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definition - Oromo_people

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Oromo people

                   
Oromo
Oromoo
Oromo people.jpg
Total population
30,000,000[2]
Regions with significant populations
 Ethiopia 25,489,000 [3]
 Kenya 818,000 [4]
 Somalia 256,300 [5]
 Yemen 189,000
 United States 150,563
 Germany 90,000
 Great Britain 28,000
 Djibouti 25,664
 Canada 17,580 [6]
 Australia 12,000
 Saudi Arabia 10,000
 Egypt 3,100 [7]
Languages

Oromo

Religion

Sunni Islam 47.5%, Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity 30.5%, Protestant Christianity 17.7%, Traditional Belief 3.3%

Related ethnic groups

AfarAgawBejaSahoSomali

The Oromo (Oromo: Oromoo, "The Powerful"; Ge'ez: ኦሮሞ, ’Oromo) are an ethnic group found in Ethiopia, northern Kenya, and parts of Somalia.[8] With 30 million members, they constitute the single largest ethnicity in Ethiopia and approximately 34.49% of the population according to the 2007 census.[3][9] Their native language is Oromo (also called Afaan Oromoo and Oromiffa), which is part of the Cushitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family.

Contents

  Origins

Oromos are the largest Cushitic-speaking group of people living in Northeast and East Africa. Available information suggests that they have existed as a community in the Horn of Africa for several millenia (Prouty et al., 1981). Bates (1979) contends that the Oromo "were a very ancient race, the indigenous stock, perhaps, on which most other peoples in this part of eastern Africa have been grafted".

While further research is needed to precisely comprehend their origins, the Oromo are believed to have originally adhered to a pastoralist/nomadic and/or semi-agriculturalist lifestyle. Many historians agree that some Oromo clans (Bale) have lived in the southern tip of present-day Ethiopia for over a millennium. They suggest that a great Oromo migration brought most Oromos to present-day central and western Ethiopia in the 16th and 17th centuries.[10] Historical maps of the ancient Aksum/Abyssinia empire and Adal/Somali empires indicate that Oromo people are newcomers to most of modern-day central Ethiopia.

  Recent history

Historically, the Afaan Oromo speaking people used the indigenous Gadaa system of governance. Many Oromo communities – most notably Gibe Kingdoms, around Jimma – gradually adopted monarchy and other forms of governance in the later centuries of the 2nd millennium. Such changes occurred due to the growing influence of Islam from the east and Orthodox Christianity from the north as well as power struggles between opposing Oromo communities.

Historically, both peaceful and violent competition and integration between Oromos and other neighboring ethnicities such as the Amhara, Sidama and the Somali had an impact on politics within the Oromo community. The northern expansion of the Oromos such as the Yejju and, in particular the Arsi, to ethnic Somali and Sidama territories mirrored the southern expansion of Amharas, and helped influence contemporary ethnic politics in Ethiopia.[11] Also the great Somali expansion from the Ogaden plains west towards the Juba river led to conflicts with the Oromo.[12]

In some cases, Oromos and Somalis were in competition for good lands and water resources historically. In addition, Eastern Oromos who were converted to Islam ruled over most of Ethiopia together with Afars and Somalis when Horn of African Muslims who were united and led by Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrihim al-Ghazi conquered a majority of Christian Ethiopian highlands.[12]

Historian Pankhurst stated that before the coming of European powers and the creation of centralized Ethiopia, the area presently known as Ethiopia, Eritrea and Somalia:

Constituted a galaxy of states and polities, each moving in its own orbit, but significantly affecting, and affected by, the other entities in the constellation. Each ruler kept a watchful eye on his neighbors but would often exchange gifts and courtesies with them unless actually at war. Dynastic marriages were made whenever practicable, though these only occasionally crossed barriers of religion. Commerce, on the other hand, made little distinction between faith, and trade routes linked traditionalist, Christian and Muslim localities. Ethnic and linguistic communities remained largely distinct, but there was much cross-fertilization of cultures. This was true not only off the Ethiopian highlands and the Red Sea coastlands, but also further south along the Somali-Oromo frontier where later nineteenth century travelers reported the existence of bilingual trading communities.[12]

  Oromo ruler Iyasu V (Lij Iyasu), Emperor of Ethiopia from 1913–16.

In the first decades of the 19th century, three Oromo monarchies, Enarya, Goma and Guma, rose to prominence.[12] In the general view of Oromo people's role in Ethiopia, Ras Gobana Dacche is a famous Oromo figure who led the development of modern Ethiopia and the political and miliatary incorporation of more territories into Ethiopian borders.[13][14] Gobana under the authority of Menelik II incorporated several Oromo territories into a centralized Ethiopian state. Some contemporary ethno-nationalist Oromo political groups refer to Gobana in a negative light. Though, before military integration; present day Ethiopia, Eritrea, and parts of Somalia were previously and extensively linked commercially by local, long-distance and trans-frontier trade routes. These commercial routes connected Bonga, Jimma, Seqa, Assandabo, Gojjam, Begemder, Maramma, Massawa, Soddo, Shewa, Harar, Zeila and Berbera.[12] Some Oromo writers believe that the Oromo Ras Gobena and the Amhara Menelik II were the first two people in Ethiopia with the concept of national boundary that brought various different ethno-linguistic communities under a politically and militarily centralized rule.[15]

"The two most important historical figures who signify the introduction of the concepts of national boundary and sovereignty in Ethiopia are Emperor Menelik II and Ras Gobana Dachi, who used guns manufactured in Europe to bring a large swath of Biyas (regions/nations) under a centralized rule."

Ethnically mixed Ethiopians with Oromo background made up a little percentage of Ethiopian generals and leaders.[16] The Wollo Oromo (particularly the Raya Oromo and Yejju Oromo) were early Oromo holders of power among the increasingly mixed Ethiopian state. The later north-to-south movement of central power in Ethiopia led to Oromos in Shewa holding power in Ethiopia together with the Shewan Amhara.[17]

"In terms of descent, the group that became politically dominant in Shewa – and Subsequently in Ethiopia – was a mixture of Amhara and Oromo; in terms of language, religion and cultural practices, it was Amhara."[18]

Nonetheless, in many cases Oromo became part of the Ethiopian nobility without losing their identity.[19] Both ethnically mixed Oromos and those with full Oromo descent held high leadership positions in Ethiopia. Notably Iyasu V was the designated but uncrowned Emperor of Ethiopia (1913–1916), while Haile Selassie I was the crowned and generally acknowledged Emperor of Ethiopia from 1930 to 1974. Both these Ethiopian Emperors are ethnically mixed, with Oromo parents and lineages.[20] Haile Selassie's mother was paternally of Oromo descent and maternally of Gurage heritage, while his father was paternally Oromo and maternally Amhara. He consequently would have been considered Oromo in a patrilineal society, and would have been viewed as Gurage in a matrilineal one. However, in the main, Haile Selassie was regarded as Amhara: his paternal grandmother's royal lineage, through which he was able to ascend to the Imperial throne.[21]

During the Zemene Mesafint or "Age of Princes" of Ethiopia, Emperors became figureheads, controlled by warlords like Ras Mikael Sehul of Tigray, and by the Oromo Yejju dynasty, which later led to 17th century Oromo rule of Gondar, changing the language of the court from Amharic to Afaan Oromo.[22][23] By the 1880s, Sahle Selassie, king of Shewa (the later Emperor Menelik II) allied with Ras Gobena's Shewan Oromo militia to expand his kingdom to the South and East, expanding into areas that hadn't been held together since the invasion of Ahmed Gragn.[24] Another famous leader of Ethiopia with Oromo descent was Ras Makonnen Woldemikael Gudessa, the governor of Harar who served as the top general in the First Italo–Ethiopian War, playing a key role at the Battle of Adwa. He is the father of Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie I.[25]

In 1973, Oromo discontent with their position led to the formation of the Oromo Liberation Front (OLF), which began political agitation in the Oromo areas. Also in 1973 there was a catastrophic famine in which over one quarter of a million people died from starvation before the government recognised the disaster and permitted relief measures. The majority who died were Oromos from Wollo, Afars and Tigrayans. There were strikes and demonstrations in Addis Ababa in 1974; and in February of that year, Haile Selassie’s government was replaced by the Derg, a military junta led by Mengistu Hailemariam; but the Council was still Amhara-dominated, with only 25 non-Amhara members out of 125. In 1975 the government declared all rural land State-owned, and announced the end of the tenancy system. However, much of the benefit of this reform was counteracted by compulsive collectivization, State farms and forced resettlement programmes.

In December 2009, a 96-page report titled Human Rights in Ethiopia: Through the Eyes of the Oromo Diaspora, compiled by the Advocates for Human Rights, documented human rights violations against the Oromo in Ethiopia under three successive regimes: the Abyssinian Empire under Haile Selassie, the Marxist Derg and the current Ethiopian government of the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), dominated by members of the Tigray People’s Liberation Front (TPLF) and which was accused to have arrested approximately 20,000 suspected OLF members, to have driven most OLF leadership into exile, and to have effectively neutralized the OLF as a political force in Ethiopia.

According to OHCHR, the Oromia Support Group (OSG) recorded 594 extra-judicial killings of Oromos by Ethiopian government security forces and 43 disappearances in custody between 2005 and August 2008.[26]

  Demographics

The Oromo people are the largest ethnic grouping in Ethiopia, which has a total of 74 ethnically diverse language groups. About 95% are settled agriculturalists and nomadic pastoralists, practising archaic farming methods and living at subsistence level. A few live in the urban centres.

Oromos today are mainly concentrated in the Oromia region in central Ethiopia, which is the largest region in the country in terms of both population and size. Group members also have a notable presence in northern Kenya.

  Subgroups

  Map of Ethiopia highlighting the Oromia Region

The Oromo are divided into two major branches that break down into an assortment of clan families. From west to east. The Borana Oromo, also called the Boran, are a pastoralist group living in southern Ethiopia (Oromia) and northern Kenya.[27][28] The Boran inhabit the former provinces of Shewa, Welega, Illubabor, Kafa, Jimma, Sidamo, northern and northeastern Kenya, and in Somalia. Bareentu/Bareento or (older) Bareentuma is one of the two moieties of the Oromo people. The other being the Borana. The Barentu Oromo inhabit the eastern parts of the Oromia Region in Ethiopia. The Zones of Mirab (West) Hararghe Zone and Misraq (East) Hararghe Zone, Arsi Zone, Bale Zone, Misraq (East) Shewa Zone, Dire Dawa region, the Jijiga Zone of the Somali Region, Administrative Zone 3 of the Afar Region, Oromia Zone of the Amhara Region, and also found in the Raya Azebo woreda in the Tigray Region.

  Sub groups

  Oromo distance running champion Kenenisa Bekele.
  Oromo track and field athlete Maryam Yusuf Jamal.

The Oromo are divided into two major branches that break down into an assortment of clan families. From west to east and north to south, these subgroups are as listed:

The Borana which include:

  • Samaalo
    • Walaabuu
      • Rayyaa
        • Karrayyuu, who live along the Awash valley in east Shawa as well as West Hararge
        • Walloo
        • Macca Oromo, living between Didessa River and the Omo River, and south into the Gibe region
          • Sirba
          • Libaan
          • Jaawwii
          • Daal'ee
          • Jiddaa
        • Tulama Oromo, who live in the Oromia Region around Addis Ababa
          • Daaccii
            • Oboo
              • Diigaluu
              • Eekka
              • Guulaalee
              • Gumbichuu
              • Konnoo
              • Yaayee
            • Galaan
              • Aabuu
              • Adaa
              • Gaduulaa
              • Jaarsoo
              • Jiddaa
              • Libaan
            • Soddo
              • Libaan
              • Odituu
              • Tummee
          • Bachoo
            • Garasuu
            • Illu
            • Meexaa
            • Uruu
            • Waajituu
          • Jiillee
  • Ormaa
    • Dayyaa
    • Komboo
      • The Guji Oromo, who are inhabiting the southern part of Oromia, neighboring the Borana Guttuu and the Sidama People.
        • Hokkuu
        • Maaxii
        • Uragaa
  • The Borana Oromo, also known as Boraan Guttuu, who live in the Borena Zone, which includes Moyale. They also live in Kenya and parts of Somalia.
  • The Gabra Oromo, who live in north Kenya along the Moyale border region
  • The Orma people, who live in southern Somalia, and North Eastern Kenya

And countless subdivisions.

The Bareento/Bareentuma which include:

  • The Walloo Oromo, who are the northernmost group, and live predominantly in the Oromia Zone of the Amhara Region, as far north as Lake Ashenge, and are also found in the southern Raya Azebo woreda in the Tigray Region.
    • Warra Baboo
    • Warra Illu
    • Warra Himanoo
    • Warra Qallu
    • Warra Qoboo
    • Warra Rayyaa
    • Warra Wayyuu
    • Warra Yejju
  • The Marawa Oromo, who live in the Western part of the Harargee zone.
    • Ittu Oromo
      • Galaan Ittu
        • Warra Alga
        • Warra Babbu
        • Warra Gaduulaa
        • Warra Gaammoo
      • Kurraa Ittu
        • Warra Addayyoo
        • Warra Arojji
        • Warra Bayye
        • Warra Wacallee
        • Warra Wayye
        • Warra Qallu
  • The Afran Qallo which refers to the 4 decedents of Qallo, who are:[29]
    • Ala Oromo, living west of the city of Harar and the Erer River
      • Warra Abbadho
      • Warra Abbayi
      • Warra Arroojji
      • Warra Dirammuu
      • Warra Erer
      • Warra Galaan
      • Warra Meettaa
      • Warra Nunnu
      • Warra Sirbaa
      • Warra Tulamma
    • Oborra Oromo, living between Ituu and Ala Oromo
    • Babille Oromo, living east of the Erer River in the Oromia Region
      • Hawiyaa
        • Gurgaate
        • Gungudhaabe
        • Jambeele
        • Haaskul
        • Karaanle
    • Dagaa Oromo, who live in and east of Dire Dawa, north of Harar, and as far as the northeastern corner of the Oromia Region
      • Huumee Oromo, who live between Laaftoo and Faafam rivers-the capital is Fuunyaan biiraa Gursum
        • Warra Hiyyoo
        • Warra Bursuug
      • Jaarsoo Oromo
        • Warra Walaabuu
        • Warra Sayyo
        • Warra Ogaa
        • Warra Ugadhiiho
        • Warra Dowaarro
        • Warra Dhaanqa
        • Akichu Oromo, Also go by the name Akisho, who have been assimilated into the neighboring Somalis
          • Warra Miyyoo
          • Wara Bitto
          • Warra Daayyo
          • Warra Luujo
          • Warra Ittu
          • Warra Kiyyo
          • Warra Heebaana
          • Warra Kurto
          • Warra Obo
          • Warra Igoo
          • Warra Asaabo
          • Warra Ejjoo
      • Noolee Oromo
        • Warra Haalele
        • Warra Gatoo
        • Warra Fatoo
          • Manaa Usmaan
          • Manaa Omaar
          • Manaa Mahammad
  • The Ambo(Ambato)
    • Arsi Oromo, who primarily live in the Arsi Zone of the Oromia Region (which is named for them) as well as the Bale Zone
      • Mandoo Arsi
        • Warra Buulalaa
        • Warra Wacalee
        • Warra Waajii
        • Warra Ilaan
        • Warra Hawaxa
        • Warra Utaa
        • Warra Jawwii
      • Sikko Arsi
        • Warra Waayyuu
        • Warra Harawaa
        • Warra Biltuu
        • Warra Kajawaa
        • Warra Rayyaa
  • The Humbannaa Oromo, who live south of the Ittu and west of the Erer River;
    • Aniyaa Oromo
      • Warra Aanaa
      • Warra Baboo
      • Warra Biduu
      • Warra Dambu
      • Warra Kolee
      • Warra Maccaa
      • Warra Malkaa
  • Dhumuga Oromo
    • Warra Heela
    • Warra Akkiyaa
    • Warra Kajaammo
    • Warra Heebaana
    • Warra Asallaa

There are additional subdivisions:

  Nomenclature

The Oromo were formerly called Galla by non-Oromo Ethiopians, and one may encounter this name in older texts, but it is considered a pejorative term. Historically, some people among the northern Amhara community used the label "Galla" derogatorily to label Oromos as well as to label Shewan or southern Amharas who were mostly mixed with Oromo.[30]

However, when Charles Tutschek, writing in the mid-19th century, researched the Oromo, "his informants, according to their published letters, used Galla as a term of self-reference."[31]

During the 5 years of Italian rule over the whole Horn of Africa (a colony in Eritrea was set by Rome in 1870 and Ethiopia occupied in 1936), Italian geographers accurately mapped the population of their colony and eventually referred to the Oromos preferably as Gallas in all the official maps as well as in a guide-book still available nowadays called "Guida all Africa Orientale Italiana" ("A Guide-Book to Italian Eastern Africa"). The books stated the term Oromo was simply an alternative to Galla.

Often in the past, some Oromo communities used Galla to label themselves, as was exemplified by western Oromo leaders who established the "Western Galla Confederation" in the 1930s.[32] The name has fallen into disfavor and is now considered to be pejorative, possibly because of a folk etymology for "Galla" (that it came from Qal la or "قال لا," pronounced similar to Gal la, Arabic for "he said no") that implies they refused Muhammad's offer to convert to Islam. In the Somali language, the word gaal means "non-Muslim" or "stranger", a possible reference to the Oromo and their old pagan religion.[33]

  Society and culture

  Gadaa

Oromo society was traditionally structured in accordance with Gadaa, a social stratification system partially based on an eight-year cycle of age sets. However, over the centuries, the age sets grew out-of-alignment with the actual ages of their members, and some time in the 19th century, another age set system was instituted. Under gadaa, every eight years, the Oromo would hold a popular assembly called the Gumi Gayo, where laws were established for the following eight years. A democratically elected leader, the Abba Gada, presided over the system for an eight-year term. Gadaa is no longer in wide practice but remains influential.

In a short article, Geoffrey W. Arnott described an Oromo rite of passage in which young men run over the backs of bulls surrounded by the village community.[34][dubious ]

  Religion

Religions of the Oromo
religion percent
Islam
  
47.5%
Orthodox Christianity
  
30.5%
Protestant Christianity
  
17.7%
Traditional
  
3.3%

Waaq (also Waq or Waaqa) is the name of God in the traditional Oromo religion.

In the 2007 Ethiopian census in the 88% Oromo region of Oromia, 47.5% were Muslims, 30.5% Orthodox Christians, 17.7% Protestant Christian, 3.3% Traditional.[35] Protestant Christianity is the fastest growing religion inside the Oromo community. In urban areas of Oromia, Orthodox Christianity constitute 51.2% of the population, followed by Islam 29.9% and Protestants 17.5%.[36] But adherence to traditional practices and rituals is still common among many Oromo people regardless of religious background.[37]

  Calendar

It is believed that the Oromo developed their own calendar around 300 BCE. The Oromo calendar is a lunar-stellar calendrical system, relying on astronomical observations of the moon in conjunction with seven particular stars or constellations. Borana Months (Stars/Lunar Phases) are Bittottessa (iangulum), Camsa (Pleiades), Bufa (Aldebarran), Waxabajjii (Belletrix), Obora Gudda (Central Orion-Saiph), Obora Dikka (Sirius), Birra (full moon), Cikawa (gibbous moon), Sadasaa (quarter moon), Abrasa (large crescent), Ammaji (medium crescent), and Gurrandala (small crescent).[38]

  Current

Most Oromos do not have political unity today due to their historical roles in the Ethiopian state and the region, the spread out movement of different Oromo clans, and the differing religions inside the Oromo nation.[39] Accordingly, Oromos played major roles in all three main political movements in Ethiopia (centralist, federalist and secessionist) during the 19th and 20th century. In addition to holding high powers during the centralist government and the monarchy, the Raya Oromos in Tigray played a major role in the revolt inside the Tigray regional state, known as "Weyane" revolt, challenging Emperor Haile Selassie I's rule in the 1940s.[40] Simultaneously, both federalist and secessionist political forces developed inside the Oromo community.

Presently, a number of ethnic based political organizations have been formed to promote the interests of the Oromo. The first was the Mecha and Tulama Self-Help Organization, founded in January 1963, but was disbanded by the government after several increasingly tense confrontations in November, 1966.[41] Later groups include the Oromo Liberation Front (OLF), Oromo Federalist Democratic Movement (OFDM), the United Liberation Forces of Oromia (ULFO), the Islamic Front for the Liberation of Oromia (IFLO), the Oromia Liberation Council (OLC), the Oromo National Congress (ONC, recently changed to OPC) and others. Another group, the Oromo People's Democratic Organization (OPDO), is one of the four parties that form the ruling Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) coalition. However, these Oromo groups do not act in unity: the ONC, for example, was part of the United Ethiopian Democratic Forces coalition that challenged the EPRDF in the Ethiopian general elections of 2005.

A number of these groups seek to create an independent Oromo nation, some using armed force. Meanwhile, the ruling OPDO and several opposition political parties in the Ethiopian parliament believe in the unity of the country which has 80 different ethnicities. But most Oromo opposition parties in Ethiopia condemn the economic and political inequalities in the country. Progress has been very slow with the Oromia International Bank just recently established in 2008 though Oromo owned Awash International Bank started early in the 1990s and with the first private Afaan Oromoo newspaper in Ethiopia, Jimma Times, also known as Yeroo, recently established. Though the Jimma Times – Yeroo newspaper has faced a lot of harassment and persecution from the Ethiopian government since its beginning.[42][43][44][45][46] Abuse of Oromo media is widespread in Ethiopia and reflective of the general oppression Oromos face in the country.[47] University departments in Ethiopia did not establish curriculum in Afaan Oromo until the late 1990s.

Various human rights organizations have publicized the government persecution of Oromos in Ethiopia for decades. In 2008, OFDM opposition party condemned the government's indirect role in the death of hundreds of Oromos in western Ethiopia.[48]

  See also

  References

  1. ^ Haile Selassie's mother was paternally of Oromo descent and maternally of Gurage heritage, while his father was paternally Oromo and maternally Amhara. He consequently would have been considered Oromo in a patrilineal society, and would have been viewed as Gurage in a matrilineal one. However, in the main, Haile Selassie was regarded as Amhara: his paternal grandmother's royal lineage, through which he was able to ascend to the Imperial throne (see history).
  2. ^ Oromo people, Joshua Project
  3. ^ a b Central Statistical Agency (2008). "TABEL [sic] 5: Population size of Regions by Nations/Nationalities (ethnic group) and Place of Residence: 2007" (PDF). Census 2007. Addis Ababa: Central Statistical Agency. p. 66. http://www.csa.gov.et/pdf/Cen2007_firstdraft.pdf. 
  4. ^ "Ajuran, Garreh, Orma, Oromo-Boran, Oromo-Sakuye, Oromo-Gabbra, Rendille". http://www.joshuaproject.net/countries.php?rog3=KE&sf=population&so=asc. 
  5. ^ Oromo-Tulama, Oromo-Southern
  6. ^ Statistics Canada – Ethnocultural Portrait of Canada Highlight Tables, 2006 Census
  7. ^ Oromo-Tulama
  8. ^ Merriam-Webster Inc, Frederick C. Mish, Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, (Merriam-Webster: 2003), p.876
  9. ^ The CSA estimates a population growth of 7.6% between the time the census was conducted and the date of its approval: "Ethiopia population soars to near 77 million: census". Google News. AFP. 4 December 2008. http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5i-WtiPcdGx83wuVl-kZ8ZT8tQGRg. Retrieved 5 December 2008. "'We carried out a census in May 2007 and it shows that there were 73,918,505 people at that time,' Central Statistics Agency chief Samya Zakarya told AFP.'But based on a projection of an annual growth rate of 7.6 percent, Ethiopia's population up to this month is 76,947,760.'" 
  10. ^ Oromo migration to central Ethiopia
  11. ^ Oromo and Amhara rule in Ethiopia
  12. ^ a b c d e W.A. Degu, "Chapter 7 Political Development in the Pre-colonial Horn of Africa", The state, the crisis of state institutions and refugee migration in the Horn of Africa: the cases of Ethiopia, Sudan and Somalia, Thela Thesis (Amsterdam, 2002)
  13. ^ Ras Gobena victory against Gurage militia
  14. ^ Donald Levine, Greater Ethiopia, the Evolution of a multicultural society (University of Chicago Press: 1974)
  15. ^ Gobana Dache’s Participation in Building Ethiopia
  16. ^ Union of Amhara and Oromo in royal families
  17. ^ Oromo in Ethiopian leadership
  18. ^ Background and consequence of Oromos in Ethiopian leadership
  19. ^ Ethiopian Oroo nobility
  20. ^ Kjetil Tronvoll, Ethiopia, a new start?, (Minority Rights Group: 2000)
  21. ^ Peter Woodward, Conflict and peace in the Horn of Africa: federalism and its alternatives, (Dartmouth Pub. Co.: 1994), p.29.
  22. ^ Pankhurst, Richard, The Ethiopian Royal Chronicles, (London:Oxford University Press, 1967), pp. 139–43.
  23. ^ 17th century Oromo rule of Gondar
  24. ^ Great Britain and Ethiopia 1897–1910: Competition for Empire Edward C. Keefer, International Journal of African Studies Vol. 6 No. 3 (1973) page 470
  25. ^ Haile Selassie I, My Life and Ethiopia's Progress: The Autobiography of Emperor Haile Sellassie I, translated from Amharic by Edward Ullendorff. (New York: Frontline Books, 1999), vol. 1 p. 13
  26. ^ "Human rights abuses under EPRDF". http://lib.ohchr.org/HRBodies/UPR/Documents/Session6/ET/A_HRC_WG6_6_ETH_3_E.pdf. 
  27. ^ "Oromo, Borana-Arsi-Guji". ethnologue.com). http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=gax. 
  28. ^ Aguilar, Mario. "The Eagle as Messenger, Pilgrim and Voice: Divinatory Processes among the Waso Boorana of Kenya". Journal of Religion in Africa, Vol. 26, Fasc. 1 (Feb., 1996), pp. 56–72. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-4200%28199602%2926%3A1%3C56%3ATEAMPA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-C&size=LARGE&origin=JSTOR-enlargePage. Retrieved 27 October 2007. 
  29. ^ S. Waldron, "The political economy of Harari–Oromo relationships (1554–1975)", p. 7 (Forced migration Online website, accessed 3 July 2009)
  30. ^ northern Amhara regarded the Shewans as "Galla"
  31. ^ Baxter, P.T.W.; Hultin, Jan; Triulzi, Alessandro. Being and Becoming Oromo: Historical and Anthropological Enquiries. (United States:Red Sea Press, Inc.: 1996), p.107.
  32. ^ Oromos seek recognition for "Western Galla Confederation" ~1936
  33. ^ Paul Trevor William Baxter et al., Being and Becoming Oromo: Historical and Anthropological Enquiries, (Nordic Africa Institute: 1996), p.109
  34. ^ Arnott, "Bull Leaping as Inititation Ritual," Liverpool Classical Monthly 18 (1993), pp. 114–116
  35. ^ 2007 Census http://www.csa.gov.et/pdf/Cen2007_firstdraft.pdf
  36. ^ Ethiopian Population Census Commission. "Summary and Statistical Report of the 2007 Population and Housing Cencus". United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). http://www.csa.gov.et/pdf/Cen2007_firstdraft.pdf. Retrieved 28 July 2010. 
  37. ^ People of Africa reference
  38. ^ Doyle, Lawrence R. "The Borana Calendar Reinterpreted". http://www.tusker.com/Archaeo/art.currentanthro.htm. 
  39. ^ Migrations profoundly affected the Oromo unity
  40. ^ Raya Oromos inside the Weyane revolt of Tigray
  41. ^ Bahru Zewde, A History of Modern Ethiopia: 1855–1991, 2nd edition (Oxford: James Currey, 2001), pp. 261f.
  42. ^ Govt. continues rejecting license for Jimma Times Afaan Oromoo newspaper
  43. ^ Ethiopia’s "government" attacks Macha-Tulama, Jimma Times media & Oromo opposition party
  44. ^ Yeroo newspaper struggles to survive
  45. ^ CJFE award nominee
  46. ^ CJEE Jimma Times profile
  47. ^ Ethiopia’s Largest Ethnicity Group Deprived of Linguistic and Cultural Sensitive Media Outlets
  48. ^ OFDM Press Release: The Massacre of May, 2008

  External links

  Further reading

   
               

 

All translations of Oromo_people


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