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P-38 Lightning

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P-38 Lightning
P-38H-5-LO, AAF Ser. No. 42-66923, of the AAF Tactical Center, Orlando Army Air Base, Florida, carrying two 1,000 lb bombs during capability tests, March 1944 [1]
RoleHeavy fighter
ManufacturerLockheed
Designed byKelly Johnson
First flight27 January 1939
Introduction1941
Retired1965 Honduran Air Force [2]
Primary usersUnited States Army Air Forces
Royal Air Force
Free French Air Force
Produced1941–45
Number built10,037[3]
Unit costUS$ 97,147 in 1944[4]
VariantsLockheed XP-49
Lockheed XP-58

The Lockheed P-38 Lightning was a World War II American fighter aircraft built by Lockheed. Developed to a United States Army Air Corps requirement, the P-38 had distinctive twin booms and a single, central nacelle containing the cockpit and armament. Named "fork-tailed devil" by the Luftwaffe and "two planes, one pilot" by the Japanese, this unique [5] aircraft was used in a number of different roles including dive bombing, level bombing, ground strafing, photo reconnaissance missions,[6] and extensively as a long-range escort fighter when equipped with drop tanks under its wings.

The P-38 was used most successfully in the Pacific Theater of Operations and the China-Burma-India Theater of Operations as the mount of America's top aces, Richard Bong (40 victories) and Thomas McGuire (38 victories). In the South West Pacific theater, the P-38 was the primary long-range fighter of United States Army Air Forces until the appearance of large numbers of P-51D Mustangs toward the end of the war.[7][8]The P-38 was probably the quietest fighter in history, the exhaust merely whispering out of the turbo exits. It was extremely forgiving, and could be mishandled in many ways, but the rate of roll was too slow for it to excel as a dogfighter. [9] The P-38 was the only American fighter aircraft in active production throughout the duration of American involvement in the war, from Pearl Harbor to VJ Day.

Design and development

Lockheed YP-38 (1943), one of 13 constructed.

Lockheed designed the P-38 in response to a February 1937 specification from the United States Army Air Corps. Circular Proposal X-608 was a set of aircraft performance goals authored by First Lieutenant Benjamin S. Kelsey (later Brigadier General) and First Lieutenant Gordon P. Saville (later General) for a twin-engine, high-altitude interceptor aircraft having "the tactical mission of interception and attack of hostile aircraft at high altitude."[10] Kelsey recalled in 1977 that he and Saville drew up the specification using the word "interceptor" as a way to bypass the inflexible Army Air Corps requirement for pursuit aircraft to carry no more than 500 lb (227 kg) of armament including ammunition, as well as the restriction of single-seat aircraft to one engine. Kelsey was looking for a minimum of 1,000 lb (454 kg) of armament.[11] Specifications called for a maximum airspeed of at least 360 mph (580 km/h) at altitude, and a climb to 20,000 ft (6,100 m) within six minutes;[12] the toughest set of specifications USAAC had presented to that date. The unbuilt Vultee XP1015 was designed to the same requirement, but was not advanced enough to merit further investigation. A similar single-engine proposal was issued at the same time: Circular Proposal X-609, in response to which the Bell P-39 Airacobra was designed.[13] Both proposals required liquid-cooled Allison V-1710 engines with turbo superchargers and tricycle landing gear.

The Lockheed design team, under the direction of Hall Hibbard and Clarence "Kelly" Johnson, considered a range of twin-engine configurations including both engines in a central fuselage with push-pull propellers.[14]

The eventual configuration was rare in terms of contemporary fighter aircraft design, with only the Fokker G.1 and later Northrop P-61 Black Widow having a similar planform. The Lockheed team chose twin booms to accommodate the tail assembly, engines, and turbo-superchargers, with a central nacelle for the pilot and armament. The nose was designed to carry two .50 in (12.7 mm) M2 Browning machine guns, with 200 rpg, two .30 in (7.62 mm) Brownings, with 500 rpg, and an Oldsmobile 37 mm (1.46 in) cannon with 15[citation needed] rounds. Clustering all the armament in the nose was unlike most other U.S. aircraft which used wing-mounted guns with trajectories set up to crisscross at one or more points in a "convergence zone." Guns mounted in the nose did not suffer from having their useful ranges limited by pattern convergence, meaning good pilots could shoot much farther. A Lightning could reliably hit targets at any range up to 1,000 yd (910 m), whereas other fighters had to pick a single convergence range between 100 and 250 yd (230 m). The clustered weapons had a "buzz saw" effect on any target at the receiving end, making the aircraft effective for strafing as well. The rate of fire on the guns was about 650 rounds per minute for the 20×110 mm cannon round (130 gram shell) at a muzzle velocity of about 2887 ft/s, and for the .50 inch machine guns (43–48 gram rounds), about 850 rpm at 2,756 ft/s velocity. Combined rate of fire was over 4,000 rpm with roughly every sixth projectile a 20 mm. Time of firing for the 20 mm cannon and .50 caliber machineguns were approximately 14 seconds and 35 seconds respectively.[15]

The Lockheed design incorporated tricycle undercarriage and a bubble canopy, and featured two 1,000 hp (746 kW) turbo-supercharged 12-cylinder Allison V-1710 engines fitted with counter-rotating propellers to eliminate the effect of engine torque, with the superchargers positioned behind the engines in the booms.[16] It was the first American fighter to make extensive use of stainless steel and smooth, flush-riveted butt-jointed aluminum skin panels.[17] It was also the first fighter to fly faster than 400 mph (640 km/h).

Lockheed won the competition on 23 June 1937 with its Model 22 and was contracted to build a prototype XP-38[18] for US$163,000, though Lockheed's own costs on the prototype would add up to US$761,000.[19] Construction began in July 1938 and the XP-38 first flew on 27 January 1939 at the hands of Ben Kelsey.[20] Kelsey proposed a speed dash to Wright Field on 11 February 1939 to relocate the aircraft for further testing. General Henry "Hap" Arnold, commander of the USAAC, approved of the record attempt, and recommended a cross-country flight to New York. The flight set a speed record by flying from California to New York in seven hours and two minutes,[16] but was downed by carburetor icing short of the Mitchel Field runway in Hempstead, New York, and was wrecked. However, on the basis of the record flight, the Air Corps ordered 13 YP-38s on 27 April 1939 for US$134,284 apiece.[3][21] (The initial "Y" in "YP" was the USAAC's designation for a "prototype" while the "X" in "XP" was for "experimental".) Lockheed's Chief test pilot Tony LeVier angrily characterized the accident as an unnecessary publicity stunt.[22] According to Kelsey, the loss of the prototype, instead of hampering the program, speeded the process by cutting short the initial test series.[23] The success of the aircraft design contributed to Kelsey's promotion to captain in May, 1937.

Mechanized P-38 conveyor lines.

Manufacture of the YP-38s fell behind schedule, at least partly due to the need for mass-production suitability making them substantially different in construction than the prototype. Another factor was the sudden required facility expansion of Lockheed in Burbank, taking it from a specialized civilian firm dealing with small orders to a large government defense contractor making Venturas, Harpoons, Lodestars, Hudsons, and designing the Constellation airliner for TWA. The first YP-38 was not completed until September 1940, with its maiden flight on 17 September.[24] The 13th and final YP-38 was delivered to the Air Corps in June 1941; 12 aircraft were retained for flight testing and one for destructive stress testing. The YPs were substantially redesigned and differed greatly in detail from the hand-built XP-38. They were lighter, included changes in engine fit, and the propeller rotation was reversed, with the blades rotating outwards (away) from the cockpit at the top of their arc rather than inwards as before. This improved the aircraft's stability as a gunnery platform.[25]

Cockpit view of a P-38G. Note the yoke, rather than the more-usual stick.

Test flights revealed problems initially believed to be tail flutter. During high-speed flight approaching Mach 0.68, especially during dives, the aircraft's tail would begin to shake violently and the nose would tuck under, steepening the dive. Once caught in this dive, the fighter would enter a high-speed compressibility stall and the controls would lock up, leaving the pilot no option but to bail out (if possible) or remain with the aircraft until it got down to denser air, where he might have a chance to pull out. During a test flight in May 1941, USAAC Major Signa Gilkey managed to stay with a YP-38 in a compressibility lockup, riding it out until he recovered gradually using elevator trim.[16] Lockheed engineers were very concerned at this limitation, but first they had to concentrate on filling the current order of aircraft. In June 1941, the Army Air Corps was renamed the U.S. Army Air Forces (USAAF)) and a total of 65 Lightnings were finished for the service by September 1941 with more on the way for the USAAF, the Royal Air Force (RAF) and the Free French Air Force operating from England.

By November 1941, many of the initial assembly line challenges had been met and there was some breathing room for the engineering team to tackle the problem of frozen controls in a dive. Lockheed had a few ideas for tests that would help them find an answer. The first solution tried was the fitting of spring-loaded servo tabs on the elevator trailing edge; tabs that were designed to aid the pilot when control yoke forces rose over 30 lb (14 kg), as would be expected in a high-speed dive. At that point, the tabs would begin to multiply the effort of the pilot's actions. The expert test pilot, 43-year-old[26] Ralph Virden, was given a specific high-altitude test sequence to follow, and was told to restrict his speed and fast maneuvering in denser air at low altitudes since the new mechanism could exert tremendous leverage under those conditions. A note was taped to the instrument panel of the test craft, underscoring this instruction. On 4 November 1941, Virden climbed into YP-38 #1 and completed the test sequence successfully, but 15 minutes later was seen in a steep dive followed by a high-G pullout. The tail unit of the aircraft failed at about 3,000 ft (910 m) during the high-speed dive recovery; Virden was killed in the subsequent crash. The Lockheed design office was justifiably upset, but their design engineers could only conclude that servo tabs were not the solution for loss of control in a dive. Lockheed still had to find the problem; the Army Air Forces personnel were sure it was flutter, and ordered Lockheed to look more closely at the tail.

Although the P-38's empennage was completely skinned in aluminum (not fabric) and was quite rigid, in 1941, flutter was a familiar engineering problem related to a too-flexible tail. At no time did the P-38 suffer from true flutter.[27] To prove a point, one elevator and its vertical stabilizers were skinned with metal 63% thicker than standard, but the increase in rigidity made no difference in vibration. Army Lieutenant Colonel Kenneth B. Wolfe (head of Army Production Engineering) asked Lockheed to try external mass balances above and below the elevator, though the P-38 already had large mass balances elegantly placed within each vertical stabilizer. Various configurations of external mass balances were equipped and dangerously steep test flights flown to document their performance. Explaining to Wolfe in Report No. 2414, Kelly Johnson wrote "... the violence of the vibration was unchanged and the diving tendency was naturally the same for all conditions."[28] The external mass balances did not help at all. Nonetheless, at Wolfe's insistence, the additional external balances were a feature of every P-38 built from then on.[29]

P-38 pilot training manual compressibility chart shows speed limit vs. altitude.

After months of pushing NACA to provide Mach 0.75 wind tunnel speeds (and finally succeeding), the compressibility problem was revealed to be the center of lift moving back toward the tail when in high-speed airflow. The compressibility problem was solved by changing the geometry of the wing's underside when diving so as to keep lift within bounds of the top of the wing. In February 1943, quick-acting dive flaps were tried and proven by Lockheed test pilots. The dive flaps were installed outboard of the engine nacelles and in action they extended downward 35° in 1½ seconds. The flaps did not act as a speed brake, they affected the center of pressure distribution so that the wing would not lose its lift.[30]

Late in 1943, a few hundred dive flap field modification kits were assembled to give North African, European and Pacific P-38s a chance to withstand compressibility and expand their combat tactics. Unfortunately, these crucial flaps did not always reach their destination. In March 1944, 200 dive flap kits intended for European Theater of Operations (ETO) P-38Js were destroyed in a mistaken identification incident in which an RAF fighter shot down the Douglas C-54 Skymaster bringing the shipment to England. Back in Burbank, P-38Js coming off the assembly line in spring 1944 were towed out to the tarmac and modified in the open air. The flaps were finally incorporated into the production line in June 1944 on the last 210 P-38Js. Despite testing having proved the dive flaps were effective in improving tactical maneuvers, a 14-month delay in production limited their implementation with only the final 50% of all Lightnings built having the dive flaps installed as an assembly line sequence.[31]

Johnson later recalled:

I broke an ulcer over compressibility on the P-38 because we flew into a speed range where no one had ever been before, and we had difficulty convincing people that it wasn't the funny-looking airplane itself, but a fundamental physical problem. We found out what happened when the Lightning shed its tail and we worked during the whole war to get 15 more kn [28 km/h] of speed out of the P-38. We saw compressibility as a brick wall for a long time. Then we learned how to get through it.[32]

Buffeting was another early aerodynamic problem, difficult to sort out from compressibility as both were reported by test pilots as "tail shake". Buffeting came about from airflow disturbances ahead of the tail; the airplane would shake at high speed. Leading edge wing slots were tried as were combinations of filleting between the wing, cockpit and engine nacelles. Air tunnel test number 15 solved the buffeting completely and its fillet solution was fitted to every subsequent P-38 airframe. Fillet kits were sent out to every squadron flying Lightnings. The problem was traced to a 40% increase in air speed at the wing-fuselage junction where the chord/thickness ratio was highest. An airspeed of 500 mph (800 km/h) at 25,000 ft (7,600 m) could push airflow at the wing-fuselage junction close to the speed of sound. Filleting forever solved the buffeting problem for the P-38E and later models.[27]

Another issue with the P-38 arose from its unique design feature of outwardly rotating counter-rotating propellers. Losing one of two engines in any twin engine non-centerline thrust aircraft on takeoff creates sudden drag, yawing the nose toward the dead engine and rolling the wingtip down on the side of the dead engine. Normal training in flying twin-engine aircraft when losing an engine on takeoff would be to push the remaining engine to full throttle; if a pilot did that in the P-38, regardless of which engine had failed, the resulting engine torque and p-factor force produced a sudden uncontrollable yawing roll and the aircraft would flip over and slam into the ground. Eventually, procedures were taught to allow a pilot to deal with the situation by reducing power on the running engine, feathering the prop on the dead engine, and then increasing power gradually until the aircraft was in stable flight. Single-engine takeoffs were possible, though not with a maximum combat load.[33]

The engines were unusually quiet because the exhausts were muffled by the General Electric turbo-superchargers on the twin Allison V12s. There were early problems with cockpit temperature regulation; pilots were often too hot in the tropic sun as the canopy could not be fully opened without severe buffeting, and were often too cold in northern Europe and at high altitude, as the distance of the engines from the cockpit prevented easy heat transfer. Later variants received modifications (such as electrically-heated flight suits) to solve these problems.

P-38 at sunset.

On 20 September 1939, before the YP-38s had been built and flight tested, the USAAF ordered 66 initial production P-38 Lightnings, 30 of which were delivered to the USAAF in mid-1941, but not all these aircraft were armed. The unarmed aircraft were subsequently fitted with four .50 in (12.7 mm) machine guns (instead of the two .50 in/12.7 mm and two .30 in/7.62 mm of their predecessors) and a 37 mm (1.46 in) cannon. They also had armor glass, cockpit armor and fluorescent cockpit controls.[34] One was completed with a pressurized cabin on an experimental basis and designated XP-38A.[35] Due to reports the USAAF was receiving from Europe, the remaining 36 in the batch were upgraded with small improvements such as self-sealing fuel tanks and enhanced armor protection to make them combat-capable. The USAAF specified that these 36 aircraft were to be designated P-38D. As a result, there never were any P-38Bs or P-38Cs. The P-38D's main role was to work out bugs and give the USAAF experience with handling the type.[36]

In March 1940, the French and the British ordered a total of 667 P-38s for US$100M,[37] designated Model 322F for the French and Model 322B for the British. The aircraft would be a variant of the P-38E. The overseas Allies wished for complete commonality of Allison engines with the large numbers of Curtiss P-40 Tomahawks both nations had on order, and thus ordered for the Model 322 twin right-handed engines instead of counter-rotating ones, and without turbo-superchargers.[38] After the fall of France in June 1940, the British took over the entire order and christened the plane "Lightning". By June 1941, the War Ministry had cause to reconsider their earlier aircraft specifications, based on experience gathered in the Battle of Britain and The Blitz.[39] British displeasure with the Lockheed order came to the fore in July, and on 5 August 1941 they modified the contract such that 143 aircraft would be delivered as previously ordered, to be known as "Lightning (Mark) I", and 524 would be upgraded to US-standard P-38E specifications, to be called "Lightning II" for British service.[39] Later that summer, an RAF test pilot reported back from Burbank with a poor assessment of the 'tail flutter' situation, bringing the British to cancel all but three of the 143 Lightning Is.[39] Because a loss of approximately US$15M was involved, Lockheed reviewed their contracts and decided to hold the British to the original order. Negotiations grew bitter and stalled.[39] Everything changed after December 7, 1941 when the United States government seized some 40 of the Model 322s for West Coast defense,[40] subsequently all British Lightnings were delivered to the USAAF starting in January 1942. The USAAF loaned the RAF three of the aircraft which were delivered by sea in March 1942[41] and were test flown no earlier than May[42] at Swaythling, Boscombe Down and Farnborough.[39] These three were subsequently returned to the USAAF; one in December 1942 and the others in July 1943.[41] Of the remaining 140 Lightning Is, 19 were not modified and were designated the USAAF as RP-322-I ('R' for 'Restricted', because non-counter-rotating props were considered more dangerous at takeoff), while 121 were converted to non-turbo-supercharged counter-rotating V-1710F-2 engines and were designated P-322-II. All 121 were used as advanced trainers; a few were still serving that role in 1945.[42] A few RP-322s were later used as test modification platforms such as for smoke-laying canisters. The RP-322 was a fairly fast aircraft under 16,000 ft (4,900 m) and well-behaved as a trainer. Some of the fastest post-war racing P-38s were virtually identical in layout to the P-322-II.[42]

One positive result of the failed British/French order was to give the aircraft its name. Lockheed had originally dubbed the aircraft Atalanta in the company tradition of naming planes after mythological and celestial figures, but the RAF name won out.[43]

Operational service

P-38s deck-loaded on CVE, ready for shipment, cocooned against salt, at New York.

The first unit to receive P-38s was the 1st Fighter Group. After the attack on Pearl Harbor, the unit joined the 14th Pursuit Group in San Diego to provide West Coast defense.[44]

Entry to the war

The first Lightning to see active service was the F-4 version, a P-38E in which the guns were replaced by four K17 cameras.[45] They joined the 8th Photographic Squadron out of Australia on 4 April 1942.[25] Three F-4s were operated by the Royal Australian Air Force in this theater for a short period beginning in September 1942.

On 29 May 1942, 25 P-38s began operating in the Aleutian Islands in Alaska. The fighter's long range made it well-suited to the campaign over the almost 1,200 mi (2,000 km)–long island chain, and it would be flown there for the rest of the war. The Aleutians were one of the most rugged environments available for testing the new aircraft under combat conditions. More Lightnings were lost due to severe weather and other conditions than enemy action, and there were cases where Lightning pilots, mesmerized by flying for hours over gray seas under gray skies, simply flew into the water. On 9 August 1942, two P-38Es of the 343rd Fighter Group, 11th Air Force, at the end of a 1,000 mi (1,609 km) long-range patrol, happened upon a pair of Japanese Kawanishi H6K "Mavis" flying boats and destroyed them,[25] making them the first Japanese aircraft to be shot down by Lightnings.

European theater

P-38 participating in the Normandy campaign as evidenced by the D-Day invasion stripes.

After the Battle of Midway, the USAAF began redeploying fighter groups to Britain as part of Operation Bolero, and Lightnings of the 1st Fighter Group were flown across the Atlantic via Iceland. On 14 August, Second Lieutenant Elza Shahan of the 27th Fighter Squadron, and Second Lieutenant Joseph Shaffer of the 33rd Squadron operating out of Iceland shot down a Focke-Wulf Fw 200 Kondor over the Atlantic. Shahan in his P-38F downed the Kondor; Shaffer, flying either a P-40C or a P-39, had already set an engine on fire.[46] This was the first Luftwaffe aircraft destroyed by the USAAF.[47]

P-38 Lightnings had a number of lucky escapes, exemplified by the arrival of the 71st fighter squadron at RAF Goxhill (Lincolnshire, England) in July 1942. The official handover ceremony was scheduled for mid-August, but on the day before the ceremony, Goxhill experienced its only air raid of the war. A single German bomber flew overhead and dropped a very well aimed bomb right on the intersection between the two newly concreted runways, but it didn’t explode and the aircraft were able to continue their mission. (As it turned out, the bomb could not be removed and, for the duration of the war, aircraft had to pass over it every time they took off.)

After 347 sorties with no enemy contact, the 1st, 14th and 82nd Fighter Groups were transferred to the 12th Air Force in North Africa as part of the force being built up for Operation Torch. On 19 November 1942, Lightnings escorted a group of B-17 Flying Fortress bombers on a raid over Tunis. On 5 April 1943, 26 P-38Fs of the 82nd destroyed 31 enemy aircraft, helping to establish air superiority in the area, and earning it the German nickname "der Gabelschwanzteufel" – the Fork-Tailed Devil.[44] The P-38 remained active in the Mediterranean for the rest of the war.It was in this theatre that the P-38 suffered its heaviest losses in the air. On 25 August 1943, 13 P-38s were shot down in a single sortie by Jagdgeschwader 53 Bf 109s without achieving a single kill.[48] On 2 September, 10 P-38s were shot down, in return for a single kill, the 67-victory ace Franz Schiess (who was also the leading "Lightning" killer in the Luftwaffe with 17 destroyed).[48]Kurt Buehligen, third highest scoring German pilot on Western front with 112 victories, recalled later: “The P-38 fighter (and the B-24) were easy to burn. Once in Africa we were six and met eight p-38s and shot down seven. One sees a great distance in Africa and our observers and flak people called in sightings and we could get altitude first and they were low and slow.” [49] Experiences over Germany had shown a need for long-range escort fighters to protect the Eighth Air Force's heavy bomber operations. The P-38Hs of the 55th Fighter Group were transferred to the Eighth in England in September 1943, and were joined by the 20th, 364th and 479th Fighter Groups soon after. P-38s soon joined Spitfires in escorting the early Fortress raids over Europe.[50]

Because its distinctive shape was less prone to cases of mistaken identity and friendly fire,[51] Lieutenant General Jimmy Doolittle, Commander 8th Air Force, chose to pilot a P-38 during the Invasion of Normandy so that he could personally assess the progress of the air offensive over France.[52] At one point in the mission, Doolittle flick-rolled through a hole in the cloud cover but his wingman, Earle E. "Pat" Partridge (later General), was looking elsewhere and failed to notice Doolittle's quick maneuver, leaving Doolittle to continue alone on his survey of the crucial battle. Of the P-38, Doolittle said that it was "the sweetest-flying plane in the sky".[53]

P-38s of the 370th Fighter Group

A little-known role of the P-38 in the European theater was that of fighter-bomber during the invasion of Normandy and the Allied advance across France into Germany. Assigned to the IX Tactical Air Command, the 370th Fighter Group and its P-38s initially flew missions from England, dive-bombing radar installations, enemy armor, troop concentrations, and flak towers.[54] The 370th's group commander Howard F. Nichols and a squadron of his P-38 Lightnings attacked Field Marshal Günther von Kluge's headquarters in July 1944; Nichols himself skipped a 500 lb (227 kg) bomb through the front door.[55] The 370th later operated from Cardonville France, flying ground attack missions against gun emplacements, troops, supply dumps and tanks near Saint-Lô in July and in the Falaise-Argentan area in August 1944.[54] The 370th participated in ground attack missions across Europe until February 1945 when the unit transitioned to the P-51 Mustang.

Italian pilots in the Mediterranean theatre started to face P-38s from late 1942 and considered it a formidable foe compared to other fighters, including the Supermarine Spitfire. A small number of P-38s fell into the hands of German and Italian units and were subsequently tested and used in combat.

On 12 June 1943, a P-38G, while flying a special mission between Gibraltar and Malta, landed on the airfield of Capoterra (Cagliari) , in Sardinia, for navigation error due to a compass failure. Regia Aeronautica chief test pilot colonnello Lieutenant Colonel Angelo Tondi flew the plane to Guidonia airfield where the P-38G was evaluated. On 11 August 1943, Tondi took off to intercept a formation of about fifty B-24s, returning from the bombing of Terni (Umbria). Tondi attacked a bomber that fell off the shore of Torvaianica, near Rome, while six airmen were parachuting. That was the first and last war mission for the plane, as the Italian petrol was too corrosive for the Lockheed tanks. [56]The Lightning was eventually acquired by Italy for postwar service.

If faced by more agile fighters at low altitudes in a constricted valley, Lightnings could suffer heavy losses. On the morning of 10 June 1944, 96 P-38Js of the 1st and 82nd Fighter Groups took off from Italy for Ploesti, the third-most heavily-defended target in Europe, after Berlin and Vienna.[57] Instead of bombing from high altitude as had been tried by the Fifteenth Air Force, USAAF planning had determined that a dive-bombing surprise attack, beginning at about 7,000 feet (2,100 m) with bomb release at or below 3,000 feet (900 m),[57] performed by 46 82nd Fighter Group P-38s, each carrying one 1,000-pound (500 kg) bomb, would yield more accurate results.[58] All of 1st Fighter Group and a few aircraft in 82nd Fighter Group were to fly cover, and all fighters were to strafe targets of opportunity on the return trip; a distance of some 1,255 miles (2,020 km), including a circuitous outward route made in an attempt to achieve surprise.[57]

Some 85–86 fighters arrived in Romania to find enemy airfields alerted, with a wide assortment of aircraft scrambling for safety. P-38s shot down several enemy including heavy fighters, transports and observation aircraft. At Ploesti, defense forces were fully alert, the target was concealed by smoke screen, and anti-aircraft fire was very heavy—seven Lightnings were lost to it at the target, and two more during strafing attacks on the return flight. German Bf 109 fighters from I./JG 53 and 2./JG 77 fought the Americans. One flight of 16, the 71st Fighter Squadron, was challenged by a large formation of Romanian single-seater IAR.81C fighters. The fight took place at and below 300 feet (100 m) in a narrow valley.[59] Herbert Hatch saw two IAR 81Cs that he misidentified as Fw 190s hit the ground after taking fire from his guns, and his fellow pilots confirmed three more of his kills. However, the outnumbered 71st Fighter Squadron took more damage than it dished out, losing nine aircraft. In all, the USAAF lost 22 aircraft on the mission. The Americans claimed 23 aerial victories, though Romanian and German fighter units admitted losing only one aircraft each.[60] Eleven enemy locomotives were strafed and left burning, and flak emplacements were destroyed, along with fuel trucks and other targets. Results of the bombing were not observed by the USAAF pilots because of the smoke. The dive-bombing mission profile was not repeated, though the 82nd Fighter Group was awarded the Presidential Unit Citation for their part.[61]

After some disastrous raids with B-17s escorted by P-38 Lightnings (and P-47s), in 1944, Jimmy Doolittle, then head of the United States Eight Air Force went to Farnborough, asking for evaluation of the P-38 (and P-47 and Mustang). Capt. Eric Brown, CBE, DSC, AFC, RN, Chief Naval Test Pilot at RAE Farnborough in 1944-1949 and C.O. Captured Enemy Aircraft Flight in 1947-1949, recalled:
“We had found out that the Bf 109 and the Fw 190 could fight up to a Mach of 0.75, three-quarters the speed of sound. We checked the Lightning and it couldn’t fly in combat faster than 0.68. So it was useless. We told Doolittle that all it was good for was photo-reconnaissance and had to be withdrawn from escort duties. And the funny thing is that the Americans had great difficulty understanding this because the Lightning had the two top aces in the Far East.”[62]

After evaluation tests at Farnborough, the P-38 was still kept in fighting service in Europe, for a while, though the aircraft suffered regular engine failures in the first months of deployment due to overheating. However, even if many of the aircraft's problems were fixed with the introduction of the P-38J, by September 1944, all but one of the Lightning groups in the Eighth Air Force had converted to the P-51 Mustang. The Eighth AF continued to conduct reconnaissance missions using the F-5 variant.[44]

Pacific theater

Col. MacDonald and Al Nelson in the Pacific with MacDonald's P-38J.

The P-38 was used most extensively and successfully in the Pacific theater, where it proved ideally suited, combining excellent performance with very long range. The P-38 was used in a variety of roles, especially escorting bombers at altitudes between 18-25,000 ft (5,500-7,600 m). The P-38 was credited with destroying more Japanese aircraft than any other USAAF fighter.[3] Freezing cockpits were not a problem at low altitude in the tropics. In fact, since there was no way to open a window while in flight as it caused buffeting by setting up turbulence through the tailplane, it was often too hot; pilots taking low altitude assignments would often fly stripped down to shorts, tennis shoes, and parachute. While the P-38 could not out-maneuver the A6M Zero and most other Japanese fighters, its speed and rate of climb gave American pilots the option of choosing to fight or run, and its focused firepower was even more deadly to lightly-armored Japanese warplanes than to the Germans'. The concentrated, parallel stream of bullets allowed aerial victory at much longer distances than fighters carrying wing guns. It is therefore ironic that Dick Bong, the United States' highest-scoring World War II air ace (40 victories solely in P-38s), would fly directly at his targets to make sure he hit them (as he himself acknowledged his poor shooting ability), in some cases flying through the debris of his target (and on one occasion colliding with an enemy aircraft which was claimed as a "probable" victory). The twin Allison engines performed admirably in the Pacific.

On 2-4 March 1943, P-38s flew top cover for 5th Air Force and Australian bombers and attack-planes during the Battle of the Bismarck Sea, a crushing defeat for the Japanese. Two P-38 aces from the 39th Fighter Squadron were killed on the second day of the battle: Bob Faurot and Hoyt "Curley" Eason (a veteran with five victories who had trained hundreds of pilots, including Dick Bong).

General George C. Kenney, commander of the USAAF Fifth Air Force operating in New Guinea, could not get enough P-38s, though since they were replacing serviceable but inadequate P-39s and P-40s, this might seem like guarded praise. Lightning pilots began to compete in racking up scores against Japanese aircraft.

Isoroku Yamamoto

The Lightning figured in one of the most significant operations in the Pacific theater: the interception, on 18 April 1943, of Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, the architect of Japan's naval strategy in the Pacific including the attack on Pearl Harbor. When American codebreakers found out that he was flying to Bougainville Island to conduct a front-line inspection, 16 P-38G Lightnings were sent on a long-range fighter-intercept mission, flying 435 mi (700 km) from Guadalcanal at heights from 10–50 ft (3–15 m) above the ocean to avoid detection. The Lightnings met Yamamoto's two Mitsubishi G4M "Betty" fast bomber transports and six escorting Zeros just as they arrived. The first Betty crashed in the jungle and the second ditched near the coast. Two Zeros were also claimed by the American fighters with the loss of one P-38. Japanese searchers found Yamamoto's body at the jungle crash site the next day.[63]

Service record

Pilot and aircraft armorer inspect ammunition for the central 20 mm cannon

The P-38's service record shows mixed results, but usually because of misinformation. P-38s have been described as being harder to fly than single-engined planes, but this was because of inadequate training in the first few months of the war. The P-38's engine troubles at high altitudes only occurred with the Eighth Air Force. One reason for this was the inadequate cooling systems of the G and H models; the improved P-38 J and L had tremendous success flying out of Italy into Germany at all altitudes.[44] Up until the -J-25 variant, P-38s were easily avoided by German fighters because of the lack of dive flaps to counter compressibility in dives. German fighter pilots not wishing to fight would perform the first half of a Split S and continue into steep dives because they knew the Lightnings would be reluctant to follow.

On the positive side, having two engines was a built-in insurance policy. Many pilots made it safely back to base after having an engine fail en route or in combat. On 3 March 1944, the first Allied fighters reached Berlin on a frustrated escort mission. Lieutenant Colonel Jack Jenkins of 55FG led the group of P-38H pilots, arriving with only half his force after flak damage and engine trouble took their toll. On the way in to Berlin, Jenkins reported one rough-running engine and one good one, causing him to wonder if he'd ever make it back. The B-17s he was supposed to escort never showed up, having turned back at Hamburg. Jenkins and his wingman were able to drop tanks and outrun enemy fighters to return home with three good engines between them.[64]

P-38J-10-LO, 42-68008, flying over Southern California.

In the ETO, P-38s made 130,000 sorties with a loss of 1.3% overall, comparing favorably with ETO P-51s which posted a 1.1% loss, considering that the P-38s were vastly outnumbered and suffered from poorly thought-out tactics. The majority of the P-38 sorties were made in the period prior to Allied air superiority in Europe when pilots fought against a very determined and skilled enemy.[65] Lieutenant Colonel Mark Hubbard, a vocal critic of the aircraft, rated it third best Allied fighter in Europe.[66] The Lightning's greatest virtues were long range, heavy payload, high speed, fast climb, and concentrated firepower. The P-38 was a formidable interceptor and attack aircraft and, in the hands of any pilot, dangerous in air-to-air combat.

In the Pacific theater, the P-38 downed over 1,800 Japanese aircraft, with more than 100 pilots becoming aces by downing five or more enemy aircraft.[63] American fuel supplies contributed to a better engine performance and maintenance record, and range was increased with leaner mixtures. In the second half of 1944, the P-38L pilots out of Dutch New Guinea were flying 950 mi (1,530 km), fighting for 15 minutes and returning to base.[67] Such long legs were invaluable until the P-47N and P-51D entered service.

Postwar operations

The end of the war left the USAAF with thousands of P-38s rendered obsolete by the jet age. A total of 100 late-model P-38L and F-5 Lightnings were acquired by Italy through an agreement dated April 1946. Delivered, after refurbishing, at the rate of one per month, they finally were all sent to the AMI by 1952. The Lightnings served in 4 Stormo and other units including 3 Stormo, flying reconnaissance over the Balkans, ground attack, naval cooperation and air superiority missions. Due to unfamiliarity in operating heavy fighters, old engines, and pilot errors, a large number of P-38s were lost in at least 30 accidents, many of them fatal. Despite this, many Italian pilots liked the P-38 because of its excellent visibility on the ground and stability at takeoff. The Italian P-38s were phased out in 1956; none survived the inevitable scrapyard.[68]

Surplus P-38s were also used by other foreign air forces with 12 sold to Honduras and fifteen retained by China. Six F-5s and two unarmed black two-seater P-38s were operated by the Dominican Air Force based in San Isidro Airbase, Dominican Republic in 1947. The majority of wartime Lightnings present in the continental U.S. at the end of the war were put up for sale for US$1,200 apiece; the rest were scrapped. P-38s in distant theaters of war were bulldozed into piles and abandoned or scrapped; very few avoided that fate.

Lockheed test pilot Tony LeVier was among those who bought a Lightning, choosing a P-38J model and painting it red to make it stand out as an air racer and stunt flyer. Lefty Gardner, former B-24 and B-17 pilot and associate of the Confederate Air Force, bought a mid-1944 P-38L-1-LO that had been modified into an F-5G. Gardner painted it white with red and blue trim and named it White Lightnin'; he reworked its turbo systems and intercoolers for optimum low-altitude performance and gave it P-38F style air intakes for better streamlining. P-38s were popular contenders in the air races from 1946 through 1949, with brightly colored Lightnings making screaming turns around the pylons at Reno and Cleveland.

F-5s were bought by aerial survey companies and employed for mapping. From the 1950s on, the use of the Lightning steadily declined, and only a little more than two dozen still exist, with few still flying. One example is a P-38L owned by the Lone Star Flight Museum in Galveston, Texas, painted in the colors of Charles H. MacDonald's Putt Putt Maru. Two other examples are F-5Gs which were owned and operated by Kargl Aerial Surveys in 1946, and are now located in Chino, California at Yanks Air Museum, and in McMinnville, Oregon at Evergreen Aviation Museum.

Variants

Version and total manufactured[69]
VariantProducedComment
XP-381Prototype
YP-3813Evaluation planes
P-3830Initial production aircraft
XP-38A1Pressurized cockpit
P-38D36Fitted with self-sealing fuel tanks/armored windshield
P-38E210First combat-ready variant, revised armament
F-4100+reconnaissance planes based on P-38E
Model 3223RAF order: twin right-hand props and no turbo
RP-322147USAAF trainers
P-38F527First-fully combat-capable P-38 Fighter
F-4A20reconnaissance plane based on P-38F
P-38G1,082Improved P-38F fighter
F-5A180reconnaissance aircraft based on P-38G
XF-5D1a one-off converted F-5A
P-38H601Automatic cooling system; Improved P-38G fighter
F-5C123based on P-38H
P-38J2,970new cooling and electrical systems
F-5B200reconnaissance aircraft based on P-38J
F-5E605P-38J/L conversion
P-38K1paddle props; new engines
P-38L-LO3,810Improved P-38J new engines; new rocket pylons
P-38L-VN113P-38L built by Vultee
F-5F-reconnaissance aircraft based on P-38L
P-38M75night-fighter
F-5G-

Over 10,000 Lightnings were manufactured in all; becoming the only U.S. combat aircraft that remained in continuous production throughout the duration of American participation in World War II. The Lightning had a major effect on other aircraft; its wing, in a scaled-up form, was used on the L-049 Constellation.[70]

P-38D and P-38Es

Delivered and accepted Lightning production variants began with the P38-D model. The few "hand made" YP-38s initially contracted were used as trainers and test aircraft. There were no Bs or Cs delivered to the government as the USAAF allocated the 'D' suffix to all aircraft with self-sealing fuel tanks and armor.[22] Many secondary but still initial teething tests were conducted utilizing the earliest D variants.[22]

The first combat-capable Lightning was the P-38E (and its photo-recon variant the F-4) which featured improved instruments, electrical, and hydraulic systems. Part-way through production, the older Hamilton Standard Hydromatic hollow steel propellers were replaced by new Curtiss Electric duraluminum propellers. The definitive (and now famous) armament configuration was settled upon, featuring four .50 in (12.7 mm) machine guns with 500 rpg, and a 20 mm (.79 in) Hispano cannon with 150 rounds which replaced the unreliable 37 mm (1.46 in) Oldsmobile cannon that had been tested on the P-38D.

While the machine guns had been arranged symmetrically in the nose on the P-38D, they were "staggered" in the P-38E and later versions, with the muzzles protruding from the nose in the relative lengths of roughly 1:4:6:2. This was done to ensure a straight ammunition-belt feed into the weapons, as the earlier arrangement led to jamming.

The first P-38E rolled out of the factory in October 1941 as the Battle of Moscow in the Eastern Front Campaign of World War II filled the news wires of the world. Because of the versatility, redundant engines, and especially high speed and high altitude characteristics of the aircraft, as with later variants over a hundred P-38Es were completed in the factory or converted in the field to a photo-reconnaissance variant, the F-4, in which the guns were replaced by four cameras. Most of these early reconnaissance Lightnings were retained stateside for training, but the F-4 was the first Lightning to be used in action in April 1942.

Ground crew members of the 459th Fighter Squadron, nicknamed the "Twin Dragon Squadron", working on a Lockheed P-38 at an air base in Chittagong, India - January 1945

P-38Fs and P-38Gs

After 210 P-38Es were built, they were followed, starting in April 1942, by the P-38F, which incorporated racks inboard of the engines for fuel tanks or a total of 2,000 lb (907 kg) of bombs, and the aircraft was still experiencing extensive teething troubles as well as being victimized by "urban legends", mostly involving inapplicable twin engine factors which had been designed out of the aircraft by Lockheed.[22] In addition to these, the early versions had a reputation as a "widow maker" as it could enter an unrecoverable dive due to a sonic surface effect at high sub-sonic speeds. This problem was resolved by the design of a dive flap which was sent out as a retrofit kit modification to all P-38s in the field.[22]

Consequently, Lockheed dispatched its chief test pilot, Tony LeVier, to England to train and lecture about the fighter so as to restore confidence in it as an effective weapon.[22] The 527 P-38Fs were heavier, with more powerful engines that used more fuel, and were unpopular in the air war in Northern Europe.[22] Since the heavier engines were having reliability problems and with them, without external fuel tanks, the range of the P-38F was reduced, and since drop tanks themselves were in short supply as the fortunes in the Battle of the Atlantic hadn't yet swung the Allies' way, the aircraft became relatively unpopular in minds of the bomber command planning staffs despite being the longest ranged fighter first available to the 8th Air Force in sufficient numbers for long range escort duties.[22] Nonetheless, General Spaatz, then commander of the 8th Air Force in the UK, said of the P-38F: "I'd rather have an airplane that goes like hell and has a few things wrong with it, than one that won't go like hell and has a few things wrong with it."[53]

The P-38F was followed in early 1943 by the P-38G, utilizing more powerful Allisons of 1,400 hp (1,040 kW) each and equipped with a better radio. The P-38G was followed in turn by the P-38H, with further uprated Allisons (1,425 hp/1,060 kW each), an improved 20 mm cannon and a bomb capacity of 3,200 lb (1,450 kg). The Eighth Air Force was also experiencing high altitude and cold weather issues which while not unique to the plane, were perhaps more severe as the superchargers upgrading the Allison's were having their own reliability issues making the planes more unpopular with senior officers out of the line[22]This was a situation unduplicated on all other fronts where the commands were clamoring for as many P-38s as they could get.[22] These models were also field-modified into F-4A and F-5A reconnaissance aircraft. An F-5A was modified to an experimental two-seat reconnaissance configuration, with additional cameras in the tail booms. Both the P-38G and P-38H models' performance was restricted by an intercooler system integral to the wing's leading edge; one which had been designed for smaller engines. The new engines could heat up too much and were subject to explosive detonation in the carburetor if operated beyond recommended limits.

Early variants did not enjoy a high reputation for maneuverability, though they could be agile at low altitudes if flown by a capable pilot, using the P-38's forgiving stall characteristics to their best advantage. From the P-38F-15 model onwards, a "combat maneuver" setting was added to the P-38's Fowler flaps. When deployed at the 8° maneuver setting, the flaps allowed the P-38 to out-turn many contemporary single-engined fighters at the cost of some added drag. However, early variants were hampered by high aileron control forces and a low initial rate of roll[71], and all such features required a pilot to gain experience with the aircraft,[22] which in part was an additional reason Lockheed sent its representative to England, and later to the Pacific Theater.

Lightning in maturity: P-38J, P-38L

Four P-38s flying in formation

The definitive P-38J was introduced in August 1943. The turbocharger intercooler system on previous variants had been housed in the leading edges of the wings and had proven vulnerable to combat damage and could explode if the wrong series of controls were mistakenly activated. In the P-38J model, the streamlined engine nacelles of previous Lightnings were changed to fit the intercooler radiator between the oil coolers, forming a "chin" that visually distinguished the J model from its predecessors. While the P-38J used the same V-1710-89/91 engines as the H model, the new core-type intercooler more efficiently lowered intake manifold temperatures and permitted a substantial increase in rated power. The leading edge of the outer wing was fitted with 55 gal (208 l) fuel tanks, filling the space formerly occupied by intercooler tunnels.

The final 210 J models, designated P-38J-25-LO, alleviated the compressibility problem through the addition of a set of electrically-actuated dive recovery flaps just outboard of the engines on the bottom centerline of the wings. With these improvements, a USAAF pilot reported a dive speed of almost 600 mph (970 km/h), although the indicated air speed was later corrected for compressibility error, and the actual dive speed was lower.[72]

The P-38J-25-LO production block also introduced hydraulically-boosted ailerons, one of the first times such a system was fitted to a fighter. This significantly improved the Lightning's rate of roll and reduced control forces for the pilot. With a truly satisfactory Lightning in place, Lockheed ramped up production, working with subcontractors across the country to produce hundreds of Lightnings each month.

There were two P-38Ks developed in 1942–1943, one official and one an internal Lockheed experiment. The first was a battered RP-38E test mule fitted with paddle-bladed "high activity" Hamilton Standard Hydromatic propellers similar to those used on the P-47. The new propellers required spinners of greater diameter, and the thrust line was slightly higher. New cowlings were fashioned to properly blend the spinners into the nacelles. The aircraft also received the chin intercoolers developed for the P-38J.

The first prototype's performance led to an official request for the second aircraft, a modified P-38G-10-LO (re-designated P-38K-1-LO) fitted with the aforementioned four-blade propellers and new Allison V-1710-75/77 (F15R/L) powerplants rated at 1,875 bhp (1,398 kW) at War Emergency Power. The AAF took delivery in September 1943, at Eglin Field. In tests, the P-38K-1 achieved 432 mph (695 km/h) at military power and was predicted to exceed 450 mph (720 km/h) at War Emergency Power with a similar increase in load and range. The initial climb rate was 4,800 ft (1,500 m)/min and the ceiling was 46,000 ft (14,000 m). It reached 20,000 ft (6,100 m) in five minutes flat; this with a coat of camouflage paint which added weight and drag. However, the War Production Board refused to authorize P-38K production due to the two- to three-week interruption in production necessary to implement cowling modifications for the revised spinners and higher thrust line.[73] Some doubted Allison's ability to deliver the F15 engine in quantity.[74] As promising as it had looked, the P-38K project came to a halt.

The P-38L was the most numerous variant of the Lightning, with 3,923 built, 113 by Consolidated-Vultee in their Nashville plant. It entered service with the USAAF in June 1944, in time to support the Allied invasion of France on D-Day. Lockheed production of the Lightning was distinguished by a suffix consisting of a production block number followed by "LO," for example "P-38L-1-LO", while Consolidated-Vultee production was distinguished by a block number followed by "VN," for example "P-38L-5-VN."

The P-38L was the first Lightning fitted with zero-length rocket launchers. Seven high velocity aircraft rockets (HVARs) on pylons beneath each wing, and later, ten rockets on each wing on "Christmas tree" launch racks. The P-38L also had strengthened stores pylons to allow carriage of 2,000 lb (900 kg) bombs or 300 USgal (1,100 l) drop tanks.

F-5A Lightning of the 7th Photo Group, 8th Army Air Force based at Mt. Farm. Note the national insignia is bordered in red with overall finish in synthetic haze.

Lockheed modified 200 P-38J airframes in production to become unarmed F-5B photo-reconnaissance aircraft, while hundreds of other P-38Js and P-38Ls were field-modified to become F-5Es, F-5Fs, and F-5Gs. A few P-38Ls were field-modified to become two-seat TP-38L familiarization trainers.

Late model Lightnings were delivered unpainted, as per USAAF policy established in 1944. At first, field units tried to paint them, since pilots worried about being too visible to the enemy, but it turned out the reduction in weight and drag was a minor advantage in combat.

The P-38L-5, the most common sub-variant of the P-38L, had a modified cockpit heating system which consisted of a plug-socket in the cockpit into which the pilot could plug his heat-suit wire for improved comfort. These Lightnings also received the uprated V-1710-111/113 (F30R/L) engines, and this dramatically lowered the amount of engine failure problems experienced at high altitude so commonly associated with European operations.

Pathfinders, Night Fighter and other variants

The Lightning was modified for other roles. In addition to the F-4 and F-5 reconnaissance variants, a number of P-38Js and P-38Ls were field-modified as formation bombing "pathfinders" or "droopsnoots", fitted with a glazed nose with a Norden bombsight, or a H2X radar "bombing through overcast" nose. A pathfinder would lead a formation of other P-38s, each overloaded with two 2,000 lb (907 kg) bombs; the entire formation releasing when the pathfinder did.

Lockheed Model 422 P-38M-6-LO Night Lightning (44-27234, c/n 422-8238).

A number of Lightnings were modified as night fighters. There were several field or experimental modifications with different equipment fits that finally led to the "formal" P-38M night fighter, or Night Lightning. 75 P-38Ls were modified to the Night Lightning configuration, painted flat-black with conical flash hiders on the guns, an AN/APS-6 radar pod below the nose, and a second cockpit with a raised canopy behind the pilot's canopy for the radar operator. The headroom in the rear cockpit was limited, requiring radar operators who were preferably short in stature.

The additional external clutter imposed surprisingly little penalty on the P-38M's performance[citation needed], and it remained faster than the purpose-built P-61 Black Widow night fighter. The Night Lightnings saw some combat duty in the Pacific towards the end of the war, but none engaged in combat.

One of the initial production P-38s had its turbochargers removed, with a secondary cockpit placed in one of the booms to examine how flightcrew would respond to such an "asymmetric" cockpit layout. One P-38E was fitted with an extended central nacelle to accommodate a tandem-seat cockpit with dual controls, and was later fitted with a laminar flow wing.

Proposed floatplane P-38E testbed, 41-1986, c/n 222-5204, shown with second version of upswept tail designed to keep tail out of water upon takeoff

Very early in the Pacific War, a scheme was proposed to fit Lightnings with floats to allow them to make long-range ferry flights. The floats would be removed before the aircraft went into combat. There were concerns that saltwater spray would corrode the tailplane, and so in March 1942, P-38E c/n 5204 was modified with a tailplane raised some 16-18 in (41–46 cm), booms lengthened by two feet and a rearward-facing second seat added for an observer to monitor the effectiveness of the new arrangement. A second version was crafted on the same airframe with the twin booms given greater sideplane area to augment the vertical rudders. This arrangement was removed and a final third version was fabricated that had the booms returned to normal length but the tail raised 33 in (84 cm). All three tail modifications were designed by George H. "Bert" Estabrook. The final version was used for a quick series of dive tests on 7 December 1942 in which Milo Burcham performed the test maneuvers and Kelly Johnson observed from the rear seat. Johnson concluded that the raised floatplane tail gave no advantage in solving the problem of compressibility. At no time was this P-38E testbed airframe actually fitted with floats, and the idea was quickly abandoned as the U.S. Navy proved to have enough sealift capacity to keep up with P-38 deliveries to the South Pacific.[19]

Still another P-38E was used in 1942 to tow a Waco troop glider as a demonstration. However, there proved to be plenty of other aircraft, such as C-47s, available to tow gliders, and the Lightning was spared this duty.

Standard Lightnings were used as crew and cargo transports in the South Pacific. They were fitted with pods attached to the underwing pylons, replacing drop tanks or bombs, that could carry a single passenger in a lying-down position, or cargo. This was a very uncomfortable way to fly. Some of the pods weren't even fitted with a window to let the passenger see out or bring in light, and one fellow who hitched a lift on a P-38 in one of these pods later said that "whoever designed the damn thing should have been forced to ride in it."[citation needed]

Lockheed proposed a carrier-based Model 822 version of the Lightning for the United States Navy. The Model 822 would have featured folding wings, an arresting hook, and stronger undercarriage for carrier operations. The Navy was not interested, as they regarded the Lightning as too big for carrier operations and did not like liquid-cooled engines anyway, and the Model 822 never went beyond the paper stage. However, the Navy did operate four land-based F-5Bs in North Africa, inherited from the USAAF and redesignated FO-1.

A P-38J was used in experiments with an unusual scheme for mid-air refueling, in which the fighter snagged a drop tank trailed on a cable from a bomber. The USAAF managed to make this work, but decided it was not practical. A P-38J was also fitted with experimental retractable snow ski landing gear, but this idea never reached operational service either.

After the war, a P-38L was experimentally fitted with armament of three .60 in (15.2 mm) machine guns. The .60 in (15.2 mm) caliber cartridge had been developed early in the war for an infantry anti-tank rifle, a type of weapon developed by a number of nations in the 1930s when tanks were lighter but, by 1942, the idea of taking on a tank with a large-caliber rifle was considered to be somewhere between "outdated" and "suicidal".

The cartridge was not abandoned, with the Americans designing a derivative of the German 15 mm (.59 in) MG 151 cannon around it and designating the weapon the "T17", but though 300 of these guns were built and over six million .60 in (15.2 mm) rounds were manufactured, they never worked out all the bugs, and the T17 never saw operational service. The cartridge was "necked up" to fit 20 mm projectiles and became a standard U.S. ammunition after the war. The T17-armed P-38L did not go beyond unsuccessful trials.

Another P-38L was modified after the war as a "super strafer," with eight .50 in (12.7 mm) machine guns in the nose and a pod under each wing with two .50 in (12.7 mm) guns, for a total of 12 machine guns. Nothing came of this conversion, either.

A P-38L was modified by Hindustan Aeronautics in India as a fast VIP transport, with a comfortable seat in the nose, leather-lined walls, accommodations for refreshments and a glazed nose to give the passenger a spectacular view.

Operators

P-38s of 449th Fighter Squadron, Chengkung, 1945

Military

Civil

  •  Colombia
    • Instituto Geográfico Agustin Codazzi

Noted P-38s

File:Lockheed P-38 Lightning USAF.JPG
P-38J Lightning YIPPEE

YIPPEE

The 5,000th Lightning built, a P-38J-20-LO, 44-23296, was painted bright vermilion red, and had the name YIPPEE painted on the underside of the wings in big white letters as well as the signatures of hundreds of factory workers. This aircraft was used by Lockheed test pilots Milo Burcham and Tony LeVier in remarkable flight demonstrations, performing such stunts as slow rolls at treetop level with one prop feathered to show that the P-38 was not the unmanageable beast of legend. Their exploits did much to reassure pilots that the Lightning might be a handful, but it was by no means a "widow maker."[citation needed]

In-flight footage of the YIPPEE P-38 can be seen in the pilot episode of the Green Acres television series.

Survivors

Noted P-38 pilots

Richard Bong and Thomas McGuire

Major Richard Bong in his P-38.

The American ace of aces and his closest competitor both flew Lightnings as they tallied 40 and 38 victories each. Majors Richard I. "Dick" Bong and Thomas J. "Tommy" McGuire of the USAAF competed for the top position, a rivalry made interesting by the contrast in personalities of the two men. Both Bong and McGuire were very aggressive and fearless in the air. After dogfights, their P-38s would be warped out of shape by overstress.[citation needed] On the ground, they were completely different men. Dick Bong was a modest, quiet, almost shy man, while the egotistical McGuire was "an unpleasant individual with a talent much bigger than he was"[citation needed], as one of his colleagues remembered him.

Bong was rotated back to the States as America's ace of aces, after making 40 kills. He was killed on 6 August 1945, the day the atomic bomb was dropped on Japan, when his P-80 Shooting Star jet fighter flamed out on takeoff. McGuire had been killed in air combat in January 1945 over the Philippines, after racking up 38 confirmed kills, making him the second-ranking American ace. Both men were awarded the Medal of Honor.

(L-R) Thomas B. McGuire and Charles Lindbergh discussing a mission on Bial Island in July 1944.

Charles Lindbergh

The famed aviator Charles Lindbergh toured the South Pacific as a civilian contractor for United Aircraft Corporation, comparing and evaluating performance of single- and twin-engined fighters for Vought. He worked to improve range and load limits of the F4U Corsair, flying both routine and combat strafing missions in Corsairs alongside Marine pilots. In Hollandia, he attached himself to the 475th FG flying P-38s so that he could investigate the twin-engine fighter. Though new to the machine, he was instrumental in extending the range of the P-38 through improved throttle settings, or engine-leaning techniques, notably by reducing engine speed to 1,600 rpm, setting the carburetors for auto-lean and flying at 185 mph (298 km/h) indicated airspeed which reduced fuel consumption to 70 gal/h, about 2.6 mpg. This combination of settings had been considered dangerous; it was thought it would upset the fuel mixture and cause an explosion.[75] Everywhere Lindbergh went in the South Pacific, he was accorded the normal preferential treatment of a visiting colonel, though he had resigned his Air Corps Reserve colonel's commission three years before. While with the 475th, he held training classes and took part in a number of Army Air Corps combat missions. On 28 July 1944, Lindbergh shot down a Mitsubishi Ki-51 "Sonia" flown expertly by the veteran commander of 73rd Independent Flying Chutai, Imperial Japanese Army Captain Saburo Shimada. In an extended, twisting dogfight in which many of the participants ran out of ammunition, Shimada turned his aircraft directly toward Lindbergh who was just approaching the combat area. Lindbergh fired in a defensive reaction brought on by Shimada's apparent head-on ramming attack. Hit by cannon and machine gun fire, the "Sonia's" propeller visibly slowed, but Shimada held his course. Lindbergh pulled up at the last moment to avoid collision as the damaged "Sonia" went into a steep dive, hit the ocean and sank. Lindbergh's wingman, ace Joseph E. "Fishkiller" Miller, Jr., had also scored hits on the "Sonia" after it had begun its fatal dive, but Miller was certain the kill credit was Lindbergh's. The unofficial kill was not entered in the 475th's war record. On 12 August 1944 Lindbergh left Hollandia to return to the United States.[76]

Charles MacDonald

The seventh-ranking American ace, Charles H. MacDonald, also flew a Lightning against the Japanese, scoring 27 kills in his famous aircraft, the Putt Putt Maru.

Robin Olds

Robin Olds was the last P-38 ace in the Eighth Air Force and the last in the ETO. Flying a P-38J, he downed five German fighters on two separate missions over France and Germany. He subsequently transitioned to P-51s to make seven more kills. After World War II, he flew F-4 Phantom IIs in Vietnam, ending his career as brigadier general with 16 kills.

Clay Tice

A P-38 piloted by Clay Tice was the first American aircraft to land in Japan after VJ-Day, when he and his wingman set down on Nitagahara because his wingman was low on fuel.[77]

Antoine de Saint Exupéry

Noted aviation pioneer and writer Antoine de Saint Exupéry vanished in a F-5B-1-LO, 42-68223, c/n 2734, of II/33 Squadron, out of Borgo-Porreta, Bastia, Corsica, a reconnaissance variant of the P-38, while on a flight over the Mediterranean, from Corsica to mainland France, on 31 July 1944. His health, both physical and mental (he was said to be intermittently subject to depression[citation needed]), had been deteriorating and there had been talk of taking him off flight status. There have been suggestions (although no proof to date) that this was a suicide rather than an aircraft failure or combat loss. In 2000, a French scuba diver found the wreckage of a Lightning in the Mediterranean off the coast of Marseille, and it was confirmed in April 2004 as Saint Exupéry's F-5B. No evidence of air combat was found.[78] In March 2008, a former Luftwaffe pilot, Horst Rippert from Jagdgruppe 200, claimed to have shot down Exupéry.[79]

Adrian Warburton

The RAF's legendary photo-recon "ace", Wing Commander Adrian Warburton DSO DFC, was the pilot of a Lockheed P-38 borrowed from the USAAF that took off on 12 April 1944 to photograph targets in Germany. W/C Warburton failed to arrive at the rendezvous point and was never seen again. In 2003, his remains were recovered in Germany from his wrecked USAAF P-38 Lightning.[citation needed]

Specifications (P-38L)

Lockheed P-38L Lightning at the National Museum of the United States Air Force, marked as a P-38J of the 55th Fighter Squadron, based in England.[80]

Data from Lockheed P-38 Lightning Pilot's Flight Manual[81]

General characteristicsArmament
M2 machine gun armament in the nose of the P-38.
  • Hispano M2(C) 20 mm cannon with 150 rounds
  • Browning MG53-2 0.50 in (12.7 mm) machine guns with 500 rpg.
  • 4× M10 three-tube 4.5 in (112 mm) rocket launchers or:
  • Inner Hardpoints: 2× 2,000 lb (907 kg) bombs or drop tanks; or 2× 1,000 lb (454 kg) bombs or drop tanks, plus either 4× 500 lb (227 kg) or 4× 250 lb (113 kg) bombs; or 6× 500 lb (227 kg) or 6× 250 lb (113 kg) bombs
  • Outer Hardpoints: 10× 5 in (127 mm) HVARs (High Velocity Aircraft Rocket); or 2× 500 lb (227 kg) or 2× 250 lb (113 kg) bombs

Popular culture

Harley Earl arranged for several of his designers to view a YP-38 prototype shortly before World War II, and its design directly inspired the tail fins of the 1948–1949 Cadillac.[88]

The P-38 was also the inspiration for Raymond Loewy and his design team at Studebaker for the 1950 and 1951 model-year Studebakers.[89]

The Lockheed P-38 has been the "star" of a number of contemporary movies including:

  • Von Ryan's Express (1965) begins with main protagonist, USAAF Colonel Joseph Ryan (Frank Sinatra) crash landing a P-38 in WWII Italy, where he is then captured as a POW.
  • A Guy Named Joe (1943) has Spencer Tracy returning as a guiding spirit looking after young P-38 pilot Van Johnson.
  • Flight Characteristics of the Lockheed P-38 Lightning (1943, color, 34:00). Lockheed's top World War II test pilots do the checkout on this very thorough pilot training film.
  • Yamamoto shot down! (1944, B&W, 4:00) The P-38 Squadron that shot down Admiral Yamamoto in an incredible long distance interception in the Pacific, is depicted. The film includes purported P-38 gun camera footage of the Admiral's Betty bomber going down in flames.
  • Dick Bong: Pacific Ace (1944, B&W, 4:00) This short documentary film pays tribute to Richard "Dick" Bong, the leading American P-38 ace of World War II.
  • P-38 Reconnaissance Pilot (1944, B&W, 29:00) Starring William Holden as Lt. "Packy" Cummings, this short feature shows that photo recon pilots (photo Joes) had one of the riskiest, highest impact jobs in the war.
  • Angel in Overalls (1945, B&W, 15:00) This film was developed to show US Lockheed P-38 production line workers in a wide variety of roles.

Scaled Composites Pond Racer (1991-1993), built by Burt Rutan, echoed the design of the P-38 in a radical way.


See also

Ruth Dailey, WASP climbs into a P-38.
United States Air Force portal

Related development

Comparable aircraft
Configuration

Performance

Influence

Related lists

References

Notes

  1. ^ Bodie 1991, pp. 200–201.
  2. ^ Honduran Air Force
  3. ^ a b c Donald, David, ed. "Lockheed P-38 Lightning." The Encyclopedia of World Aircraft. Etobicoke, Ontario, Canada: Prospero Books, 1997. ISBN 1-85605-375-X.
  4. ^ "Army Air Forces Statistical Digest - World War II. Table 82—Average Cost of Airplanes Authorized, by principal model: Fiscal Years 1939–1945". www.maxwell.af.mil. Retrieved: 7 February 2009.
  5. ^ Gunston 1980, p. 133.
  6. ^ P-38 Lightning. Retrieved: 21 January 2007.
  7. ^ Stanaway 1997
  8. ^ PTO/CBI Pilots of WWII, Top American aces of the Pacific & CBI: 5th, 13th and 14th Air Force fighter pilots, Mostly P-38 Lightning pilots, also some P-47, P-40 and P-51 aces Retrieved: 8 May 2007.
  9. ^ Gunston/Octopus 1980, p. 133.
  10. ^ Bodie 1991, pp. 16–17.
  11. ^ Bodie 1991, p. 14.
  12. ^ Lockheed P-38 Lightning. Retrieved: 21 January 2007.
  13. ^ Bodie 1991, p. 19.
  14. ^ "XP-38 Design Drawings: A diagram of the configurations considered for the prototype". P-38 National Association & Museum. Retrieved: 21 January 2007.
  15. ^ Spick 2002, p. 224.
  16. ^ a b c Lockheed P-38 Lightning - USA. Retrieved: 21 January 2007.
  17. ^ Loftin, L.K. Jr. "Quest for Performance: The Evolution of Modern Aircraft. NASA SP-468". hq.nasa.gov. Retrieved: 22 April 2006.
  18. ^ O'Leary, Michael. "Conquering the Sky!" Air Classics, April 2005. Retrieved: 26 January 2007.
  19. ^ a b Bodie 2001, p. 32.
  20. ^ Bodie 2001, p. 33.
  21. ^ Knaack, Marcelle Size. Encyclopedia of US Air Force Aircraft and Missile Systems: Volume 1 Post-World War II Fighters 1945-1973. Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History, 1978. ISBN 0-912799-59-5.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Caidin, Martin. Fork-tailed Devil, New York: Ballantine Books, 1983, ISBN 0-345-31292-9.
  23. ^ Bodie 1991, p. 51.
  24. ^ P-38 National Association & Museum. About the P-38: Early Years. Retrieved: 21 January 2007.
  25. ^ a b c "Lockheed P-38J-10-LO Lightning". Collections Database: National Air and Space Museum. Retrieved: 6 February 2009.
  26. ^ Ralph Virden obituary
  27. ^ a b Bodie 2001, p. 58.
  28. ^ Bodie 2001, p. 57.
  29. ^ Baugher, Joe. "Lockheed YP-38 Lightning." Joe Baugher's Encyclopedia of American Military Aircraft, 13 June 1999. Retrieved: 29 January 2007.
  30. ^ Bodie 2001, pp. 174–175.
  31. ^ Ethell et al. 1984, p. 14.
  32. ^ Goebel, Greg. "The Lockheed P-38 Lightning." vectorsite.net, Version 1.3. Retrieved: 21 January 2007.
  33. ^ Bodie 2001, p. 210.
  34. ^ Baugher, Joe. "Lockheed P-38 Lightning." Joe Baugher's Encyclopedia of American Military Aircraft, 13 June 1999. Retrieved: 29 January 2007.
  35. ^ Baugher, Joe. "Lockheed XP-38A Lightning." Joe Baugher's Encyclopedia of American Military Aircraft, 13 June 1999. Retrieved: 29 January 2007.
  36. ^ Baugher, Joe. "Lockheed P-38D Lightning." Joe Baugher's Encyclopedia of American Military Aircraft, 13 June 1999. Retrieved: 29 January 2007.
  37. ^ Bodie 2001, p. 46.
  38. ^ Bodie 2001, pp. 45, 47. Note that turbo-superchargers weren't secret or restricted by the United States government. Related designs were known from French and Swiss firms. France and the UK didn't want turbo-superchargers; they had never employed them and they knew the American ones were in short supply.
  39. ^ a b c d e Bodie 2001, p. 60.
  40. ^ Bodie 2001, p. 63.
  41. ^ a b Bodie 2001, p. 61.
  42. ^ a b c Bodie 2001, p. 64.
  43. ^ Baugher, Joe. "Lightning I for RAF." Joe Baugher's Encyclopedia of American Military Aircraft, 2 December 2002. Retrieved: 29 January 2007.
  44. ^ a b c d Baugher, Joe. "P-38 in European Theatre." Joe Baugher's Encyclopedia of American Military Aircraft, 13 June 1999. Retrieved: 4 February 2007.
  45. ^ Maloney 1968, p. 4.
  46. ^ Stanaway 2001, p. 43.
  47. ^ Stanaway, John C. P-38 Lightning Aces of the ETO/MTO. New York: Osprey, 1997. ISBN 1-85532-698-1.
  48. ^ a b Scutts 1994, p. 61.
  49. ^ Sims 1980, pp. 134–135.
  50. ^ Spick 1983, p. 94.
  51. ^ Tillman 2004, p. 8.
  52. ^ "Interview with General James H. Doolittle". Hotlinecy.com. Retrieved: 6 February 2009.
  53. ^ a b Lockheed, Of Men and Stars 1958, p. 11.
  54. ^ a b "Army Air Corps, World War II: 370th Fighter Group". Living History Group. Retrieved; 14 December 2009.
  55. ^ Achtung Jabos! The Story of the IX TAC. Stars and Stripes Publications, Information and Education Division, Special and Informational Services, ETOUSA, 1944.
  56. ^ Dimensione cielo 1973, p. 72.
  57. ^ a b c Cesarani and Kavanaugh 2004, pp. 234–235.
  58. ^ Stanaway 1998, pp. 43–46.
  59. ^ Hatch 2000, pp. 59–67.
  60. ^ Neulen 2000, pp. 113-114.
  61. ^ "Mission No. 702 / 10 June 1944 / Romana Americana Oil Refinery, Ploesti, Rumania." 82nd Fighter Group. Retrieved: 27 August 2009.
  62. ^ Thompson with Smith 2008, p. 240.
  63. ^ a b Stanaway 1997, p. 14.
  64. ^ Bodie 2001, p. 223.
  65. ^ Bodie 2001, p. 214.
  66. ^ Bodie 2001, p. 217.
  67. ^ Bodie 2001, p. 234.
  68. ^ Sgarlato 2000
  69. ^ Lockheed P-38 Lightning. Retrieved: 23 January 2007
  70. ^ Johnson, Clarence L. "Kelly". Kelly: More Than My Share of it All. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Books, 1985. ISBN 0-87474-491-1.
  71. ^ a b c "WWII Aircraft Performance: P-38F Tactical Trials". Final Report on Tactical Suitability of the P-38F Type Airplane, 6 March 1943. Retrieved: 19 January 2009.
  72. ^ Baugher, Joe. "Lockheed P-38J Lightning.." Joe Baugher's Encyclopedia of American Military Aircraft, 5 June 1999. Retrieved: 29 January 2007.
  73. ^ Bodie 2001, pp. 169–171.
  74. ^ "P38K." P-38 Lightning online, 21 October 2007. Retrieved: 6 February 2009.
  75. ^ Kirkland 2003, p. 29-35.
  76. ^ Charles Lindbergh and the 475th Fighter Group (from the book Lightning Strikes)
  77. ^ Scutts 2006, p. 130.
  78. ^ Aero-relic.org "Riou island's F-5B Lightning, Rhône's delta, France. Pilot: Commander Antoine de Saint-Exupéry." aero-relic.org. Retrieved: 14 December 2009.
  79. ^ "How a German wartime flying ace discovered he shot down his hero." Sunday Daily Mail, 17 March 2008. Retrieved: 14 December 2009.
  80. ^ United States Air Force Museum Guidebook 1987, p. 54.
  81. ^ "Lockheed P-38 Lightning Pilot's Flight Manual." USAAF, 1944. Retrieved: 14 December 2009.
  82. ^ a b c d e f NASA. History. Quest for Performance: The Evolution of Modern Aircraft. Appendix A (continued), Table III. Characteristics of Illustrative Aircraft, 1939-80.
  83. ^ As certified by Lockheed and Allison Industries
  84. ^ Courtesy of Lockheed-Martin Corp.
  85. ^ 414 mph (667 km/h) on Military Power: 1,425 hp at 54 inHG at 25,000 ft (7,620 m)
  86. ^ At Eglin Field in 1942, with P-38F.
  87. ^ The P-38G and later models further tightened the turn radius, especially the P-38L.
  88. ^ Holls, Dave and Michael Lamm. A Century of Automotive Style: 100 Years of American Car Design. Stockton, CA: Lamm-Morada Publishing Co., 1996. ISBN 78-0932128072.
  89. ^ "The P-38 prowls the highway." Hemmings Motor News, courtesy of Studebaker. Retrieved: 14 December 2009.
  90. ^ "'Lightning II' moniker given to Joint Strike Fighter." Air Force Link, United States Air Force, 7 July 2006. Retrieved: 1 December 2008.

Bibliography

  • Abela, Stephen. "Airfield Tales: Lincolnshire’s wartime legacy." www.jamesabela.co.uk (Video documentary), 2006.
  • Bodie, Warren M. The Lockheed P-38 Lightning: The Definitive Story of Lockheed's P-38 Fighter. Hayesville, North Carolina: Widewing Publications, 2001, 1991. ISBN 0-96293-595-6.
  • Caidin, Martin. Fork-tailed Devil. New York: Ballantine Books, 1983. ISBN 0-345-31292-9.
  • Cain, Charles W. and Mike Jerram. Fighters of World War II. New York: Exeter Books, 1979. ISBN 0-89673-026-3.
  • Cesarani, David and Sarah Kavanaugh. Holocaust: Critical Concepts in Historical Studies, Volume 5. Abingdon, Oxford, UK: Routledge, 2004. ISBN 0-41531-871-8.
  • Christy, Joe and Jeffrey L. Ethell. P-38 Lightning at War. New York: Scribners, 1977. ISBN 0-684-15740-3.
  • Dimensione cielo. Caccia Assalto 3 - aerei italiani nella 2a guerra mondiale. Roma, Edizioni Bizzarri, 1973. NO ISBN.
  • Dorr, Robert F. and David Donald. Fighters of the US Air Force: From World War I Pursuits to the F-117. New York: Military Press, 1990. ISBN 0-517-66994-3.
  • Ethell, Jeffrey L. P-38 Lightning in World War II Color. St. Paul, Minnesota: Motorbooks International, 1994. ISBN 0-87938-868-4.
  • Ethell, Jeffrey L. et al. "P-38 Lightning." The Great Book of World War II Airplanes (Originally published as 12 separate volumes for each individual aircraft). Tokyo: Bonanza Books, 1984. ISBN 0-517-459930.
  • Francillon, René J. Lockheed Aircraft since 1913. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1987. (Originally published by Putnam Aeronautical Books, London). ISBN 0-97021-897-2.
  • Gunston, Bill. Aircraft of World War II. New York: Crescent Books, 1980. ISBN 0-517-31680-3.
  • Gunston, Bill. The Illustrated History of Fighters. New York: Pocket Books, 1981. ISBN 0-671-05655-7.
  • Hatch, Herbert. An Ace and his Angel: Memoirs of a World War II Fighter Pilot. Nashville, Kentucky: Turner Publishing Company, 2000. ISBN 1-56311-574-3.
  • Kirkland, Richard. War Pilot: True Tales of Combat and Adventure. New York: Ballantine Books, 2003. ISBN 0-34545-812-5.
  • Lockheed Aircraft Corporation. Of Men and Stars: A History of Lockheed Aircraft Corporation, 1913-1957. Lockheed Aircraft Corporation, 1958.
  • Maloney, Edward T. Lockheed P-38 "Lightning", Aero Series Vol. 19, Fallbrook, CA: Aero Publishers, Inc., 1968.
  • Neulen, Hans Werner. In the Skies of Europe. Ramsbury, Marlborough, UK: The Crowood Press, 2000. ISBN 1-86126-799-1.
  • Scutts, Jerry. Bf 109 Aces of North Africa and the Mediterranean. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing, 1994. ISBN 1-85532-448-2.
  • Scutts, Jerry. Lockheed P-38 Lightning. London: Crowood, 2006. ISBN 1-86126-770-3.
  • Sgarlato, Nico. "I P-38 Italiani. (in Italian)". Aerei Nella Storia n.21, December 2000.
  • Sims, Edward H. Fighter Tactics and Strategy 1914-1970. Fallbrook, California: Aero publisher Inc., 1980. ISBN 0-8168-8795-0.
  • Spick, Mike. Fighter Pilot Tactics: The Techniques of Daylight Air Combat. Cambridge, UK: Patrick Stephens, 1983. ISBN 0-85059-617-3.
  • Spick, Mike. The Illustrated Directory of Fighters. St. Paul, MN: Salamander Books, 2002. ISBN 0-7603-1343-1.
  • Stanaway, John C. P-38 Lightning Aces of the Pacific and CBI. New York: Osprey, 1997. ISBN 1-85532-633-7.
  • Stanaway, John C. P-38 Lightning Aces of the ETO/MTO. London: Osprey Publishing, 1998. ISBN 1-85532-698-1.
  • Stanaway, John C. P-39 Airacobra Aces of World War 2. London: Osprey Publishing, 2001. ISBN 1-84176-204-0.
  • Tillman, Barrett. Brassey's D-Day Encyclopedia: The Normandy Invasion AZ. Dulles, VA: Potomac Books (formerly Brassey's, Inc.), 2004. ISBN 1-57488-760-2.
  • Thompson, J. Steve with Peter C. Smith. Air combat manoeuvres. Hersham (Surrey), Ian Allan Publishing, 2008. ISBN 978-1-903223-98-7.
  • United States Air Force Museum Guidebook. Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio: Air Force Museum Foundation, 1987.

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