definition of Wikipedia
|Office of Management and Budget|
|Preceding agency||Bureau of the Budget|
|Headquarters||Old Executive Office Building|
|Annual budget||$92.8 million (FY 2011)|
|Agency executive||Jeffrey Zients, Acting Director|
|Parent agency||Executive Office of the President of the United States|
|Office of Management and Budget|
The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is a Cabinet-level office, and is the largest office within the Executive Office of the President of the United States (EOP).
The current OMB Acting Director is Jeffrey Zients.
The Bureau of the Budget, OMB's predecessor, was established as a part of the Department of the Treasury by the Budget and Accounting Act of 1921, which was signed into law by President Warren G. Harding. The Bureau of the Budget was moved to the EOP in 1939, and reorganized into OMB in 1970 during the Nixon administration. The first OMB included Roy Ash (head), Paul O'Neill (assistant director), Fred Malek (deputy director) and Frank Zarb (associate director) and two dozen others. In the 1990s, OMB was reorganized to remove the distinction between management staff and budgetary staff by combining those dual roles into each given program examiner within the Resource Management Offices.
The OMB's predominant mission is to assist the President in overseeing the preparation of the federal budget and to supervise its administration in Executive Branch agencies. In helping to formulate the President's spending plans, the OMB evaluates the effectiveness of agency programs, policies, and procedures, assesses competing funding demands among agencies, and sets funding priorities. The OMB ensures that agency reports, rules, testimony, and proposed legislation are consistent with the President's Budget and with Administration policies.
In addition, the OMB oversees and coordinates the Administration's procurement, financial management, information, and regulatory policies. In each of these areas, the OMB's role is to help improve administrative management, to develop better performance measures and coordinating mechanisms, and to reduce any unnecessary burdens on the public.
The Office contains significant numbers of both career and politically appointed staff; OMB staff provide important continuity within the EOP since several hundred career professionals remain in their positions regardless of which party occupies the White House. Six positions within OMB – the Director, the Deputy Director, the Deputy Director for Management, and the administrators of the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, the Office of Federal Procurement Policy, and the Office of Federal Financial Management are presidentially appointed and Senate-confirmed positions.
The largest component of the Office of Management and Budget are the four Resource Management Offices which are organized along functional lines mirroring the U.S. federal government, each led by an OMB associate director. Approximately half of all OMB staff are assigned to these offices, the majority of whom are designated as program examiners. Program examiners can be assigned to monitor one or more federal agencies or may be assigned a topical area, such as monitoring issues relating to U.S. Navy warships. These staff have dual responsibility for both management and budgetary issues, as well as responsibility for giving expert advice on all aspects relating to their programs. Each year they review federal agency budget requests and help decide what resource requests will be sent to Congress as part of the president’s budget. They perform in-depth program evaluations using the Program Assessment Rating Tool, review proposed regulations, agency testimony, analyze pending legislation, and oversee the aspects of the President's Management Agenda including agency management scorecards. They are often called upon to provide analysis information to any EOP staff member. They also provide important information to those assigned to the statutory offices within OMB, which are Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, the Office of Federal Procurement Policy, the Office of Federal Financial Management, and the Office of E-Government & Information Technology whose job it is to specialize in issues such as federal regulations or procurement policy and law.
Other offices are OMB-wide support offices which include the Office of General Counsel, the Office of Legislative Affairs, the Budget Review Division (BRD), and the Legislative Reference Division. The BRD performs government-wide budget coordination and is largely responsible for the technical aspects relating to the release of the president’s budget each February. With respect to the estimation of spending for the executive branch, the BRD serves a purpose parallel to that of the Congressional Budget Office for the estimation of spending for Congress, the Department of the Treasury for the estimation of revenues for the executive branch, and the Joint Committee on Taxation for the estimation of revenues for Congress.
The Legislative Reference Division has the important role of being the central clearing house across the federal government for proposed legislation or testimony by federal officials. It distributes proposed legislation and testimony to all relevant federal reviewers and distils the comments into a consensus opinion of the Administration about the proposal. They are also responsible for writing an Enrolled Bill Memorandum to the president once a bill is presented by both bodies of Congress for the president’s signature. The Enrolled Bill Memorandum details the particulars of the bill, opinions on the bill from relevant federal departments, and an overall opinion about whether the bill should be signed into law or vetoed. They also issue Statements of Administration Policy that let Congress know the White House’s official position on proposed legislation.
|1||Charles Dawes||June 23, 1921 – June 30, 1922||Warren G. Harding||Dawes would later become Vice President of the United States under Calvin Coolidge and the U.S. Ambassador to the United Kingdom under Herbert Hoover|
|2||Herbert Lord||July 1, 1922 – May 31, 1929||Warren G. Harding, Calvin Coolidge, Herbert Hoover|
|3||Clawson Roop||August 15, 1929 – March 3, 1933||Herbert Hoover|
|4||Lewis Douglas||March 7, 1933 – August 31, 1934||Franklin D. Roosevelt|
|5||Daniel W. Bell||September 1, 1934 – April 14, 1939||Franklin D. Roosevelt|
|6||Harold D. Smith||April 15, 1939 – June 19, 1946||Franklin D. Roosevelt, Harry S. Truman|
|7||James E. Webb||July 13, 1946 – January 27, 1949||Harry S. Truman||Webb later became the second administrator of NASA under Presidents Kennedy and Johnson|
|8||Frank Pace||February 1, 1949 – April 12, 1950||Harry S. Truman|
|9||Frederick Lawton||April 13, 1950 – January 21, 1953||Harry S. Truman|
|10||Joseph Dodge||January 22, 1953 – April 15, 1954||Dwight D. Eisenhower|
|11||Rowland Hughes||April 16, 1954 – April 1, 1956||Dwight D. Eisenhower|
|12||Percival Brundage||April 2, 1956 – March 17, 1958||Dwight D. Eisenhower|
|13||Maurice H. Stans||March 18, 1958 – January 21, 1961||Dwight D. Eisenhower|
|14||David E. Bell||January 22, 1961 – December 20, 1962||John F. Kennedy|
|15||Kermit Gordon||December 28, 1962 – June 1, 1965||John F. Kennedy, Lyndon B. Johnson|
|16||Charles Schultze||June 1, 1965 – January 28, 1968||Lyndon B. Johnson||Schultze later served as Chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers under President Jimmy Carter.|
|17||Charles Zwick||January 29, 1968 – January 21, 1969||Lyndon B. Johnson|
|18||Robert Mayo||January 22, 1969 – June 30, 1970||Richard Nixon|
|19||George P. Shultz||July 1, 1970 – June 11, 1972||Richard Nixon||Shultz had previously served President Nixon as Secretary of Labor and would later serve under him as Secretary of the Treasury and under Ronald Reagan as Secretary of State.|
|20||Caspar Weinberger||June 12, 1972 – February 1, 1973||Richard Nixon||Weinberger later served as Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare under Presidents Nixon and Ford, and as Secretary of Defense under President Reagan|
|21||Roy Ash||February 2, 1973 – February 3, 1975||Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford|
|22||James T. Lynn||February 10, 1975 – January 20, 1977||Gerald Ford||Lynn left to head Aetna Insurance|
|23||Bert Lance||January 21, 1977 – September 23, 1977||Jimmy Carter||Lance resigned amid a corruption scandal|
|24||James T. McIntyre||September 24, 1977 – January 20, 1981||Jimmy Carter|
|25||David Stockman||January 21, 1981 – August 1, 1985||Ronald Reagan|
|26||James C. Miller III||October 8, 1985 – October 15, 1988||Ronald Reagan|
|27||Joseph R. Wright, Jr.||October 16, 1988 – January 20, 1989||Ronald Reagan|
|28||Richard Darman||January 25, 1989 – January 20, 1993||George H. W. Bush|
|29||Leon Panetta||January 21, 1993 – October 1994||Bill Clinton||Panetta became President Clinton's Chief of Staff and serves under President Barack Obama as Director of the Central Intelligence Agency and United States Secretary of Defense|
|30||Alice Rivlin||October 17, 1994 – April 26, 1996||Bill Clinton||Rivlin became a governor of the Federal Reserve after leaving OMB|
|31||Franklin D. Raines||September 13, 1996 – May 21, 1998||Bill Clinton||Raines became CEO of Fannie Mae|
|32||Jacob Lew||May 21, 1998 – January 19, 2001||Bill Clinton||Jacob Lew served as deputy director of OMB from 1995 to 1998 and would serve as director again under Obama from 2010 to 2012|
|33||Mitch Daniels||January 23, 2001 – June 6, 2003||George W. Bush||Daniels left and successfully ran for governor of Indiana|
|34||Joshua B. Bolten||June 26, 2003 – April 15, 2006||George W. Bush||Bolten became President Bush's Chief of Staff|
|35||Rob Portman||May 26, 2006 – June 19, 2007||George W. Bush||Portman had previously served President Bush as United States Trade Representative and was elected to the U.S. Senate from Ohio in 2010.|
|36||Jim Nussle||September 4, 2007 – January 20, 2009||George W. Bush|
|37||Peter Orszag||January 20, 2009 – July 30, 2010||Barack Obama|
|37||Jeffrey Zients||July 30, 2010 – November 18, 2010||Barack Obama||Acting Director during remainder of Orszag's term|
|38||Jacob Lew||November 18, 2010 – January 27, 2012||Barack Obama||Previously served under Clinton from 1998 to 2001 and resigned to become Chief of Staff|
|39||Jeffrey Zients||January 27, 2012 – present||Barack Obama||Acting Director during remainder of Lew's term|
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