Arabic Bulgarian Chinese Croatian Czech Danish Dutch English Estonian Finnish French German Greek Hebrew Hindi Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Italian Japanese Korean Latvian Lithuanian Malagasy Norwegian Persian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swedish Thai Turkish Vietnamese
Arabic Bulgarian Chinese Croatian Czech Danish Dutch English Estonian Finnish French German Greek Hebrew Hindi Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Italian Japanese Korean Latvian Lithuanian Malagasy Norwegian Persian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swedish Thai Turkish Vietnamese

definitions - Paper_mill

paper mill (n.)

1.a mill where paper is manufactured

   Advertizing ▼

definition (more)

definition of Wikipedia

analogical dictionary

   Advertizing ▼


Paper mill

  International Paper Company's Kraft pulp and paper mill in Georgetown, South Carolina. When built, this was the world's largest mill.
  Basement of paper mill in Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario. Pulp and paper manufacture involves a great deal of humidity, which presents a preventive maintenance and corrosion challenge.

A paper mill is a factory devoted to making paper from vegetable fibres such as wood pulp, old rags and other ingredients using a Fourdrinier machine or other type of paper machine.



  A mid Nineteenth century paper mill, the Forest Fibre Company, in Berlin, New Hampshire

Historical investigations into the origin of the paper mill are complicated by differing definitions and loose terminology from modern authors: Many modern scholars use the term to refer indiscriminately to all kinds of mills, whether powered by humans, by animals or by water. Their propensity to refer to any ancient paper manufacturing centre as a "mill", without further specifying its exact power drive, has increased the difficulty of identifying the particularly efficient and historically important water-powered type.[1]

  Human and animal-powered mills

While the use of human and animal powered mills were known to Chinese and Muslim papermakers, evidence for water-powered paper mills is elusive in both of them.[2][3][4][5] The general absence of the use of water-power in Muslim papermaking is suggested by the habit of Muslim authors to call a production center not a "mill", but a "paper manufactory".[6]

Although scholars have identified "paper mills" in Abbasid-era Baghdad in 794–795, the evidence that waterpower was applied to papermaking at this time is a matter of scholarly debate.[7] In the Moroccan city of Fez, Ibn Battuta speaks of "400 mill stones for paper".[8] Since Ibn Battuta does not mention the use of water-power and such a number of water-mills would be grotesquely high, the passage is generally taken to refer to human or animal force.[4][8]

  Water-powered mills

An exhaustive survey of milling in Al-Andalus did not uncover a single water-powered paper mill, nor do the Spanish books of property distribution (Repartimientos) after the Christian reconquest refer to any.[4] Arabic texts never use the term mill in connection with papermaking and the most thorough account of Muslim papermaking, the one by the Zirid Sultan Al-Muizz ibn Badis, describes the art purely in terms of a handcraft.[4] Donald Hill has identified a possible reference to a water-powered paper mill in Samarkand, in the 11th-century work of the Persian scholar Abu Rayhan Biruni, but concludes that the passage is "too brief to enable us to say with certainty" that it refers to a water-powered paper mill.[9][10] While this is seen by Halevi nonetheless as evidence of Samarkand first harnessing waterpower in the production of paper, he concedes that it is not known if waterpower was applied to papermaking elsewhere across the Islamic world at the time;[11] Robert I. Burns remains altogether sceptical given the isolated occurrence of the reference and the prevalence of manual labour in Islamic papermaking elsewhere.[1]

  Stromer's paper mill, the building complex at the far right bottom, in the Nuremberg Chronicle of 1493. Due to their noise and smell, papermills were required by medieval law to be erected some distance from the city walls.

Hill notes that paper mills appear in early Christian Catalonian documentation from the 1150s, which may imply Islamic origins, but here too hard evidence is lacking,[12][13] and the case for early Catalan water-powered paper mills has been thoroughly dismissed after a re-examination of the evidence cited by Burns.[14] Likewise, the identification of early hydraulic stamping mills in medieval documents from Fabriano, Italy, is completely without substance.[15]

The earliest certain evidence to a water-powered paper mill dates to 1282 in the Spanish Kingdom of Aragon.[16] A decree by the Christian king Peter III addresses the establishment of a royal "molendinum", a proper hydraulic mill, in the paper manufacturing centre of Xàtiva.[16] The crown innovation appears to be resented by the local Muslim papermakering community; the document guarantees the Muslim subjects the right to continue their way of traditional papermaking by beating the pulp manually and grants them the right to be exempted from work in the new mill.[16]

The first permanent paper mill north of the Alpes was established in Nuremberg by Ulman Stromer in 1390; it is later depicted in the lavishly illustrated Nuremberg Chronicle.[17] From the mid-14th century onwards, European paper milling underwent a rapid improvement of many work processes.[18]

  20th century

By the early 20th century, paper mills sprung up around New England and the rest of the world, due to the high demand of paper. At this time, there were many world leaders of the production of paper; one of such was the Brown Company in Berlin, New Hampshire run by William Wentworth Brown. During the year 1907, the Brown Company cut between 30 to 40 million acres of woodlands on their property,[19] which extended from Canada to Florida.[20]

Log drives” were conducted on local rivers to send the logs to the mills. By the late twentieth and early twenty-first century, paper mills began to close and the log drives became a dying craft.[21] Due to the addition of new machinery, many millworkers were laid off and many of the historic paper mills closed.[22]


Paper mills can be fully integrated mills or nonintegrated mills. Integrated mills consist of a pulp mill and a paper mill on the same site. Such mills receive logs or wood chips and produce paper. It is a common misconception that paper mills are sources of odors. Pulp mills and the pulping section of integrated mills (particularly if using the kraft process) commonly have associated odors; nonintegrated mills purchase wood pulp, usually in dry bales known as market pulp, and produce little, if any, odor.

The modern paper mill uses large amounts of energy, water, and wood pulp in a highly efficient and extremely complex series of processes, using modern and sophisticated controls technology to produce a sheet of paper that can be used in incredibly diverse ways. Modern paper machines are very large and can be 500 feet (~150 m) in length, produce a sheet 400 inches (~10 m) wide, and operate at speeds of more than 60 mph (100 km/h).[23] The two main suppliers of paper machines are Metso and Voith.

  See also


  1. ^ a b Burns 1996, pp. 414−417
  2. ^ Tsien, Tsuen-Hsuin 1985, pp. 68−73
  3. ^ Lucas 2005, p. 28, fn. 70
  4. ^ a b c d Burns 1996, pp. 414f.:
    It has also become universal to talk of paper "mills" (even of 400 such mills at Fez!), relating these to the hydraulic wonders of Islamic society in east and west. All our evidence points to non-hydraulic hand production, however, at springs away from rivers which it could pollute.
  5. ^ Thompson 1978, p. 169:
    European papermaking differed from its precursors in the mechanization of the process and in the application of water power. Jean Gimpel, in The Medieval Machine (the English translation of La Revolution Industrielle du Moyen Age), points out that the Chinese and Arabs used only human and animal force. Gimpel goes on to say : "This is convincing evidence of how technologically minded the Europeans of that era were. Paper had traveled nearly halfway around the world, but no culture or civilization on its route had tried to mechanize its manufacture."'
  6. ^ Burns 1996, pp. 414f.:
    Indeed, Muslim authors in general call any "paper manufactory" a wiraqah - not a "mill" (tahun)
  7. ^ Burns 1996, p. 414:
    Al-Hassan and Hill also use as evidence the statement by Robert Forbes in his multivolume Studies in Ancient Technology that "in the tenth century [AD] floating mills were found on the Tigris near Baghdad." Though such captive mills were known to the Romans and were used in twelfth-century France, Forbes offers no citation or evidence for this unlikely application to very early papermaking. The most erudite authority on the topography of medieval Baghdad, George Makdisi, writes me that he has no recollection of such floating papermills or any papermills, which "I think I would have remembered."
  8. ^ a b Tschudin 1996, p. 423
  9. ^ Donald Routledge Hill (1996), A history of engineering in classical and medieval times, Routledge, pp. 169–71, ISBN 0-415-15291-7 
  10. ^ Burns 1996, pp. 414:
    Donald Hill has found a reference in al-Biruni in the eleventh century to stones "fixed to axles across running water, as in Samarkand with the pounding of flax for paper," a possible exception to the rule. Hill finds the notice "too brief to enable us to say with certainty" that this was a water-powered triphammer.
  11. ^ Leor Halevi (2008), "Christian Impurity versus Economic Necessity: A Fifteenth-Century Fatwa on European Paper", Speculum (Cambridge University Press) 83: 917–945 [917–8], DOI:10.1017/S0038713400017073 
  12. ^ Donald Routledge Hill (1996), A history of engineering in classical and medieval times, Routledge, p. 171, ISBN 0-415-15291-7 
  13. ^ Burns 1996, pp. 414f.:
    Thomas Glick warily concludes that "it is assumed but not proved" that Islamic Xàtiva had hydraulic papermills, noting that the pertinent Arabic description was "a press." Since the "oldest" Catalan paper is physically the same as Islamic Xàtiva's, he notes, their techniques "can be presumed to have been identical" - reasonable enough for Catalan paper before 1280. My recent conversations with Glick indicate that he now inclines to non-hydraulic Andalusi papermaking.
  14. ^ Burns 1996, pp. 415:
    Currently Oriol Valls i Subin't, director of the History of Paper department of the Museos Municipales de Historia in the Instituto Municipal de Historia at Barcelona, has popularized a version of that thesis, in which Christian paper mills multiplied marvelously along the Catalan rivers "from Tarragona to the Pyrenees" from 1113 to 1244. His many articles and two books, valuable for such topics as fiber analysis in medieval paper, continue to spread this untenable and indeed bizarre thesis. As Josep Madurell i Marimon shows in detail, these were all in fact cloth fulling mills; textiles were then the basic mechanized industry of the Christian west.
  15. ^ Burns 1996, pp. 416:
    Fabriano's claim rests on two charters - a gift of August 1276, and a sale of November 1278, to the new Benedictine congregation of Silvestrine monks at Montefano. In each, a woman recluse-hermit gives to the monastery her enclosure or "prison" - Latin carcer; misread by Fabriano partisans as a form of Italian cartiera or paper mill! There is no papermaking in these documents, much less hydraulic mills.
  16. ^ a b c Burns 1996, pp. 417f.
  17. ^ Stromer 1960
  18. ^ Stromer 1993, p. 1
  19. ^ "History of the lumber industry of America". http://books.google.com/books?id=MxILAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA70&dq=berlin+mills+company+berlin+nh&hl=en&sa=X&ei=uQR-T5bGE4SC8ASs1byZDg&ved=0CE0Q6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=Berlin&f=false. Retrieved April 5, 2012. 
  20. ^ "About Berlin: Berlin History". http://www.berlinnh.gov/Pages/BerlinNH_WebDocs/BerlinHistory. Retrieved April 5, 2012. 
  21. ^ "Paper Mill Closures of America". http://www.pprc.info/html/millclosures.htm. Retrieved April 5, 2012. 
  22. ^ "Urban Decay". http://worldofdecay.blogspot.com/2010/10/lumber-town-berlin-new-hampshire.html. Retrieved April 5, 2012. 
  23. ^ "Metso supplied SC paper machine line sets a new world speed record at Stora Enso Kvarnsveden". http://www.metsoautomation.com/News/newsdocuments.nsf/Web2NewsDoc/CAC7C79ED6B6E117C22572A00048448C?OpenDocument&ch=ChMetsoPaperWebEng&id=CAC7C79ED6B6E117C22572A00048448C&. Retrieved 2008-04-12. 


  • Burns, Robert I. (1996), "Paper comes to the West, 800−1400", in Lindgren, Uta, Europäische Technik im Mittelalter. 800 bis 1400. Tradition und Innovation (4th ed.), Berlin: Gebr. Mann Verlag, pp. 413–422, ISBN 3-7861-1748-9 
  • Hunter, Dared (1930), Papermaking through Eighteen Centuries, New York 
  • Lucas, Adam Robert (2005), "Industrial Milling in the Ancient and Medieval Worlds. A Survey of the Evidence for an Industrial Revolution in Medieval Europe", Technology and Culture 46 (1): 1–30, DOI:10.1353/tech.2005.0026 
  • Thompson, Susan (1978), "Paper Manufacturing and Early Books", Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 314: 167–176, DOI:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1978.tb47791.x 
  • Tschudin, Peter F. (1996), "Werkzeug und Handwerkstechnik in der mittelalterlichen Papierherstellung", in Lindgren, Uta, Europäische Technik im Mittelalter. 800 bis 1400. Tradition und Innovation (4th ed.), Berlin: Gebr. Mann Verlag, pp. 423−428, ISBN 3-7861-1748-9 
  • Stromer, Wolfgang von (1960), "Das Handelshaus der Stromer von Nürnberg und die Geschichte der ersten deutschen Papiermühle", Vierteljahrschrift für Sozial und Wirtschaftsgeschichte 47: 81–104 
  • Stromer, Wolfgang von (1993), "Große Innovationen der Papierfabrikation in Spätmittelalter und Frühneuzeit", Technikgeschichte 60 (1): 1–6 
  • Tsien, Tsuen-Hsuin: "Science and Civilisation in China", Chemistry and Chemical Technology (Vol. 5), Paper and Printing (Part 1), Cambridge University Press, 1985

  External links



All translations of Paper_mill

sensagent's content

  • definitions
  • synonyms
  • antonyms
  • encyclopedia

Dictionary and translator for handheld

⇨ New : sensagent is now available on your handheld

   Advertising ▼

sensagent's office

Shortkey or widget. Free.

Windows Shortkey: sensagent. Free.

Vista Widget : sensagent. Free.

Webmaster Solution


A windows (pop-into) of information (full-content of Sensagent) triggered by double-clicking any word on your webpage. Give contextual explanation and translation from your sites !

Try here  or   get the code


With a SensagentBox, visitors to your site can access reliable information on over 5 million pages provided by Sensagent.com. Choose the design that fits your site.

Business solution

Improve your site content

Add new content to your site from Sensagent by XML.

Crawl products or adds

Get XML access to reach the best products.

Index images and define metadata

Get XML access to fix the meaning of your metadata.

Please, email us to describe your idea.


The English word games are:
○   Anagrams
○   Wildcard, crossword
○   Lettris
○   Boggle.


Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.


Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !

English dictionary
Main references

Most English definitions are provided by WordNet .
English thesaurus is mainly derived from The Integral Dictionary (TID).
English Encyclopedia is licensed by Wikipedia (GNU).


The wordgames anagrams, crossword, Lettris and Boggle are provided by Memodata.
The web service Alexandria is granted from Memodata for the Ebay search.
The SensagentBox are offered by sensAgent.


Change the target language to find translations.
Tips: browse the semantic fields (see From ideas to words) in two languages to learn more.

last searches on the dictionary :

2632 online visitors

computed in 0.047s

I would like to report:
section :
a spelling or a grammatical mistake
an offensive content(racist, pornographic, injurious, etc.)
a copyright violation
an error
a missing statement
please precise:



Company informations

My account



   Advertising ▼

3902 Walthers Superior Paper Mill HO scale (59.99 USD)

Commercial use of this term

3900 Walthers Kraft Mill - Superior Paper HO scale (58.99 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Newcastle N.S.W Lysaghts Mill. (10.95 AUD)

Commercial use of this term

Vintage 1959 McMillen Feed Mills DAIRY MANUAL~Paper Ephemera Booklet (9.99 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Walthers-Paper Mill - HO (62.54 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Vtg 1931 Sheet Music~THE ANDREW SISTERS~Jealous~Mills~Paper Ephemera~ (9.99 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Vintage BETSY MCCALL/APPLE CIDER MILL paper dolls 1979 (8.0 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Paper Mill Rhinelander WI Postcard Undivided Antique Used 1906 Postmark (6.49 USD)

Commercial use of this term

The New Wallace Paper Mill Fitchburg Mass MA (1.5 USD)

Commercial use of this term


Commercial use of this term

View of M. & O. Paper Mills International Falls MN Minnesota 1920s-1942 Postcard (3.99 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Paper Doll, Mills Brothers, Acceptable (3.98 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Walthers Cornerstone HO #3900 Kraft Mill - Superior Paper -- Kit Form (NEW) (63.79 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Petoskey, Michigan - Paper Mills - circa 1908 (4.99 USD)

Commercial use of this term


Commercial use of this term

Paper Doll by Mills Brothers (0.99 USD)

Commercial use of this term


Commercial use of this term

Mechanicville NY * West Virginia Pulp Mill 1913 * Saratoga Co. Paper Mill (16.99 USD)

Commercial use of this term


Commercial use of this term