piece that ideally suits its knotted choli style. The blouse pieces and khannas are a speciality of Guledagudda, a town just 50 km from llkal. This material is characterised by a maroon border with two bands of white thread work, while the body has silk thread brocade. The width is shorter than the usual 36 inches (910 mm).

Ilkal town in the Bagalkot district of Karnataka was, since the 18th century, a well-known centre for weaving and natural dyes, famous for its numerous clay indigo vats. Black, red and yellow were common colours obtained from vegetable sources like the indigo plant, madder and turmeric roots. Traditional dyers belonged to a community called bannagar.

The saree was dipped 14 times in the indigo vat to get the particular hue of black-blue. The water of the local Hirehalla nala added a special sheen to the blue.

The signature feature of the Ilkal saree is the pallu or serigu made of red silk with patterns in white. The monotony is relieved by various styles of teni or spokes at the extremities of the white band of the pallu. These spokes are named after their shapes like hanige or comb tooth, koti kammli or fort ramparts, tope-teni or jowar/ sorghum-shaped and rampa or the shape of a mountain range. The pallu and body are joined by a technique called kondi or locking, deftly executed by hand. The other striking feature of the Ilkal saree is the border - four to six inches (152 mm) broad, in the auspicious colours of maroon or red with distinct designs, patterned in ochre. A variation of the Ilkal is the chaduranga chikki (chess spots), which is Ilkal with finely woven checks.

Hubballi Siree

It has of both kind Silk and cotton sarees. Wore by most of the villegers in North Karnataka and some part of Maharastra. But waved mostly in Gadag-Betageri.

A Navalgund novelty, Jazzy jamkhanas

The jamkahana industry is dominated entirely by women, predominantly Muslim. The jamkhanas are woven in punja looms. The raw unbleached yarn is bought from Pali in Rajasthan and dyed in various colours at Gajendragad, some 80 km from Navalgund. They are then distributed to the weavers according to the design of the jamkhanas. The women then wrap the yarn on a charkha wheel called rattinam to remove tangles.

In the past, since the colour pigments were derived only from vegetable sources, original jamkhanas had a limited palette of colours like yellow, red, ochre, black, green and off-white. But now, modern synthetic colours have given many choices to the weavers to create new designs with a card shade of up to 26 colours.

The beauty of displaying jamkhanas in the drawing room is unparalleled. Equally fascinating is the history of these floor coverings and their origin.

Bellary HANDLOOMS

Textile Industry is one of the major industries in Bellary District. Around 4,800 families are engaged in this activity. As per 1995/96 Census, there are 2402 Handlooms in the district, out of which 220 are Silk Looms, 840 Cotton Looms and 1342 Woolen Looms. About 6500 people are working in these looms and allied activities. There are 21 Handloom Weavers Co-operative Societies and 3 KHDC Sub-Centres engaged in Handloom Weaving activity.

Bellary is well known for Ready-Made-Garments: Especially for Jeans pants. There are about 260 Garment units in Bellary and nearly 3000 families are working in these units.There are the two spinning mills in the district, out of which, one is at Kottur and another mill is at Bellary. Both the mills produce lower counts yarn.Cotton is the major agriculture product in Bellary District. There are about 115 Ginning mills working in cotton ginning and pressing. About 2500 people are working in these units. Most of the units are using Platt and Bajaj Ginning Machines.

Textile Park, Bellary District. Mundaragi & Guggarahatti Village , Bellary Tq.,

It is proposed to established a Textile Park in the Jeans cluster & the park focuses on stitching of Jeans & processing units in Bellary Dist.

Lambani embroidery Sandur

Sandur’s best-known line is Lambani embroidery, which is doneby Lambani women from the region. The women continue to wear their strikingtraditional costumes. These are adorned with distinctive bold embroidery that makesuse of mirrors and also other embellishments such as shells and buttons. Sandur combinescontemporary design with the skills of the Lambani women to put together products that suit urban tastes.

The crafts people associated with Sandur Kushala Kala Kendra all belong to Sandurregion of Karnataka.

Natural resources of North karnataka

Hatti Gold Mines[36]

HGML - Hutti Gold Mines Company Limited The only gold extraction company in India.

Hatti, an ancient gold mining spot, is situated about 70 km from Raichur city. Hutti Gold Mine Company operates here, it is only the Gold mine operational now in Karnataka. Tourists are allowed to enter inside the gold mine.

Gadag, Koppal and Bellary Districts are rich in natural resources like Manganese, Gold, Iron ore.

Organizations of North Karnataka

  • KLE - Karnataka Liberal Education Society
  • VRL Group - HUBLI - Vijayanand Roadlines Ltd

Over the last three decades, VRL's activities have evolved from cargo and transport to courier service and wind power. This evolution would not have been possible without vision, a willingness to embrace change, a strong capacity for innovation and acute awareness for customers growing requirements.

VRL General Cargo,VRL Express Cargo,VRL Courier

Centralised Operations at Hubli : At the core of the groups transport business is its 40 acre transport cum warehouse complex in Varur, Hubli. Vijayanand Travels, the tour operation division of VRL, is the market leader among tourist bus operators in Karnataka and Maharashtra. VRL was awarded the ISO 9001-2000 Certification for its Quality Management System in June 2005.

  • SDM
  • HKE Society - Hyderabad Karnataka Education (HKE) Society

Internet groups

NKTechies

North Karnataka Techies is mailing List for North Karnataka techies Specially from BELGUM, BIJAPUR, BAGALKOT, BIDAR, GULBARGA, HUBLI, DHARWAD, RAICHUR, BELLARY,GADAG, HAVERI, DAVANGERE and KOPPAL districts The objective of this list is for sharing Job Openings and Valuable info, which would help people of North Karnataka.

HubliCity

This is an elite group of members consisting of HDMC Commissioner, CM, BVB College Principal Mr. Ashok Shettar, NRI’s from this area, who are all working for one thing, i.e. Development of North Karnataka.

North Karnataka cuisine

The wheat and jowar rottis (unleavened bread made of millet) are the popular delicacies of North Karnataka. Here, one can find a wide range of rottis like Jolada rotti, thali peet, khadak rotti and sajji rotti (bajra rotti). They are mainly served with a variety of chutneys or spicy curries. Other dishes with which these rottis are served are the yenne badanekayi, kaalu palya, soppu palya, usli (made from spicy sprouted gram) and jholka (made from channa dal flour). Dharwad Peda, Gokak Kardantu and Belgaum/Belagavi Kunda are the most popular snacks from the region.

Major festivals and associated traditional foods

Major festivals and associated traditional foods[37]

  • Sankranti (January) (Festival of harvest): Madeli, Holige of gingelly seeds, Bengal gram dhal, Ground nut; Jowar roti, Bajra roti, Bharta, Chutney powders of niger, linseed, ground nut.
  • Shivarathri (February / March) (Foods consumed after a day’s fast): Godhi huggi, Allittu, Bengal gram usali, Moth bean usali and Holige.
  • Holi (March) (Destruction of evil): Holige, Jowar wade, Pumpkin gargi (some caste groups prepare nonvegetarian curry.
  • Ugadi (April / May) (New year of Kannadigas): Holige, Karigadabu, Vermicelli payasam, Bevu bella, and Godhi huggi.
  • Basava Jayanti (May) (Birth day of Basava): Holige, Karigadabu and mango Shikarane.
  • Karahunnive (June) (Bullocks worshipped): Holige, Karigadabu, Jowar wade, Pumpkin gargi, Kodabale and mango Shikarane.
  • Mannettina Amavasye (June) (Clay bullocks worshipped): Karigadabu, Holige, Jowar wade, Sajjaka, Pumpkin gargi and Vermicelli payasam.
  • Naga Panchami (July) (Cobras worshipped): Laddu of semolina, Bunde, Besan, Sev, Ground nuts, Gingelly seeds, Gulladki, Puffed jowar, Kuchagadabu, Allittu, Bengal gram usali, Moth bean usali, Bajra roti and Jowar roti.
  • Ganesh Chaturthi (August ) (Ganesha worshipped): Godhi huggi, Holige, Modaka, Vermicelli payasam, Sajjaka, Jowar roti, Mesta bhaji, Curds rice, Panchakajjaya, Karigadabu, and Gudagana huggi.
  • Dasara/ Mahanavami (September) (Durga puja): Holige, Karigadabu, Sajjakada holige, Sajjaka, Durga puja Taraga, Foxtail millet holige, Karachikayi, Pumpkin gargi and Jowar wade.
  • Shigehunnive (October) (Farmer’s festival; Worship of standing crop): Foxtail millet holige, Chakli, Akki huggi, Kodabale, Holige, Karigadabu, Undigadabu, Kuchchida khara, Bhaji of capsicum, cluster beans, pumpkin; Chutney powders of niger, linseed, ground nut (some communities prepare nonvegetarian curry)
  • Diwali (October) (Lakshmi puja): Holige, Karigadabu, Karachikayi, Laddu of semolina, Besan and Sajjakada holige.

Family names in North Karnataka

Family names or Surnames are drawn from the name of the place, Food Items, Dresses, Temples, Type of People, Platforms, Cities, Profession,[38] and so on. Surnames are drawn from many other sources.

  • Surnames are drawn from Food Items are Balikai (Banana), Bendikai (Okra), Bellolli (Garlic), Ullagaddi (Onion),

Mensinakai (Chilli), Tenginaki (Coconut), Byali (Pulse / Dal), Tuppad (Ghee), Palled (Vegetable), Guggari (Boiled Food grains), Churamari (Bhel), Sajji (A type of Food grain), Akki (Rice), Jolad (Jawar),harakangi(teared shirt).

  • Surnames are drawn from Dresses are Kubasad (A type of Blouse), Langoti (Kaachaa), Dhotrad (Dhoti)
  • Surnames are drawn from Houses are Doddamani (Big House), Moolimani (Corner House),

Devaramani (God's House), Hadimani (House next to the road), Myalinamani (House on the upperside), Tegginamani (House on the lowerside), Hanchinamani (House made tiles on the roof), Hulamani (House made of Grass), Kallimani (house made of a tree called Kalli), Kattimani (House with a Platform infornt of it).

  • Surnames are drawn from Temples are Gudi (Temple), Halligudi (A village Temple), Pujari (A Priest), Math (An Ashram), Hiremath (A Senior (larger) Ashrama), Chikkamath (A Junior (smaller) Ashrama), Korikanthimath (An Ashrama made of bushes).
  • Surnames are drawn from Type of People are Hukar (One who sells Flowers), Hugar (One who sells Flowers), Pasappagol (One who passes), Dhulappanavar (One who produces dust), Kanajanavar (One from Godown), Salgar (One who lends), Soudagar (A business man), Chitragar (Painter), Nayak (leader, (probably military), similarly paleyagar, sarnayak),

YalakkiShettar (A business man who sells Cardamom)

  • Surnames are drawn from Type of Profession are Kumbar (Pottery), Banagar (Dyer),

Badiger (carpentar), Vastrad (Related to Cloth (specifically Towel))

  • Surnames are drawn from Types of Platforms are Katti (platform), Bhavikatti (A platform beside a well), Bevinakatti (A platform under a Neem tree), Hunasikatti (A platform under a Tamarind tree), nadakatti (Middle platform), halakatti (Old platform).
  • Surnames ending with shetty (different from Mangalore Shetty's) like Bharamshetty,Kalshetti,Bhogshetty,Pattanshetty etc.They belong to prominent Lingayat community in Karnataka and Maharashtra,Andhra bordering Karnataka.
  • Surnames are drawn from Cities like Gajendragadkar.
  • Surnames are drawn also like Angadi (Shop), Pyati (Market), Bandi (Bullock cart),

Karadigudda (A Hill station with bears), Javali (Cloth Material), Mahajan (Great People).

Buddhism in North Karnataka

Buddhism in North Karnataka has long history, can be dated from 1st Cent. B.C. to 3rd Cent B.C. Sannati and Kanaganahalli are two important excavation sites in North karnataka a. Budhist Tibetan colony is at Mundgod.

Jainism in North Karnataka

Jaina monuments in North Karnataka[39]

At the outset it is necessary to clarify that the division of Karnataka Into South and North is only for the sake of convenience. In this connection North Karnataka is taken as the area comprising the present Karnataka excluding the old Mysore State. The monuments in these districts have been considered in a chronological manner taking the dynasties also into consideration.

Beginners

The origin of Jaina architecture in north Karnataka is still uncertain as the vestiges of the early period have not come down to us. Jaina structures contemporary to the sojourn of Bhadrabahu to Sravanbelgola have not been found here so far. Even the early historic excavations which exhibit Satavahana culture as at Vadagaon Madhavpur and Sannati have not yielded any antiquity or structure that can be associated with Jainism. However, it has to be noted that the antiquities and structures of the former site have yet to be studied in detail and the latter site is yet to be fully excavated. This leaves us with the Kadambas of Banavasi who were known to be patrons of Jainism as evidenced by their inscriptions.

Kadamba period

The existence of Jaina temples during the period of the Banavasi Kadambas is amply evidenced by their epigraphs. The earliest references to a grant by a Kadamba king to a Jaina saint is found in the Halasi copper plate of kakusthavarman. 1 It mentions that the granted village Khatagrama belonged to arhanta. However, a reference to a Jain temple (Chaityalaya) is found in the Devagiri copper plate of Mrigesavarman.2 The inscription states that Mrigesavarman gave a grant for the sammarjana, upalepana, archana and bhagnasamskara of the Chaityalaya located at Brihatparalur. Further he also donated for the enclosure of the Chaityalaya one nivartana of land. This clearly shows that the above Chaityalaya was big enough to have an enclosure also. In the Devagiri inscription of Vijaya Siva Mrigesavarman a reference is made to arhat sale where an image of Jinendra was kept. 3 Mrigesavarman's Halasi inscription of 8th regnal year states that the king built a Jinalaya in memory of his father in Palasika and granted lands to saints of Yapaniya, nirgrantha and kurchaka sangha. 4 Ravivarma's eleventh regnal year inscription found at Halasi refers to a grant for the abhisheka of Jinendra.5 Obviously this refers to a, Jaina temple. Another inscription of the same king refers to the worship of Jinendra for which four nivartanas of land was granted .6

The famous Gudnapur inscription of Ravivarman is more explicit on this point.7 According to this inscription King Ravivarma built a temple, kamajinalaya for Manmatha, very' near the palace (rajavesma) and arranged for its worship by granting lands. At the same time he also gave grants to Kamajinalaya at Hakinipalli and Padmavati temple at Kalliligrama. Dr. B.R. Gopal who has edited this inscription has suggested that this Kamajinalaya is a temple for Bahubali, as Bahubali is described as Manmatha. If this is so, the tradition of erecting gommata sculptures goes back to the period of Kadambas and to sixth century A.D. itself. However, Dr. A. Sundara has discovered a sculpture of Rati and Manmatha at the same place. Whether this was the sculpture worshipped in the Kamajinalya cannot be ascertained. What is more important is the tradition of building Jaina temples for Manmatha and even Padmavati.

The Halasi inscription of Ravivarma refers to interesting information.8 It states that the income from the gifted village should be used for eight-day festival in Kartikamasa in the Jinalaya at Palasikanagara. It states at the end wherever Jinendra worship takes place properly, that place will prosper without any fear from enemies and the prowess of the king will improve. The Devagiri plates of prince Devavarma refers to gifts for the worship in the Chaityalaya and for the repairs of the Chaityalaya.9

All the inscriptions referred to above mention gifts for worship and repair to Jaina temples. However, many of them refer to a Jaina temple at Halasi. The Jaina temple' now standing at Halasi can not go back to a period earlier than eleventh century A.D. Then the question is what happened to the basadis referred to in the inscriptions. Perhaps they might have been built by wood and obviously perished. A. Sundara's field work at Halasi throws very important light on this point. 1O Very close to the Kallesvara temple at Halasi, he discovered an ancient site going back to megalithic and early historic periods. A large number of brick walls of the ancient period have been noticed by him in and around and abviously he thinks that this represents the Jaina temple built during the Kadamba period. Full scale excavations at Halasi and Gudnapur are bound to yield the brick temples of this early period. That would, show the contribution of the Kadambas of Banavasi to the Jaina architecture of Karnataka.

Badami Chalukya period

After the rule of the Kadambas of Banavasi most parts of north Karnataka came under the rule of the early or Badami Chalukyas kings. Their contribution to architecture and sculpture is not only well known but unprecedented. Most kings of this powerful dynasty patronised Jainism also though they were the follower of Vedic Hinduism. This is attested to by many inscriptions including that of the Aihole inscription of Pulakesi II, composed by the famous poet Ravikirti. The Jaina architectural beginnings made earlier by the Kadambas of Banavasi, crystallized into better structures in stone during the early Chalukyan period. As they used stone as the medium of their architecture, they have come down to us in good numbers.

The Chalukyas of Badami ate known for their rock cut temples as well as structural temples. At Badami there are four rock cut temples belonging to Saiva, Vaishnava and Jaina faiths. Incidentally this is an eloquent testimony to the religious tolerance of the kings and the people during the period. The fourth cave is the Jaina cave dedicated to Adinatha Tirthankara. He is seated on the lion pedestal, reclining slightly on the smooth cushion. There is a triple umbrella (mukkode) over his head in relief. There are two Chamaradharis attending on the Tirthankara. On the left wall is a standing sculpture of Suparsvanatha with a seven hooded snake over him. To his right is a Yakshi holding a Chatra; to the left is a Yaksha sitting. On the opposite wall is the sculpture of Bahubali intertwined with creepers. In the inner mandapa on both sides are found two sculptures of Mahavira. In addition there are sculptures of twenty eight Jinas. The whole cave is 31 ft (9.4 m). wide and the depth is 16 ft (4.9 m). The entire composition is very elegant.

Another Jaina cave is in Aihole. It has an open mandapa and a Sabhamandapa. In the garbhgriha is the sculpture of Mahavira in Padmasana. On the sides are yaksha and yakshi standing. In the open mandapa are found high relief sculptures of Parsvanatha and Bahubali. However, this cave is not as refined and elegant as that of Badami.

Now we may refer to the structural temples built by the Chalukayas of Badami. The following are noteworthy among them. They are - Meguti Jinalaya at Aihole; the jinalaya built by Kumkuma Mahadevi at Lakshmesvar; during the period of Kirtivarman II. Kaliyamma built a temple at Annigeri; the Jinalaya at Hallur; the Jinalaya built by Dharmagamunda at Adur in Hangal taluk. The Meguti Jinendralaya was built in 634 A. D. by Ravikirti The temple has a garbhagriha, antarala and a mukhamandapa perhaps a later addition. There is a narrow pradakshinapatha around the garbhagriha. In the garbhagriha attached to the wall is the sculpture of Mahavira. In the antarala was a fine sculpture of Yakshi Ambika sitting in ardha lalitasana. Over the garbhagriha is another garbhagriha which also has a sculpture of Tirthankara. The adhisthana has miniature decorations.

The Sankha Jinalaya at Lakshmesvar is dedicated to Neminatha. Sendraka Durgasakti, a feudatory of Pulakesi II is said to have given gifts to this temple.u It is possible that it may be earlier or at least contemporary to the Meguti temple. Many other inscriptions show that this was an important Jaina temple during the period. an inscription of Vinayaditya dated 686 A.D. refers to a grant to Jaina acharya of Devagana and mulasangha.12 Another epigraph of the time of Vijayaditya dated 729 A. D. mentions a grant to Niravadya Pandita who was to house pupil of Sri PUjyapada.13 Still another inscription of the time of Vikramaditya II dated 734 A. D. mentions gifts to Sveta Jinalaya.14

The Jain temple at Hallur has garbhagriha, antarala, and rectangular Sabhamandap. The garbhagriha has an upper storey and is similar to Meguti temple. The Sabhamandapa is bigger than garbhagriha and antarala and has a separate mukhamandapa which is in ruins. Thus it shows a more developed architectural feature. The outer walls of the Sabhamandapa has low relief sculptures of Jaina Tirthankaras. Thus the Chalukyas of Badami contributed in ample measure to the development of Jaina temple architecture and laid firm foundations for further development during the Rashtrakuta period.

Rashtrakuta period

Altekar, characterises the Rastrakuta period as the golden age of Jainsim in Karnataka. This is amply demonstrated by a large number of Jaina epigraphs and also generous grants to Jaina temples. Amoghavarsha I used to consider himself purified by the very remembrance of his guru Jinasenacharya.15 He is also described as a follower of Syadvada.16 He had appointed the famous Jaina saint Gunabhadra as the teacher for his son Krishna.17 Krishna gave liberal donations to the Jaina temple at Mulgund. Indra IV was a devoted Jaina and he died committing Sallekhana.18 Many of the Rashtrakuta feudatories like Rattas of Saundatti were staunch supporters of Jainism, From all these evidences Altekar estimates that at least one third of the total population of the Deccan during the period were Jains.19

The Jaina monuments of the Rashrakuta period are found at Pattadakal, Malkhed, Lakshmesvar, Koppala, Bankur, in the present day karnataka and at Ellora in Maharastra which was included in the Rastrakuta empire, The jaina temple at Pattadakal consists of a garbhagriha, pradakshinapatha, antarala, Sabhamandapa and mukhamandapa, The garbhgriha door jambh has a fine makara torana, Opposite walls of antarala have Devakoshthas to house Yaksha and Yakshis, The sabhamandapa is square and has four pillars in the centre, The mukhamanadapa has been provided with Kakshasanas, The garbhagriha has a dvitala Nagara sikhara, it has another garbhagriha on the first floor like the Meguti temple, The outer walls in the western and northern sides have Jina sculptures which confirm that this is a Jaina temple, It is believed that this temple was built either during the time of Amoghavarsha I (814-874 A.D.) or Krishna I (c. 770 A.D.). From the stylistic features ninth century A, D, seems' to be reasonable for this temple.

The Jaina basadi at Konnur in Dharwad district was built during the period of Amoghavarsha I, by Bankesa in 860 A.D, It has a garbhagriha, antarala, sabhamandapa and a ruined mukhmandapa, The unique feature of this temple is the star shaped gabhagriha, which later became a unique feature of the Hoysala temples in southern Karnataka- There are three niches .in the garbhagriha which is also rare, The antarala has two pillars while the Sabhamandapa has twelve pillars, The latter also has two stone Jalandhras, Th.e mukhamandapa is reached through flight of steps.

The Jaina temple at Naregal in Ron taluk of Dharwad district was built during the period of Krishna III, by Padmabbarasi, the queen of Ganga Permadi Bhutayya in 950 A.D. (Now it is referred to as Narayana temple), It is the biggest Rashtrakuta temple in Karnataka, It has a sikhara of Dravida vimana type over the garbhagriha, Actually it is a trikuta, The main garbhagriha of this temple was meant for a Jina, and is square, The other two garbhagriha are rectangular, and have rectangular pedestals from wall to wall with twenty-four holes indicating that both of them were meant for establishing twenty-four Tirthankara sculptures, This is also a unique feature of this basadi. This became common in the eleventh century A.D.

The Settavva temple at Aihole is another storeyed basadi. It is more elaborate in execution. It is also a trikuta. Besides it has three ardhamandapas and a common navaranga.

The Neminatha basadi at Malkhed, the capital of the Rashtrakutas belongs to ninth century A. D. Unfortunately the original structure has been repaired often and henc.e it is difficult to know its original features. The garbhagriha has a fine seated Neminatha sculpture. Other sculptures found here are those of Parsvanatha, Dharanendra and Padmavati. Some more Jina sculptures are in the Sabhamandapa; but they seem to belong to later periods.

The basadi at Bankur in Gulburga district seems to belong to the end of the Rashrakuta period. There are many fine sculptures in this temple. Notable among them are Adinatha, Chandraprabha, Santinatha, Parsvanatha, Mahavira, Padmavati, high relief sculptures of twenty-four tirthankaras.

In addition to the above Jaina temples of the Rashtrakuta period many more are also found which are not properly documented. Outside the present Karnataka State, the Rastrakuta basadis are found at Ellora where there are three Jaina cave temples referred as Chota Kailas, Indrasabha and Jagannathasabha.

The Rashrakuta epigraphs supply evidence for the construction of many more Jaina temples which have not been properly located. Some important epigraphs may be noted below. In 875 A. D. Krishna II built a Jinendra bhavana at Savadatti.2O In 902 A. D. Pergada Bittayya built a basadi at Bandanike.21 During the period of Krishna II was built the Mahasrimanta basadi at Pennugunda. 22 In 925 A. D. Nagayya built a temple at Asundi when Chandraprabha bhattaraka of Dhora Jinalaya was the administrator.23 In 932 A. D., Chandavve built a basadi at Nandavara.24 In 964 A. D., a Ratta chief built Jayadhire Jinalaya at Kupana (modern Koppala).25 In 958 A. D. Jakki Sundari built a Jinalaya at Kakambal. 26

The above epigraphical references and the extant Jaina monuments prove that the Rashtrakuta period was a golden age from the point of view to Jaina architecture also. However, it has to be admitted that exploration of Rashtrakuta architecture in Karnataka has to be done more systematically. In this connection the good beginning made by S. Rajasekhara in identifying the possible Rashtrakuta monuments in Karnataka on the bas.is of stylistic evidences and epigraphs is worth laudable. 27 Further research is bound to yield more Rashtrakuta monuments including Jaina temples in Karnataka.

Kalyani Chalukyas period

With the decline of the Rashtrakutas, most parts of north Karnataka came under the rule of the Chalukyas of Kalyana. Though they are known to be Saivas, they built Jaina temples. Many kings of this dynasty also granted gifts to Jaina establishments and individual saints. The development of Kalamukhas on the one side and the Virasaivism of Basavanna on the other were making great progress in north Karnataka and naturally this did not give enough scope for Jainism to blossom as it did in the earlier Rashtrakuta period. Nevertheless, it flourished through the royal patronage and contributed its share in the development of architecture. Taila, the founder of Chalukya dynasty of Kalyana is well known as the patron of the great Jaina poet Ranna. King Satyasraya had a Rajaguru Vimalachandrapanditadeva under whose feet the king is said to have learnt the tenets of Jaina dharma. Attimabbe, known as danachintamani is a well known personality of this period. She is said to have made one thousand copies of Ponna's Santi pur ana and distributed as Sastradana. She built a Jaina temple at Lakkundi to which the king provided a golden Kalasa.28 Somesvara's minister Santinatha persuaded Lakhma to build the Mallikamoda Santinatha basadi at Baligrama.29 All these show the existence of Jainism during the period as well as royal patronage.

The Chalukyas of Kalyana were great temple builders all over Karnataka and they brought out new development in various components of temple. This was adopted to the Jaina temples built by them. This is amptly brought out by K.V. Soundararajan when he states" ?.the Jaina temple building efforts went through more or less the same stages of growth and development as the Brahmanical, Jainism nevertheless maintained its entity by taking recourse to certain iconographic specializations which called for a distinctive layout. In surface treatment again, the Jaina temples eschewed all ostentatiously carved richi1ess on the exterior wall or fabric of the temple but were not averse to an extravagant display of ornamentation and figure work in the interior". 30 These distinctive features are found in the Jaina temples built by the Kalyana. Chalukyas at Lakkundi and other places. They generally consist of a garbhagriha, antarala, navaranga and mukhamandapa. Usually they do not have sculptyres on the outer walls. In the navaranga pillars are found with small sculptures. The sculptures generally consist of Bahubali, Parsvanatha, Mahavira, other Tirthankaras, Yaksha, Yakshis, Chaumukhastambhas, Sahasrakut Jinabimba, Dvarapalas and Manastambhas.

The most important Jaina temples of this period are Brahma Jinalaya at Lakkundi, Charantimatha at Aihole and Sankha Jinalya at Lakshmesvar. The Brahma Jinalaya built by Attimabbe represents a second phase of Chalukyan art for it not only represents a progress in architectural work but also uses finer grained schist instead of the usual granite. The latter has influenced its masonry, size and sculpture. The tample is highly imposing with dimensions of 93 ft (28 m). and 35 ft (11 m). It has a sikhara 42 ft (13 m). in height, which rise, s somewhat steeply in three storeys looking like a Chaturasra sikhara, with a sukhanasi. The mukhamandapa is spacious having entrances in east, south and north. The sculptures of Brahma and Padmavati are noteworthy.

The Charanti matha group at Aihole was built before 1119 A.D. on which date king Vikarmaditya VI through his subordinate Kesavayya Setti made arrangements for certain repairs, additions and endowments. The main temple of this group is dedicated to Mahavira. The temple has a garbhagriha, antarala, Sabhamandapa and mukhamandapa. It has a sikhara of the southern vimana type. There is also storeyed temple over the garbhagriha, a typical character of a basadi. The exterior wall is plain without any sculptures. The highly ornate doorways, drooping eaves and cornices of the corridor are highly elaborate and ornate. On the architraves of the front doors of the corridor are carved twenty four Tirthankaras, which add to the beauty of this temple.

Of the two Jaina temples at Lakshmesvar the more famous is Sankha Jinalaya which consists of a garbhagriha, a large ardhamandapa, larger mahamandapa and a rangamandapa. The rangamandapa has three entrances to south, north and west. It has a chaturmukha structure in dim unitive model, each of which carries three figures. it has a rekhanagara sikhara. The unique feature of this temple is the Sahasrakuta Jinabimba in minute form. There is a manastambha in front of the temple. Even though the temple is in ruins and has been renovated later, it presents a rare grandeur and stands as a testimony to the interest of the Kalyana Chalukyas in Jaina a.rchitecture. The other Jaina temple in this place is a trikuta dedicated to Adinatha.

The other Jaina temples of the Kalyana Chalukya period include Parsvanatha basadi at Udri, Bandalike, Parsvanatha basadi at Koppala, a ruined basadi at Halasi, Naminatha basadi at Terdal, a ruined basadi within the fort at Belgaum, Parsvanatha basadi at Ammangi in Belgaum district, a ruined basadi at Malkhed and another basadi at Sedam in Gulburga district. Most of these are in ruins and are simpler in dimensions and designs as compared to the classical basadis found at Lakkundi and other two places. However, these constructions show the widespread popularity of Jaina architecture in the north Karnataka region during the Kalyana Chalukya period.

As the Hoysalas did not have a permanent footing in north Karnataka due to the opposition of the Sevunas of Devagiri, there are no Hoysala monuments in this region. They are confined to southern Karnataka.

Seuna period

The Sevunas of Devagiri ruled over most parts of north Karnataka and parts of Maharashtra after the decline of the Chalukyas of Kalyana. Tradition connects the Sevunas with Jainism. As evidenced by Nasikakalpa, Dridhaprahara one of the early king of this dynasty grew under the care of Chandraprabhasvamin and in recognition of this he named his capitgl Chandradityapura, after this Jaina saint. 31 Sevunadeva III was a devout Jaina. His Anjaneri inscription opens with an invocation to Pancha Parameshthis namely arhats, siddhas, acharyas, upadhyayas and sadhus.32 Singhana II made a large number of grants to Jinalaya at Purikanagara for the worship of Parsvanatha and to the temple of Ananata Tirthankara. King Ramachandta made the grant of a village Hunisehalli for a Jinalaya. His Sarvadhikari is said to have built a basadi at the instance of his guru Jinabhattaraka. Apart from these epigraphical references, it is not possible to identify any of the Jaina temples built during the period.

Vijayanagara period

It is generally believed that Jainism began declining in Karnataka after the Hoysalas. With the establishment of the Vijayanagara empire, the accent was more on the Hinduism and obviously Jainism suffered a setback. Even numerically references to grants made to Jaina establishments become small in number epigraphically which also confirms the view that Jainism was losing ground. This is amply demonstrated by the inscription of Bukka at Hampi, which tries to bring about a compromise between the Jainas and the Srivaishnavas. One of the representative Jaina temple at Hampi is the Ganagitti gudi built by Jinabhakta Irugappa Dandanayaka who was a minister under Harihara II, in 1385 A.D. The temple was dedicated to Kunthu tirthankara.

However, South Kanara and North Kanara became important centres of Jaina architecture during this period. Varanga, karkala, Mudabidre, Barakuru and other places became centres of Jaina art due to the patronage extended by Alupa kings of Tulunadu. This has been discussed in another paper, and hence we pass on to North Kanara district. The most important monument of the period in this district is the Chaturmukha basadi located at Gerusoppe. Though its builder is not known definitely, it is generally belieyed that queen Chennabhairadevi was responsible for the construction of this basadi. The entire basadi is built of greyish schist, popularly known as soapstone. It has a garbhagriha, in which four tirthankaras are kept who are facing the four directions. The garbhagriha has entrances on four sides and is a good example of Sarvatobhadra class. The tower has disappeared. There are many sculptures of tirthankaras, yakshas and yakshis which are of fine workmanship. The other temples in Gerusoppe are Neminatha basadi, Vardhamana basadi and two Parsvanatha basadis. But they are small and do not compare well with the Chaturmukha basadi. However, the sculptures of these basad is are interesting.

The Chandranatha temple at Bhatkal is another structure of this period. Actually it is known as Jettappa Nayakana Chandranathesvara basadi. It consists of two blocks of buildings joined together by intervening porch in east and west. The western portion has two storeys. The interior is plain. The eastern portion serves as a porch to the temple. The garbhagriha has the sculptures of Rishabhanatha, Chandranatha and Mallinatha.

The Ratnatraya basadi at Bilgi is almost similar to the basadi at Bhatkal. But it is nirandhara. The three garbhagrihas have Neminatha, Parsvanatha and Mahavira. There is a vide porch and a mukhamandapa which are plain. The pillars are not elegant at Haduvalli or Sangitapura there is a temple of Chandranatha. It is plain and has a flat roof. The sculptures of some Jinas are kept in the . The sculpture of Chandranatha is very elegant and show the Vijayanagara workmanship. However, the temple itself is not of high order. The metal images in this temple are of some interest. One of them identified as that of Rishabhanatha with gomukha Yaksha has an inscription of the Fourteenth century. Seventyone tirthankaras are represented on the prabhavali. There is another metal image of Padmavati of late date and shows the decadent style. Another stone sculpture of Padmavati also belongs to this style. After the seventeenth century, the construction of Jaina temples did not become artistic creations but served the religion. Thus the long tradition of Jaina monuments which perhaps started by the early centuries of the Christian era ended by the eighteenth century A.D. in north Karnataka.

The above survey shows that Jaina architectural style developed side by side with other religions but imbibed certain qualities. Perhaps the architects and sculptors were common to all religions. The storyed garbhagriha is a special invention of the Jaina architects, as found in many Jaina temples. The Jainas did not have decoration or sculptures on outside walls but took care to use such decoration in a limited way within the structures. In the early period the temples of Mahavira were more popular but by about twelfth century other tirthankaras like Parsvanatha, Adinath and twenty four tirthankaras became more popular. In the Vijayanagara period the construction of Chaturmukha basadis gained popularity. The presence of dvarapalakas also became popular from tenth century. The erection of Manastambha also seems to have come into existence from about the tenth century A.D. and later it became almost a general rule. Thus North Karnataka contributed richly to the development of Jaina architecture in Karnataka.

North Karnataka related links

References

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  38. ^ "Family names in North Karnataka" (PDF). Arun R Yadwad, Shivanand G Naganur, Manjunath Kamadolli, Chandrashekar Nelogal. http://www.ourkarnataka.com/states/nk_familynames.htm. Retrieved 2009-02-17. 
  39. ^ "JAINA MONUMENTS IN NORTH KARNATAKA". Dr. A. V. Narasimha Murthy. http://jainsamaj.org/literature/monuments-071004.htm. Retrieved 2008-04-11. 

External references

See also

kn:ಉತ್ತರ ಕರ್ನಾಟಕmr:उत्तर कर्नाटक

 

All translations of North_Karnataka


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