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definitions - Paints

paint (n.)

1.a substance used as a coating to protect or decorate a surface (especially a mixture of pigment suspended in a liquid); dries to form a hard coating"artists use `paint' and `pigment' interchangeably"

2.makeup consisting of a pink or red powder applied to the cheeks

3.(basketball) a space (including the foul line) in front of the basket at each end of a basketball court; usually painted a different color from the rest of the court"he hit a jump shot from the top of the key" "he dominates play in the paint"

paint (v. trans.)

1.apply paint to; coat with paint"We painted the rooms yellow"

2.apply a liquid to; e.g., paint the gutters with linseed oil

3.make a painting of"He painted his mistress many times"

4.make a painting"he painted all day in the garden" "He painted a painting of the garden"

paint (v.)

1.decorate with colors"color the walls with paint in warm tones"

2.apply a liquid to; e.g., paint the gutters with linseed oil

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Merriam Webster

PaintPaint (pānt), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Painted; p. pr. & vb. n. Painting.] [OE. peinten, fr. F. peint, p. p. of peindre to paint, fr. L. pingere, pictum; cf. Gr. poiki`los many-colored, Skr. piç to adorn. Cf. Depict, Picture, Pigment, Pint.]
1. To cover with coloring matter; to apply paint to; as, to paint a house, a signboard, etc.

Jezebel painted her face and tired her head. 2 Kings ix. 30.

2. Fig.: To color, stain, or tinge; to adorn or beautify with colors; to diversify with colors.

Not painted with the crimson spots of blood. Shak.

Cuckoo buds of yellow hue
Do paint the meadows with delight.
Shak.

3. To form in colors a figure or likeness of on a flat surface, as upon canvas; to represent by means of colors or hues; to exhibit in a tinted image; to portray with paints; as, to paint a portrait or a landscape.

4. Fig.: To represent or exhibit to the mind; to describe vividly; to delineate; to image; to depict; as, to paint a political opponent as a traitor.

Disloyal?
The word is too good to paint out her wickedness.
Shak.

If folly grow romantic, I must paint it. Pope.

Syn. -- To color; picture; depict; portray; delineate; sketch; draw; describe.

PaintPaint, v. t.
1. To practice the art of painting; as, the artist paints well.

2. To color one's face by way of beautifying it.

Let her paint an inch thick. Shak.

PaintPaint, n.
1. (a) A pigment or coloring substance. (b) The same prepared with a vehicle, as oil, water with gum, or the like, for application to a surface.

2. A cosmetic; rouge. Praed.

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definition (more)

definition of Wikipedia

synonyms - Paints

Paint (n.) (MeSH)

Varnish  (MeSH)

paint (v.)

color, colour, emblazon

paint (v. trans.)

depict, blot  (pejorative), slop  (pejorative)

see also - Paints

paint (v. trans.)

painting, repaint

phrases

-2 Paint It Gold • Acrylic paint • Aerosol paint • Alice no Paint Adventure • Alive in Wild Paint • American Paint Horse • American Paint Horse Association • Amtrak paint schemes • Anti-climb paint • Anti-fouling paint • Behind the Paint • Behr (paint) • Blacklight paint • Bristol Paint • Casein paint • Chrome and Paint • Cook Paint and Varnish Company • Corel Paint Shop Pro • Corel Photo-Paint • Corpse paint • Corpse paint in heavy metal • Danny Dunn and the Anti-Gravity Paint • Deluxe Paint • Deluxe Paint Animation • Digital ink and paint • Distemper (paint) • Electro-paint • Electrophoretic paint • Enamel paint • Environmental issues with paint • Face paint • Finger paint • Finger-paint • Fountain Paint Pots • Fresh Paint • GNU Paint • Gloss (paint) • Henry Nicholas Paint • Historic paint analysis • I Love to Paint • I Remember Better When I Paint • I'll Paint You a Song • I'll Paint the Sky • Ice Cream Paint Job • Indian Paint Brush • Insulative paint • Kanawha and Paint Creek Railway • Lead Based Paint • Lead Paint Safety Association • Lead-based paint in the United Kingdom • Lead-based paint in the United States • Let the Picture Paint Itself • Let's Paint TV • List of RLM paint designations • Luminous paint • Magna paint • Mario Paint • Mario Paint Composer • Metallic paint • Microsoft Paint • Milk paint • Must I Paint You a Picture? The Essential Billy Bragg • My Kid Could Paint That • My Name Is Alan and I Paint Pictures • New Coat of Paint • Nova Color Artists Acrylic Paint • Oil paint • Paint (band) • Paint (disambiguation) • Paint (software) • Paint Bank, Virginia • Paint Box (song) • Paint Branch • Paint Branch High School • Paint By DS • Paint Creek • Paint Creek (Clear Fork Brazos River) • Paint Creek (Iowa) • Paint Creek (Michigan) • Paint Creek (Ohio) • Paint Creek Archeological Site • Paint Creek Independent School District • Paint Creek State Park • Paint Creek Township, Allamakee County, Iowa • Paint Creek, Texas • Paint Dancers • Paint Dancing • Paint Hills Islands • Paint It Black (band) • Paint It Black (disambiguation) • Paint It Black (novel) • Paint It, Black • Paint Lick, Kentucky • Paint Me a Birmingham • Paint My Love • Paint NET • Paint Pastel Princess • Paint River • Paint Rock • Paint Rock Bluff • Paint Rock Independent School District • Paint Rock River • Paint Rock, Alabama • Paint Rock, Texas • Paint Shop Pro Photo 12.01 • Paint Township • Paint Township, Clarion County, Pennsylvania • Paint Township, Fayette County, Ohio • Paint Township, Highland County, Ohio • Paint Township, Holmes County, Ohio • Paint Township, Madison County, Ohio • Paint Township, Ohio • Paint Township, Ross County, Ohio • Paint Township, Somerset County, Pennsylvania • Paint Township, Wayne County, Ohio • Paint Valley High School • Paint Your Dragon • Paint Your Target • Paint Your Wagon • Paint Your Wagon (album) • Paint Your Wagon (film) • Paint Your Wagon (musical) • Paint and Paint • Paint animation • Paint as a Fragrance • Paint brush • Paint by Number (album) • Paint by number • Paint by numbers • Paint chat • Paint marker • Paint mask • Paint mine • Paint on glass • Paint on glass animation • Paint recycling • Paint robot • Paint roller • Paint sealant • Paint shop • Paint spray • Paint sprayer • Paint stripper • Paint the Sky with Stars • Paint the Town • Paint the Town Red • Paint thinner • Paint your wagon simpsons • Paint, Pennsylvania • Paint-on-glass • Paint-on-glass animation • Paint-on-glass-animated • Paint.NET • Paint.NET v2.6 • Paint.NET v2.62 • Paint.NET v2.70 • Paint.NET v3.0 • Paint.NET v3.01 • Paint.NET v3.08 • Paint.NET v3.10 • Paint.NET v3.20 • Paint.NET v3.22 • Paint.NET v3.31 • Paint.NET v3.36 • Paradise (Paint It Black album) • Photon Paint • Pictor Paint • Picture Bleeds Paint • Plättchen Twist 'n' Paint • Pocket Paint • Poster paint • Pressure sensitive paint • Pressure-sensitive paint • Recycled paint • Rodda Paint • Satori Paint • Silicate mineral paint • Special paint scheme • Spray paint art • Spray-paint • Striped paint • The Blue Paint Killer • The Ink and Paint Club • The Revolving Paint Dream • Thermochromic paint • To Paint or Make Love • Tradin' Paint • Tree paint • Ultimate Paint • War Paint • War Paint (1926 film) • War Paint (1953 film) • Water miscible oil paint • Watercolor paint • Wet paint sign • When I Paint My Masterpiece • When Life Gives You Lemons, You Paint That Shit Gold • Why Cats Paint • Why Paint Cats

analogical dictionary







paint (v.)


slop; paint; blot[ClasseHyper.]

paint (v. tr.)



paint (v. tr.)






Wikipedia - see also

Wikipedia

Paint

                   
  Dried green paint

Paint is any liquid, liquefiable, or mastic composition which, after application to a substrate in a thin layer, is converted to a solid film. It is most commonly used to protect, color or provide texture to objects.

Contents

  History

In 2011, South African archeologists reported finding a 100,000 year old human-made ochre-based mixture which may have been used like paint.[1] Cave paintings drawn with red or yellow ochre, hematite, manganese oxide, and charcoal may have been made by early Homo sapiens as long as 40,000 years ago.

Ancient colored walls at Dendera, Egypt, which were exposed for years to the elements, still possess their brilliant color, as vivid as when they were painted about 2,000 years ago. The Egyptians mixed their colors with a gummy substance, and applied them separate from each other without any blending or mixture. They appeared to have used six colors: white, black, blue, red, yellow, and green. They first covered the area entirely with white then traced the design in black, leaving out the lights of the ground color. They used minium for red, and generally of a dark tinge.

Pliny mentions some painted ceilings in his day in the town of Ardea, which had been done prior to the foundation of Rome. He expresses great surprise and admiration at their freshness, after the lapse of so many centuries.

Paint was made with the yolk of eggs and therefore, the substance would harden and adhere to the surface it is applied to. Pigment was made from plants, sand, and different soils.

  Components

  Binder, vehicle, or resins

The binder, commonly called the vehicle, is the film-forming component of paint. It is the only component that must be present. Components listed below are included optionally, depending on the desired properties of the cured film.

The binder imparts adhesion and strongly influences such properties as gloss, durability, flexibility, and toughness.

Binders include synthetic or natural resins such as alkyds, acrylics, vinyl-acrylics, vinyl acetate/ethylene (VAE), polyurethanes, polyesters, melamine resins, epoxy, or oils. Binders can be categorized according to the mechanisms for drying or curing. Although drying may refer to evaporation of the solvent or thinner, it usually refers to oxidative cross-linking of the binders and is indistinguishable from curing. Some paints form by solvent evaporation only, but most rely on cross-linking processes.[2]

Paints that dry by solvent evaporation and contain a solid binder dissolved in a solvent are known as lacquers. A solid film forms when the solvent evaporates, and because the film can re-dissolve in solvent, lacquers are unsuitable for applications where chemical resistance is important. Classic nitrocellulose lacquers fall into this category, as do non-grain raising stains composed of dyes dissolved in solvent and more modern acrylic-based coatings such as 5-ball Krylon aerosol. Performance varies by formulation, but lacquers generally tend to have better UV resistance and lower corrosion resistance than comparable systems that cure by polymerization or coalescence.

Latex paint is a water-borne dispersion of sub-micrometre polymer particles. The term "latex" in the context of paint simply means an aqueous dispersion; latex rubber (the sap of the rubber tree that has historically been called latex) is not an ingredient. These dispersions are prepared by emulsion polymerization. Latex paints cure by a process called coalescence where first the water, and then the trace, or coalescing, solvent, evaporate and draw together and soften the latex binder particles and fuse them together into irreversibly bound networked structures, so that the paint will not redissolve in the solvent/water that originally carried it. The residual surfactants in paint as well as hydrolytic effects with some polymers cause the paint to remain susceptible to softening and, over time, degradation by water.

Paints that cure by oxidative crosslinking are generally single package coatings. When applied, the exposure to oxygen in the air starts a process that crosslinks and polymerizes the binder component. Classic alkyd enamels would fall into this category. Oxidative cure coatings are catalyzed by metal complex driers such as cobalt naphthenate.

Paints that cure by polymerization are generally one or two package coatings that polymerize by way of a chemical reaction and which cure into a crosslinked film. Depending on composition they may need to dry first, by evaporation of solvent. Classic two package epoxies or polyurethanes would fall into this category.[3]

There are paints called plastisols/organosols, which are made by blending PVC granules with a plasticiser. These are stoved and the mix coalesceses.

Other films are formed by cooling of the binder. For example, encaustic or wax paints are liquid when warm, and harden upon cooling. In many cases, they will resoften or liquify if reheated.

Recent environmental requirements restrict the use of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and alternative means of curing have been developed, particularly for industrial purposes. In UV curing paints, the solvent is evaporated first, and hardening is then initiated by ultraviolet light. In powder coatings there is little or no solvent, and flow and cure are produced by heating of the substrate after electrostatic application of the dry powder.

  Diluent or Solvent

The main purposes of the diluent are to dissolve the polymer and adjust the viscosity of the paint. It is volatile and does not become part of the paint film. It also controls flow and application properties, and in some cases can affect the stability of the paint while in liquid state. Its main function is as the carrier for the non volatile components. To spread heavier oils (for example, linseed) as in oil-based interior housepaint, a thinner oil is required. These volatile substances impart their properties temporarily—once the solvent has evaporated, the remaining paint is fixed to the surface.

This component is optional: some paints have no diluent.

Water is the main diluent for water-borne paints, even the co-solvent types.

Solvent-borne, also called oil-based, paints can have various combinations of organic solvents as the diluent, including aliphatics, aromatics, alcohols, ketones and white spirit. Specific examples are organic solvents such as petroleum distillate, esters, glycol ethers, and the like. Sometimes volatile low-molecular weight synthetic resins also serve as diluents.

  Pigment or Filler

Pigments are granular solids incorporated in the paint to contribute color. Fillers are granular solids incorporate to impart toughness, texture, give the paint special properties, or to reduce the cost of the paint. Alternatively, some paints contain dyes instead of or in combination with pigments.

Pigments can be classified as either natural or synthetic types. Natural pigments include various clays, calcium carbonate, mica, silicas, and talcs. Synthetics would include engineered molecules, calcined clays, blanc fixe, precipitated calcium carbonate, and synthetic pyrogenic silicas.

Hiding pigments, in making paint opaque, also protect the substrate from the harmful effects of ultraviolet light. Hiding pigments include titanium dioxide, phthalo blue, red iron oxide, and many others.

Fillers are a special type of pigment that serve to thicken the film, support its structure and increase the volume of the paint. Fillers are usually cheap and inert materials, such as diatomaceous earth, talc, lime, barytes, clay, etc. Floor paints that will be subjected to abrasion may contain fine quartz sand as a filler. Not all paints include fillers. On the other hand, some paints contain large proportions of pigment/filler and binder.

Some pigments are toxic, such as the lead pigments that are used in lead paint. Paint manufacturers began replacing white lead pigments with the less toxic substitute, titanium white (titanium dioxide), before lead was banned in paint for residential use in 1978 by the US Consumer Product Safety Commission. The titanium dioxide used in most paints today is often coated with silica/alumina/zirconium for various reasons, such as better exterior durability, or better hiding performance (opacity) promoted by more optimal spacing within the paint film.

  Additives

Besides the three main categories of ingredients, paint can have a wide variety of miscellaneous additives, which are usually added in small amounts, yet provide a significant effect on the product. Some examples include additives to modify surface tension, improve flow properties, improve the finished appearance, increase wet edge, improve pigment stability, impart antifreeze properties, control foaming, control skinning, etc. Other types of additives include catalysts, thickeners, stabilizers, emulsifiers, texturizers, adhesion promoters, UV stabilizers, flatteners (de-glossing agents), biocides to fight bacterial growth, and the like.

Additives normally do not significantly alter the percentages of individual components in a formulation.[4]

  Color changing paint

Various technologies exist for making paints that change color. Thermochromic paints and coatings contain materials that change conformation when heat is applied, and so they change color. Liquid crystals have been used in such paints, such as in the thermometer strips and tapes used in aquaria. Photochromic paints and coatings contain dyes that change conformation when the film is exposed to UV light, and so they change color. These materials are used to make eyeglasses.

Color changing paints can also be made by adding halochrome compounds or other organic pigments. One patent[5] cites use of these indicators for wall coating applications for light colored paints. When the paint is wet it is pink in color but upon drying it regains its original white color. As cited in patent, this property of the paint enabled two or multiple coats to be applied on a wall properly and evenly. The previous coat/s having dried would be white whereas the new wet coat would be distinctly pink. Ashland Inc. introduced foundry refractory coatings with similar principle in 2005[6][7] for use in foundries.

Electrochromic paints change color in response to an applied electric current. Car manufacturer Nissan has been reportedly working on an electrochromic paint, based on particles of paramagnetic iron oxide. When subjected to an electromagnetic field the paramagnetic particles change spacing, modifying their color and reflective properties. The electromagnetic field would be formed using the conductive metal of the car body.[8] Electrochromic paints can be applied to plastic substrates as well, using a different coating chemistry. The technology involves using special dyes that change conformation when an electric current is applied across the film itself. Recently, this new technology has been used to achieve glare protection at the touch of a button in passenger airplane windows.

  Art

  Watercolors as applied with a brush

Since the time of the Renaissance, siccative (drying) oil paints, primarily linseed oil, have been the most commonly used kind of paints in fine art applications; oil paint is still common today. However, in the 20th century, water-based paints, including watercolors and acrylic paints, became very popular with the development of acrylic and other latex paints. Milk paints (also called casein), where the medium is derived from the natural emulsion that is milk, were popular in the 19th century and are still available today. Egg tempera (where the medium is an emulsion of egg yolk mixed with oil) is still in use as well, as are encaustic wax-based paints. Gouache is a variety of opaque watercolor which was also used in the Middle Ages and Renaissance for manuscript illuminations. The pigment was often made from ground semiprecious stones such as lapis lazuli and the binder made from either gum arabic or egg white. Gouache, also known as 'designer color' or 'body color' is commercially available today.

Poster paint has been used primarily in the creation of student works, or by children.

  The "painter's mussel", a European freshwater mussel. Individual shell valves were used by artists as a small dish for paint.

  Application

Paint can be applied as a solid, a gaseous suspension (aerosol) or a liquid. Techniques vary depending on the practical or artistic results desired.

As a solid (usually used in industrial and automotive applications), the paint is applied as a very fine powder, then baked at high temperature. This melts the powder and causes it to adhere to the surface. The reasons for doing this involve the chemistries of the paint, the surface itself, and perhaps even the chemistry of the substrate (the object being painted). This is called "powder coating" an object.

As a gas or as a gaseous suspension, the paint is suspended in solid or liquid form in a gas that is sprayed on an object. The paint sticks to the object. This is called "spray painting" an object. The reasons for doing this include:

  • The application mechanism is air and thus no solid object touches the object being painted;
  • The distribution of the paint is uniform, so there are no sharp lines;
  • It is possible to deliver very small amounts of paint;
  • A chemical (typically a solvent) can be sprayed along with the paint to dissolve together both the delivered paint and the chemicals on the surface of the object being painted;
  • Some chemical reactions in paint involve the orientation of the paint molecules.

The application of the paint is fairly easily if done correctly. It is the prep work and order of operations that is tedious and detailed. Your first step when painting is to make sure you move all of the furniture, pictures,tables,etc out of the room and most importantly out of your work space. Next is to lay down tarps or drop cloths to protect your flooring, but most of all if you spill or splash any paint. The next step, wall preparation, is a detailed process which could involve anything from skim coating, spackling, caulking, sanding, priming, taping, etc. After all the prep work has been completed you can now begin painting. Usually your first step in painting should be the "cutting in phase". This phase includes the brushwork around the edges, windows, doors, trim, molding, ceiling or wall line, etc. It is up to the painter of the order of wall spaces he or her chooses to do first. For instance it does not matter if you cut in the ceiling, or paint the window trim first and paint the walls last or vies versa. What is important is that the user cuts in first on every wall space. From there, depending of your order of operation, you can break out the rollers and being rolling the large open space on each wall space. After you applied the necessary amount of coats to the wall, you can remove any tape left behind and clean up. It is recommended that you do not try to wash your walls for at least two weeks after painting to let the paint cure fully.

In the liquid application, paint can be applied by direct application using brushes, paint rollers, blades, other instruments, or body parts such as fingers and thumbs.

Rollers generally have a handle that allows for different lengths of poles to be attached, allowing painting at different heights. Generally, roller application requires two coats for even color. A roller with a thicker nap is used to apply paint on uneven surfaces. Edges are often finished with an angled brush.

  • Using the finish flat one would most likely use a 1/2" nap roller
  • Using the finish eggshell one would most likely use a 3/8" nap roller
  • Using the finish satin or pearl one would most likely use a 3/8" nap roller
  • Using the finish semi-gloss or gloss one would most likely use a 3/16" nap roller

[9]


After liquid paint is applied, there is an interval during which it can be blended with additional painted regions (at the "wet edge") called "open time." The open time of an oil or alkyd-based emulsion paint can be extended by adding white spirit, similar glycols such as Dowanol (propylene glycol ether) or open time prolongers. This can also facilitate the mixing of different wet paint layers for aesthetic effect. Latex and acrylic emulsions require the use of drying retardants suitable for water-based coatings.

Paint application by spray is the most popular method in industry. In this, paint is atomized by the force of compressed air or by the action of high pressure compression of the paint itself, and the paint is turned into small droplets which travel to the article which is to be painted. Alternate methods are airless spray, hot spray, hot airless spray, and any of these with an electrostatic spray included. There are numerous electrostatic methods available.

Dipping used to be the norm for objects such as filing cabinets, but this has been replaced by high speed air turbine driven bells with electrostatic spray. Car bodies are primed using cathodic elephoretic primer, which is applied by charging the body depositing a layer of primer. The unchanged residue is rinsed off and the primer stoved.

Many paints tend to separate when stored, the heavier components settling to the bottom, and require mixing before use. Some paint outlets have machines for mixing the paint by shaking the can vigorously for a few minutes.

The opacity and the film thickness of paint may be measured using a drawdown card.

Water-based paints tend to be the easiest to clean up after use; the brushes and rollers can be cleaned with soap and water.

Proper disposal of left over paint is a challenge. Sometimes it can be recycled: Old paint may be usable for a primer coat or an intermediate coat, and paints of similar chemistry can be mixed to make a larger amount of a uniform color.

To dispose of paint it can be dried and disposed of in the domestic waste stream, provided that it contains no prohibited substances (see container). Disposal of liquid paint usually requires special handling and should be treated as hazardous waste, and disposed of according to local regulations.[10][11]

  Product variants

  A collection of cans of paint and variants
  A huge collection of different kinds of spray cans, markers, paints and inks in the underground graffiti shop. Russia, Tver City, 2011.
  • Primer is a preparatory coating put on materials before painting. Priming ensures better adhesion of paint to the surface, increases paint durability, and provides additional protection for the material being painted. It can also be used to block and seal stains, or to hide a color that is to be painted over.
  • Emulsion paint is a water-based paint used for painting interior or exterior surfaces.
  • Flat Finish-This finish is generally used on ceilings or walls that are in bad shape. This finish is more forgiving in terms of hiding imperfections in your walls and covers greatly. However this finish provides no washability if you were to get a stain on the wall.
  • Matte Finish-This finish is very similar if not the same to the flat finish, but comes with some washability and good coverage.
  • Eggshell Finish-This finish has some sheen to it, the equivalence to a shell on an egg. This finish provides great washability, but shows some imperfections on walls. This finish is ideal for bathrooms because it offers not only washability, but has enough shine so water will not stick to it and make it peel.
  • Pearl (Satin) Finish-This is very durable in terms of washability and resistance to moisture. It will offer the user the full protection on their walls from dirt, moisture, stains, etc. This finish is ideal for bathrooms, furniture, and kitchens, but will show even more imperfections on walls because of its strong shine (this finish is shinier then eggshell).
  • Semi-Gloss Finish-This finish is typically used on trim to add detail, elegance, and to show off the wood work. It is used on doors and furniture as well. This is a very high shine, but provides the most protection from moisture and stains on your walls. Obviously this finish will show the imperfections on the wall tremendously. This finish is generally used in schools and factories where washability and durability are the only considerations.[12]
  • Varnish and shellac provide a protective coating without changing the color. They are paints without pigment.
  • Wood stain is a type of paint that is very "thin," that is, low in viscosity, and formulated so that the pigment penetrates the surface rather than remaining in a film on the surface. Stain is predominantly pigment or dye and solvent with little binder, designed primarily to add color without providing a surface coating.
  • Lacquer is usually a fast-drying solvent-based paint or varnish that produces an especially hard, durable finish.
  • An enamel paint is a paint that dries to an especially hard, usually glossy, finish. Enamel paints sometimes contain glass powder or tiny metal flake fragments instead of the color pigments found in standard oil-based paints. Enamel paint is sometimes mixed with varnish or urethane to increase shine as well as assist its hardening process.
  • A glaze is an additive used with paint to slow drying time and increase translucency, as in faux painting and Art Painting.
  • A roof coating is a fluid applied membrane which has elastic properties that allows it to stretch and return to their original shape without damage. It provides UV protection to polyurethane foam and is widely used as part of a roof restoration system.
  • Fingerpaint is a kind of paint intended to be applied with the fingers; it typically comes in pots and is normally used by small children.
  • Inks are similar to paints, except they are typically made using finely ground pigments or dyes, and are designed so as not to leave a thick film of binder.
  • Anti-graffiti coatings are used to defeat the marking of surfaces by graffiti vandals. There are two categories, sacrificial and non-bonding. Sacrificial coatings are clear coatings that allow the removal of graffiti, usually by pressure washing the surface with high-pressure water, removing the graffiti, and the coating (hence, sacrificed). They must be re-applied afterward for continued protection. This is most commonly used on natural-looking masonry surfaces, such as statuary and marble walls, and on rougher surfaces that are difficult to clean. Non-bonding coatings are clear, high-performance coatings, usually catalyzed polyurethanes, that allow the graffiti very little to bond to. After the graffiti is discovered, it can be removed with the use of a solvent wash, without damaging the underlying substrate or protective coating. These work best when used on smoother surfaces, and especially over other painted surfaces, including murals.
  • Anti-climb paint is a non-drying paint that appears normal while being extremely slippery. It is usually used on drainpipes and ledges to deter burglars and vandals from climbing them, and is found in many public places. When a person attempts to climb objects coated with the paint, it rubs off onto the climber, as well as making it hard for them to climb.
  • Anti-fouling paint, or bottom paint, prevents barnacles and other marine organisms from adhering to the hulls of ships.

  Failure of a paint

The main reasons of paint failure after application on surface are the applicator and improper treatment of surface.

Application Defects can be attributed to:

  • Dilution

This usually occurs when the dilution of the paint is not done as per manufacturers recommendation. There can be a case of over dilution and under dilution, as well as dilution with the incorrect diluent.

  • Contamination

Foreign contaminants added without the manufacturers consent which results in various film defects.

  • Peeling/Blistering

Most commonly due to improper surface treatment before application and inherent moisture/dampness being present in the substrate.

  • Chalking

Chalking is the progressive powdering of the paint film on the painted surface. The primary reason for the problem is polymer degradation of the paint matrix due to exposure of UV radiation in sunshine and condensation from dew. The degree of chalking varies as epoxies react quickly while acrylics and polyurethanes can remain unchanged for long periods. [13] The degree of chalking can be assessed according to International Standard ISO 4628 Part 6 or 7 or American Society of Testing and Materials(ASTM) Method D4214 (Standard Test Methods for Evaluating the Degree of Chalking of Exterior Paint Films).

  • Cracking

Cracking of paint film is due to the unequal expansion or contraction of paint coats. It usually happens when the coats of the paint are not allowed to cure/dry completely before the next coat is applied. The degree of cracking can be assessed according to International Standard ISO 4628 Part 4 or ASTM Method D661 (Standard Test Method for Evaluating Degree of Cracking of Exterior Paints).

  • Erosion

Erosion is very quick chalking. It occurs due to external agents like air,water etc. It can be evaluated using ASTM Method ASTM D662 (Standard Test Method for Evaluating Degree of Erosion of Exterior Paints).

  • Blistering

Blistering is due to improper surface exposure of paint to strong sunshine. The degree of blistering can be assessed according to ISO 4628 Part 2 or ASTM Method D714 (Standard Test Method for Evaluating Degree of Blistering of Paints).

.

  Dangers

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in paint are considered harmful to the environment and especially for people who work with them on a regular basis. Exposure to VOCs has been related to organic solvent syndrome, although this relation has been somewhat controversial.[14]

In the US, environmental regulations, consumer demand, and advances in technology led to the development of low-VOC and zero-VOC paints and finishes. These new paints are widely available and meet or exceed the old high-VOC products in performance and cost-effectiveness while having significantly less impact on human and environmental health.[citation needed]

  See also

  References

  1. ^ Stephanie Pappa (October 13, 2011). "Oldest Human Paint-Making Studio Discovered in Cave". Live Science. http://www.livescience.com/16538-oldest-human-paint-studio.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+Livesciencecom+%28LiveScience.com+Science+Headline+Feed%29. Retrieved October 14, 2011. 
  2. ^ Berendsen, A. M., & Berendsen, A. M. (1989). Marine painting manual. London: Graham & Trotman. ISBN 1-85333-286-0 p. 113.
  3. ^ Berendsen, A. M., & Berendsen, A. M. (1989). Marine painting manual. London: Graham & Trotman. ISBN 1-85333-286-0 p. 114.
  4. ^ frpdesigns.com, Formulations, Fundamentals, Manipulation, Calculation and Data Management"] p. 61.
  5. ^ Bramley, Christopher Sinjin. "Colour changing paint". European Patent Application EP1400574. European Patent Office. http://www.freepatentsonline.com/EP1400574A1.pdf. 
  6. ^ "Dramatic color change featured". New Materials International. http://www.newmaterials.com/Customisation/News/General/General/Dramatic_color_change_featured_in_Ashlands_VELVAPLAST_ZW_FDI_refractory.asp. 
  7. ^ Horvath, Lee. "Coatings Go Beyond Appearance to Provide Quality Control". Foundry Technology. Foundry Management & Technology. http://www.foundrymag.com/feature/feature/77970/. 
  8. ^ DailyTech - Nissan Develops Color Changing Paint for Vehicles
  9. ^ "Selecting the Right Paint Roller." Selecting the Right Paint Roller. Aubuchan Hardware, 2006. Web. 05 May 2012. <http://paint-and-supplies.hardwarestore.com/learning/selecting-the-right-paint-roller.aspx>.
  10. ^ "Safe Use, Storage and Disposal of Paint"
  11. ^ "Storage and Disposal of Paint Facts"
  12. ^ "Paint Finish and Sheen Information; Info on Satin, Eggshell, Matte, and Other Paint Finishes." Professional Painting Contractor. Professional Painters, 2011. Web. 07 Apr. 2012. <http://www.painter-pros.com/finishes.php>.
  13. ^ Bayliss, D.A.; Deacon, D.H. (2002). Steelwork corrosion control (2nd ed. ed.). London: Spon. pp. 13.6.6 Chalking. ISBN 978-0-415-26101-2. 
  14. ^ A. Spurgeon, Watching Paint Dry: Organic Solvent Syndrome in late-Twentieth-Century Britain. Med Hist. 2006 April 1; 50(2): 167–188.

  Further reading

  • Bently, J. (Author) and Turner, G.P.A. (Author) (1997). Introduction to Paint Chemistry and Principles of Paint Technology. Unk.. ISBN 0-412-72320-4. 
  • Talbert, Rodger (2007). Paint Technology Handbook. Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA. ISBN 1-57444-703-3. 
  • Woodbridge, Paul R. (Editor) (1991). Principles of Paint Formulation. Unk.. ISBN 0-412-02951-0. 

  External links

   
               

 

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