» 
Arabic Bulgarian Chinese Croatian Czech Danish Dutch English Estonian Finnish French German Greek Hebrew Hindi Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Italian Japanese Korean Latvian Lithuanian Malagasy Norwegian Persian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swedish Thai Turkish Vietnamese
Arabic Bulgarian Chinese Croatian Czech Danish Dutch English Estonian Finnish French German Greek Hebrew Hindi Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Italian Japanese Korean Latvian Lithuanian Malagasy Norwegian Persian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swedish Thai Turkish Vietnamese

definition - Ocean nourishment

definition of Wikipedia

   Advertizing ▼

Wikipedia

Ocean nourishment

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

Ocean Nourishment is a type of geoengineering based on the purposeful introduction of nutrients to the upper ocean (e.g. phosphate[1]) to increase the marine food chain and to sequester carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.[2] Fertilization also creates stratospheric sulfur aerosols and can therefore be used for Solar radiation management. The marine food chain is based on photosynthesis by marine phytoplankton which combine carbon with inorganic nutrients to produce organic matter. The production of organic matter is limited in general by the availability of nutrients, most commonly nitrogen or iron. Numerous experiments[3] have been carried out demonstrating how iron fertilization can increase phytoplankton productivity in the high latitude waters. It is also effective in some lower latitudes.[4] Nitogen appears to be the limiting nutrient in the rest of the ocean and can be supplied by from a number of sources including fixation by cyanobacteria. The efficacy of fixation varies dramatically, with iron fixing more carbon atoms per iron atom than other substances, which is a significant reason for the focus on iron in recent research.[citation needed]

Ocean Nourishment offers the prospect of both reducing the concentration of atmospheric greenhouse gases with the aim of avoiding rapid climate change and at the same time increasing the sustainable fish stocks. It promises to do this by increasing the ocean primary production.

Ocean Nourishment promises to be a way of creating low cost protein in sufficient quantity to supply the needs of the additional two billion people expected to populate the earth before the population stabilizes at values near eight billion.[citation needed] While manipulation of the land ecosystem in support of agriculture for the benefit of humans has long been accepted it is a new concept to enhance the large scale ocean productivity and so creates some apprehension.

Contents

Phosphorous fertilization

This technique can give 0.83W/m2 of globally-averaged negative forcing[5], which is sufficient to reverse the warming effect of about half the current levels of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. It is notable, however, that CO2 levels will have risen by the time this could be achieved.

Nitrogen fertilisation

Proposed by Ian Jones with the purpose to fertilize the ocean with urea, a nitrogen rich substance, to encourage phytoplankton growth.[citation needed] Also considered by Karl.[6]

An Australian company, Ocean Nourishment Corporation (ONC), plans to sink hundreds of tonnes of urea into the ocean, in order to boost the growth of CO2-absorbing phytoplankton, as a way to combat climate change. In 2007, Sydney-based ONC completed an experiment involving one tonne of nitrogen in the Sulu Sea off the Philippines.[7]

This technique can give 0.38W/m2 of globally-averaged negative forcing[5], which is sufficient to reverse the warming effect of current levels of around a quarter of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. It is notable, however, that CO2 levels will have risen by the time this could be achieved.

Solar radiation management

As well as carbon sequestration, ocean fertilization can also be used to create sulfate aerosols which reflect sunlight and modify the Earth's albedo, this creating a cooling effect which reduces some of the effects of climate change. Enhancing the natural sulfur cycle in the Southern Ocean[8] ocean by fertilizing a small portion with iron in order to enhance dimethyl sulfide production and cloud reflectivity achieves this. The goal is to slow Antarctic ice from melting and raising sea level[9][10]. Such techniques also tend to sequester carbon, but in this specific project the enhancement of cloud albedo was both the desired outcome and measured result.[11]

See also

References

  1. ^ Matear, R. J., and B. Elliott (2004). "Enhancement of oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2 by macronutrient fertilization". J. Geophys. Res. 109: C04001. doi:10.1029/2000JC000321. http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/2004/2000JC000321.shtml. 
  2. ^ Jones, I.S.F. & Young, H.E. (1997). [Expression error: Missing operand for > "Engineering a large sustainable world fishery"]. Environmental Conservation 24: 99–104. doi:10.1017/S0376892997000167. 
  3. ^ Coale KH, Johnson KS, Fitzwater SE, et al. (October 1996). [Expression error: Missing operand for > "A massive phytoplankton bloom induced by an ecosystem-scale iron fertilization experiment in the equatorial Pacific Ocean"]. Nature 383 (6600): 495–501. doi:10.1038/383495a0. PMID 18680864. 
  4. ^ Markels, M and R T Barber (2001). "Sequestration of CO2 by Ocean Fertilization". Proc 1st Nat. Conf. on Carbon Sequestration. Washington, DC. 
  5. ^ a b Lenton, T. M., Vaughan, N. E. (2009). "The radiative forcing potential of different climate geoengineering options". Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 9: 2559–2608. http://www.atmos-chem-phys-discuss.net/9/2559/2009/acpd-9-2559-2009.pdf. 
  6. ^ Karl, D. M. and Letelier, R. (2008). [Expression error: Missing operand for > "Nitrogen fixation-enhanced carbon sequestration in low nitrate, low chlorophyll seascapes"]. Mar. Ecol.-Prog. Ser. 364: 257–268. doi:10.3354/meps07547. 
  7. ^ Anna Salleh (9 November 2007). "Urea 'climate solution' may backfire". ABC Science: In Depth. Australian Broadcasting Commission. http://www.abc.net.au/science/articles/2007/11/09/2085584.htm. 
  8. ^ Wingenter, Oliver W. (November 2007). [Expression error: Missing operand for > "New Directions: Enhancing the natural sulfur cycle to slow global warming"]. Atmospheric Environment 41 (34): 7373–5. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.07.021. A
  9. ^ http://www.climos.com/news/articles/slowingglobal.htm
  10. ^ Coale, K. H.; Johnson, K. S.; Buesseler, K.; Sofex Group. "SOFeX: Southern Ocean Iron Experiments. Overview and Experimental Design". American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting 2002. 2002AGUFMOS22D..01C. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFMOS22D..01C. 
  11. ^ T. S. Bates, B. K. Lamb, A. Guenther, J. Dignon,R. E. Stoiber (1992). "Sulfur Emissions to the Atmosphere from Natural Sources". Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry 14: 315–337. doi:10.1007/BF00115242. http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/pubs/outstand/bate1229/estimate.shtml. 

 

All translations of Ocean nourishment


sensagent's content

  • definitions
  • synonyms
  • antonyms
  • encyclopedia

Dictionary and translator for handheld

⇨ New : sensagent is now available on your handheld

   Advertising ▼

sensagent's office

Shortkey or widget. Free.

Windows Shortkey: sensagent. Free.

Vista Widget : sensagent. Free.

Webmaster Solution

Alexandria

A windows (pop-into) of information (full-content of Sensagent) triggered by double-clicking any word on your webpage. Give contextual explanation and translation from your sites !

Try here  or   get the code

SensagentBox

With a SensagentBox, visitors to your site can access reliable information on over 5 million pages provided by Sensagent.com. Choose the design that fits your site.

Business solution

Improve your site content

Add new content to your site from Sensagent by XML.

Crawl products or adds

Get XML access to reach the best products.

Index images and define metadata

Get XML access to fix the meaning of your metadata.


Please, email us to describe your idea.

WordGame

The English word games are:
○   Anagrams
○   Wildcard, crossword
○   Lettris
○   Boggle.

Lettris

Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.

boggle

Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !

English dictionary
Main references

Most English definitions are provided by WordNet .
English thesaurus is mainly derived from The Integral Dictionary (TID).
English Encyclopedia is licensed by Wikipedia (GNU).

Copyrights

The wordgames anagrams, crossword, Lettris and Boggle are provided by Memodata.
The web service Alexandria is granted from Memodata for the Ebay search.
The SensagentBox are offered by sensAgent.

Translation

Change the target language to find translations.
Tips: browse the semantic fields (see From ideas to words) in two languages to learn more.

last searches on the dictionary :

6653 online visitors

computed in 0.047s

I would like to report:
section :
a spelling or a grammatical mistake
an offensive content(racist, pornographic, injurious, etc.)
a copyright violation
an error
a missing statement
other
please precise:

Advertize

Partnership

Company informations

My account

login

registration

   Advertising ▼