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Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.
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|Order of Australia|
|Awarded by the
Queen of Australia
|Eligibility||All living Australian citizens|
|Awarded for||Achievement and merit in service to Australia or humanity.|
|Grades (w/ post-nominals)||Knight/Dame (AK/AD)
General or Military Division,
or as an Honorary award.
|Established||14 February 1975|
|First induction||21 April 1975|
|Total inductees||(General & Military Divisions)
AK - 12
AD - 2
AC - 396
AO - 2,168
AM - 7,749
OAM - 17,610
|Ribbons: general (upper), military (lower)|
The Order of Australia is an order of chivalry established on 14 February 1975 by Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia, to recognize Australian citizens and other persons for achievement or for meritorious service. Before the establishment of the Order, Australian citizens received British honours.
The Order is divided into general and military divisions, with the following grades in descending order of seniority:
The Order was established on 14 February 1975 by letters patent of Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia, and countersigned by the then Prime Minister Gough Whitlam. The original Order had only three grades: Companion (AC), Officer (AO), and Member (AM).
Following his 1983 election, Prime Minister Bob Hawke abolished the Knight and Dame categories. On 3 March 1986, the Queen co-signed letters patent revoking the category of Knight or Dame. Existing Knights and Dames were not affected by this change.
The Queen of Australia is Sovereign Head of the Order while the Governor-General is Principal Companion and Chancellor of the Order. The Governor-General's Official Secretary is Secretary of the Order.
The Order of Australia is modelled closely upon the Order of Canada. However, when compared with the Order of Canada, the Order of Australia has been awarded rather more liberally, especially in regard to honorary awards to foreigners. To date, only 18 non-Canadians have been appointed to the Order of Canada, while more than 275 non-Australians have been appointed to the Order of Australia, with more than 30 to the "Companion" grade.
The Order consists of four grades and a medal, in both general and military divisions. Knight/Damehood of the Order was made in the general division only.
While State Governors can present the Officer, Member and Medal of the Order of Australia to their respective state's residents, only the Queen of Australia or Governor-General can present the Companion grade of the order.
The different grades of the Order are awarded according to the recipients' levels of achievement:
General Division - 'Eminent achievement and merit of the highest degree in service to Australia or to humanity at large'.
Military Division - ' Eminent service in duties of great responsibility'.
Excluding honorary appointments, no more than 25 Companions are appointed in any calendar year.
General Division - 'Distinguished service of a high degree to Australia or to humanity at large'.
Military Division - 'Distinguished service in responsible positions'.
The quota is set at 100 Officers appointed in any calendar year.
General Division - 'Service in a particular locality or field of activity or to a particular group'.
Military Division - 'Exceptional service or performance of duty'.
The quota is set at 225 Members appointed in any calendar year.
General Division - 'Service worthy of particular recognition'.
Military Division - 'Meritorious service or performance of duty'.
There are no quota limits on awards of the Medal of the Order.
Any person may nominate any Australian citizen for an award. The nominations are reviewed by the Council for the Order of Australia, and then approved by the Governor-General. The Order is awarded twice annually: on Australia Day, and on the Queen's Birthday public holiday in June, when public announcements are made about new awards.
People who are not Australian citizens may be awarded honorary membership of the Order at either the Companion, Officer or Member level. All awards of the Medal of the Order are substantive, regardless of the citizenship of the recipient.
Appointments to the Order are not made posthumously; however, if a nominee dies after accepting an appointment but before the relevant announcement date, the appointment still stands and it is announced as having effect from no later than the date of the nominee's death.
The badge of the Order of Australia is a convex disc (gold for AKs, ADs and ACs, gilt for AOs, AMs and OAMs) representing the Golden Wattle flower. At the centre is a ring, representing the sea, with the word 'Australia' below two branches of golden wattle. The whole disc is topped by the Royal crown of St Edward. The AC badge is decorated with citrines, blue enamelled ring, and enamelled crown. The AO badge is similar, without the citrines. For the AM badge only the crown is enamelled, and the OAM badge is plain. The AK/AD badge is similar to that of the AC badge, but with the difference that it contains at the centre an enamelled disc bearing an image of the Coat of arms of Australia.
The star for knights and dames is a convex golden disc decorated with citrines, with a blue royally crowned inner disc bearing an image of the Coat of arms of Australia.
The ribbon of the Order is blue with a central stripe of golden wattle flower designs; that of the military division has additional golden edge stripes. AKs, male ACs and AOs wear their badges on a necklet; male AMs and OAMs wear them on a ribbon on the left chest. Women usually wear their badges on a bow on the left shoulder, although they may wear the same insignia as males, if so desired.
A gold lapel pin for daily wear is issued with each badge of the Order at the time of investiture; AK/AD and AC lapel pins feature a citrine central jewel, AO and AM lapel pins have a blue enamelled centre, and OAM lapel pins are plain.
The Order's insignia were designed by Stuart Devlin.
The category of Knight (AK) or Dame (AD) of the order was created by Letters Patent issued by Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia on 24 May 1976 on advice from the Fraser Liberal-National government and was discontinued by her on 3 March 1986 on controversial advice from the Hawke Labor government (the Australian Labor Party does not support the awarding of titles). Existing knights and dames were not affected by the removal of the category from the Letters Patent.
During this period, twelve knights and two dames were created, of whom ten of the knights and both of the dames are now deceased.
This is a complete list of the knights and dames of the Order of Australia. It is shown in order of appointment; living knights are shown in bold:
|Name||Known for||Date of appointment||Date of death|
|Sir John Kerr AK GCMG GCVO||Governor-General 1974-77||24 May 1976||24 March 1991|
|Sir Robert Menzies KT AK CH QC||Prime Minister 1939-41, 1949-66||7 June 1976||15 May 1978|
|Sir Colin Syme AK||Industrialist||6 June 1977||1986|
|Sir Zelman Cowen AK GCMG GCVO QC||Governor-General 1977-82||8 December 1977||8 December 2011|
|Sir MacFarlane Burnet OM AK KBE||Immunologist, Nobel laureate||26 January 1978||31 August 1985|
|Dame Alexandra Hasluck AD||Historian||6 June 1978||18 June 1993|
|Dame Enid Lyons AD GBE||Politician||26 January 1980||2 September 1981|
|HRH The Prince of Wales KG KT GCB OM AK QSO CD PC||Royalty, Heir apparent||14 March 1981||living (age 63)|
|Sir Roden Cutler VC AK KCMG KCVO CBE||Soldier, Governor of New South Wales 1966-81||7 April 1981||22 February 2002|
|Sir Garfield Barwick AK GCMG||Chief Justice of Australia 1964-81||8 June 1981||14 July 1997|
|Sir Charles Court AK KCMG OBE||Premier of Western Australia 1974-82||14 June 1982||22 December 2007|
|Sir Ninian Stephen KG AK GCMG GCVO KBE QC||High Court Judge, Governor-General 1982-89||29 July 1982||living (age 89)|
|Sir Roy Wright AK||Physiologist||26 January 1983||28 February 1990|
|Sir Gordon Jackson AK||Industrialist||13 June 1983||1 June 1991|
In December 2010 The Age reported a study of the educational backgrounds of all people who had received Knight/Dame and Companion level awards at that time. It reported that "An analysis of the 435 people who have received the nation's top Order of Australia honours since they were first awarded in 1975, shows they disproportionately attended a handful of elite Victorian secondary schools. Scotch College alumni blitzed the field, with 19 former students receiving Australia's highest honour".
On 26 January 1980 recipients of awards in the Order formed the Order of Australia Association. This organisation seeks to aid the members of the Order in their pursuits related to the development and maintenance of Australia's culture and traditions. The organisation also attempts to increase awareness of those honoured by the Order, since many of their number are not household names, despite their contributions. Branches of the Association can be found in all the states and territories of Australia.
Awards in the Order of Australia are sometimes made to people who are not citizens of Australia, to honour extraordinary achievements. These achievements, or the people themselves, are not necessarily associated with Australia, although they often are. On 11 July 2010, the Australian Honours website listed appointments for 34 Honorary Companions, 67 Honorary Officers, 86 Honorary Members of the Order of Australia and the award of 88 Honorary Medals of the Order of Australia. Notable honorary awards include:
Prince Charles was appointed a Knight of the Order (AK) on 14 March 1981. As he is not an Australian citizen, this would have required the award to be honorary. To overcome this issue, his appointment was created by amendment to the Constitution of the Order of Australia by special Letters Patent signed by The Queen. Hence, the Prince of Wales is a full member in the General Division, not an honorary appointment.
The award is parodied in the play Amigos, where the central character is determined to be awarded the AC, and uses persuasion, bribery and blackmail in his (ultimately successful) attempts to get himself nominated for the award.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Order of Australia|