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definitions - Pasta

pasta (n.)

1.shaped and dried dough made from flour and water and sometimes egg

2.a dish that contains pasta as its main ingredient

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pasta (n.)



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Wikipedia

Pasta

                   
  Different types of pasta on display in a shop window in Italy

Pasta is a type of noodle and is a staple food[1] of traditional Italian cuisine, with the first reference dating back to 1154.[2] It is also commonly used to refer to the variety of pasta dishes. Typically pasta is made from an unleavened dough of a durum wheat flour mixed with water and formed into sheets or various shapes, then cooked and served in any number of dishes. It can be made with flour from other cereals or grains and eggs may be used instead of water. Pastas may be divided into two broad categories, dried (pasta secca) and fresh (pasta fresca). Chicken eggs frequently dominate as the source of the liquid component in fresh pasta.

Most dried pasta is commercially produced via an extrusion process. Traditionally fresh pasta was produced by hand, sometimes with the aid of simple machines,[3] but today many varieties of fresh pasta are also commercially produced by large scale machines, and the products are broadly available in supermarkets.

Both dried and fresh pasta come in a number of shapes and varieties, with 310 specific forms known variably by over 1300 names having been recently documented.[4] In Italy the names of specific pasta shapes or types often vary with locale. For example the form cavatelli is known by 28 different names depending on region and town. Common forms of pasta include long shapes, short shapes, tubes, flat shapes and sheets, miniature soup shapes, filled or stuffed, and specialty or decorative shapes.[5]

As a category in Italian cuisine both dried and fresh pastas are classically used in one of three kinds of prepared dishes. As pasta asciutta (or pastasciutta) cooked pasta is plated and served with a complementary sauce or condiment. A second classification of pasta dishes is pasta in brodo in which the pasta is part of a soup-type dish. A third category is pasta al forno in which the pasta incorporated into a dish that is subsequently baked.[6]

Pasta is generally a simple dish, but comes in large varieties because it is a versatile food item. Some pasta dishes are served as a first course in Italy because the portion sizes are small and simple. The servings are usually accompanied by a side of meat. Pasta is also prepared in light lunches, such as salads or large portion sizes for dinner. It can be prepared by hand or food processor and served hot or cold. Pasta sauces vary in taste, color and texture. When choosing which type of pasta and sauce to serve together, there is a general rule that must be observed. Simple sauces like pesto are ideal for long and thin strands of pasta while tomato sauce combines well with thicker pastas. Thicker and chunkier sauces have the better ability to cling onto the holes and cuts of short, tubular, twisted pastas. Sauce should be served equally with its pasta. It is important that the sauce does not overflow the pasta. The extra sauce is left on the plate after all of the pasta is eaten.[7]

Contents

  Etymology

First attested in English in 1874, the word pasta comes from Italian pasta, in turn from Latin pasta "dough, pastry cake", itself the latinisation of the Greek παστά (pasta) "barley porridge", in turn from παστός (pastos), "sprinkled with salt, salted".[8][9]

  History

  Making pasta; illustration from the 15th century edition of Tacuinum Sanitatis, a Latin translation of the Arabic work Taqwīm al-sihha by Ibn Butlan.[10]

In the 1st century BCE writings of Horace, lagana were fine sheets of dough which were fried[11] and were an everyday food.[12] Writing in the 2nd century Athenaeus of Naucratis provides a recipe for lagana which he attributes to the 1st century Chrysippus of Tyana: sheets of dough made of wheat flour and the juice of crushed lettuce, then flavored with spices and deep-fried in oil.[12] An early 5th century cookbook describes a dish called lagana that consisted of layers of dough with meat stuffing, a possible ancestor of modern-day lasagna.[12] However, the method of cooking these sheets of dough does not correspond to our modern definition of either a fresh or dry pasta product, which only had similar basic ingredients and perhaps the shape.[12] The first concrete information concerning pasta products in Italy dates from the 13th or 14th century.[13]

Historians have noted several lexical milestones relevant to pasta, none of which changes these basic characteristics. For example, the works of the 2nd century AD Greek physician Galen mention itrion, homogeneous compounds made up of flour and water.[14] The Jerusalem Talmud records that itrium, a kind of boiled dough,[14] was common in Israel from the 3rd to 5th centuries AD,[15] A dictionary compiled by the 9th century Arab physician and lexicographer Isho bar Ali[16] defines itriyya, the Arabic cognate, as string-like shapes made of semolina and dried before cooking. The geographical text of Muhammad al-Idrisi, compiled for the Norman King of Sicily Roger II in 1154 mentions itriyya manufactured and exported from Norman Sicily:

"West of Termini there is a delightful settlement called Trabia.[17] Its ever-flowing streams propel a number of mills. Here there are huge buildings in the countryside where they make vast quantities of itriyya which is exported everywhere: to Calabria, to Muslim and Christian countries. Very many shiploads are sent."[18]

Itriyya gives rise to trie in Italian, signifying long strips such as tagliatelle and trenette. One form of itriyya with a long history is laganum (plural lagana), which in Latin refers to a thin sheet of dough,[12] and gives rise to Italian lasagna.

  Boy with Spaghetti by Julius Moser, c. 1808.

According to historians like Charles Perry, the Arabs adapted noodles for long journeys in the 5th century, the first written record of dry pasta. Durum wheat pasta was introduced by Libyian Arabs during their conquest of Sicily in the late 7th century.[13] The dried pasta introduced was being produced in great quantities in Palermo at that time. Sicilian coined the modern word "macaroni", which is making kneaded durum wheat by force.[19]

In North Africa, a food similar to pasta, known as couscous, has been eaten for centuries. However, it lacks the distinguishing malleable nature of pasta, couscous being more akin to droplets of dough. At first, dry pasta was a luxury item in Italy because of high labor costs; durum wheat semolina had to be kneaded for a long time. Only after the industrial revolution in Naples, when a mechanical die process allowed for large scale production of dry pasta, did it become affordable and popular among the common people.[citation needed]

There is a legend of Marco Polo importing pasta from China[20] which originated with the Macaroni Journal, published by an association of food industries with the goal of promoting the use of pasta in the United States.[21] Marco Polo describes a food similar to "lagana" in his Travels, but he uses a term with which he was already familiar.

In the 14th and 15th Centuries, dried pasta became popular for its easy storage. This allowed people to store dried pasta in ships when exploring the New World.[22] A century later, pasta was present around the globe during the voyages of discovery.[19] Later the Spanish discovered tomatoes as a new ingredient for the pasta sauce in the 16th century. Before tomato sauce was introduced, pasta was eaten dry with the fingers; the liquid sauce demanded the use of a fork.[22]

  History of Pasta Manufacturing

Pasta manufacturers were made since the 1600s across the coast of San Remo. The extrusion press produced large amounts of uniform pastas. The consistency of shapes and texture of the pasta manufactured by the extrusion press is believed to be superior to hand made pasta. This technology has spread to other areas including Genoa, Apulia, Brindisi, Bari, and Tuscany. By 1867, Buitoni Company in upper Tiber Valley became one of the most successful and well-known pasta manufacturers in the world.[23]

  Evolution of Pasta

It is to be noted that the idea of using tomato sauce to give pasta its flavor was revolutionary since it was originally eaten plain. It was eaten with the hands as only the wealthy could afford eating utensils. The consumption of pasta has changed over time; it was once a small, simple item, but it is now often eaten in much larger portions and as part of complex, sophisticated dishes. Factors such as low prices and ease of cooking contribute to the growing popularity of this staple item.[24]

  Pasta Today

The art of pasta making and the devotion to the food as a whole has evolved since pasta was first conceptualized. “It is estimated that Italians eat over sixty pounds of pasta per person, per year, easily beating Americans, who eat about twenty pounds per person.”[25] Pasta is so beloved in the nation of Italy that individual consumption exceeds the average production of wheat of the country; thus Italy frequently imports wheat for pasta making. In contemporary society pasta is ubiquitous, as individuals can find a variety of pasta in the local super markets. Due to the worldwide demand for this staple food, pasta is now largely mass-produced in factories and only a tiny proportion is crafted by hand. However, while pasta is made everywhere, “the product from Italy keeps to time-tested production methods that create a superior pasta”.[25]

Pasta was originally solely a part of Italian and European cuisine owing to its popularity there. With an increase in popularity on a world-wide scale, pasta has crossed international borders and is now a popular form of fast food and a staple in North America and elsewhere. This is due to the great amount of Italian immigration into Canada and the United States around the beginning of the 20th century. Similarly an immense immigration of Italians into South Africa ensured that spaghetti and meatballs became an essential part of South African cuisine.[26]

  Ingredients

Since the time of Cato, basic pasta dough has been made mostly of wheat flour or semolina,[4] with durum wheat used predominantely in the South of Italy and soft wheat in the North. Regionally other grains have been used, including those from barley, buckwheat, rye, rice and maize, as well as chestnut and chickpea flours. In modern times to meet the demands of both health conscious and coeliac sufferers the use of rice, maize and whole durum wheat has become commercially significant. Grain flours may also be supplemented with cooked potatoes. Beyond hens' eggs and water, liquids have included duck eggs, milk or cream, olive or walnut oil, wine, ink from octopus, squid or cuttlefish, and even pigs' blood. Other additions to the basic flour-liquid mixture may include vegetables purees such as spinach or tomato, mushrooms, cheeses, herbs, spices and other seasonings. While pastas are, most typically, made from unleavened doughs, the use of yeast-raised doughs are also known for at least nine different pasta forms.[4]

  Varieties

  Fresh Pasta

Fresh pasta is usually locally made with fresh ingredients unless it is destined to be shipped, in which case consideration is given to the spoilage rates of the desired ingredients such as eggs or herbs. Furthermore, fresh pasta is usually made with a mixture of eggs and all-purpose flour or “00” high gluten flour. Since it contains eggs, it is more tender compared to dried pasta and only takes about half the time to cook.[27] Delicate sauces are preferred for fresh pasta in order to let the pasta take front stage.[28] Fresh pastas do not expand in size after cooking; therefore, one and a half pounds of pasta are needed to serve 4 people generously.[27] Fresh egg pasta is generally cut into strands of various widths and thicknesses depending on which pasta is to be made (e.g. fettuccine, pappardelle, and lasagne). It is best served with meat, cheese, or vegetables to create ravioli, tortellini, and cannelloni. Fresh egg pasta is well known in the Piedmont area near the border of France. In this area, dough is only made out of egg yolk and flour resulting in a very refined flavor and texture. This pasta is often served simply with butter sauce and thinly sliced truffles that are native to this region. In other areas such as Apulia fresh pasta can be made without eggs. The only ingredients needed to make the pasta dough is semolina flour and water, which is often shaped into orecchiette or cavatelli. Fresh pasta for cavatelli is also popular in other places including Sicily. However, the dough is prepared differently: it is made of flour and ricotta cheese instead.[29]

  Dried Pasta

Dried pasta can also be defined as factory-made pasta because it is usually produced in large amounts that require large machines with superior processing capabilities to manufacture.[29] Dried pasta is mainly shipped over to farther locations and has a longer shelf life. The ingredients required to make dried pasta include semolina flour and water. Eggs can be added for flavour and richness, but are not needed to make dried pasta. In contrast to fresh pasta, dried pasta needs to be dried at a low temperature for several days to evaporate all the moisture allowing it to be stored for a longer period. Dried pastas are best served in hearty dishes like ragu sauces, soups, and casseroles.[28] Once it is cooked, the dried pasta will usually increase in size by double of its original proportion. Therefore, approximately one pound of dried pasta serves up to four people.[27] The way to create the finest dried pasta is by mixing golden semolina flour, ground from durum wheat, with water. Good quality dried pasta is identified by its slight rough surface and compact body that helps maintain its firmness in cooking, since it swells considerably in size when cooked.[29]

  Judging Pasta Quality

The following 7 criteria are useful when evaluating good pasta quality.

1. Colour

Good pasta can be recognized by its bright amber color which means it has been cooked to perfection.[30]

2. Stickiness

The better the pasta, the less it tends to stick together. If your pasta turns into a ball in the strainer, it is a potential sign of poor quality pasta.[30]

3. Surface Texture

Quality pasta has a matte finish with a consistent look.[30]

4. Springiness

The Italians call this the "al dente" characteristic of good pasta. Pasta should have bounciness-it should have life when it is being eaten.[30]

5. Consistency

You can always tell good pasta by how much chewing it requires. The more you need to chew, the better the pasta.[30]

6. Particle Separation

The better quality pasta will stay separated when it is being chewed. It should not clump together.[30]

7. Taste

Quality pasta has a subtle nutty flavour to it.[30]

  Culinary Uses

  Pesto Cavatappi.

Pasta is generally served with some type of sauce; the sauce and the type of pasta are usually matched based on consistency and ease of eating. Northern Italian cooking uses less tomato sauce, garlic and herbs. In Northern Italy white sauce is more common.[31] However Italian cuisine is best identified by individual regions. Pasta dishes with lighter use of tomato are found in Trentino-Alto Adige and Emilia Romagna.[32][33] In Bologna, the meat-based Bolognese sauce incorporates a small amount of tomato concentrate and a green sauce called pesto originates from Genoa. In Central Italy, there are sauces such as tomato sauce, amatriciana, arrabiata and the egg-based carbonara. In Tuscany and Umbria pasta is usually served alla carrettiera (a tomato sauce spiked with peperoncini hot peppers).[34]

Tomato sauces are also present in Southern Italian cuisine, where they originated. In Southern Italy more complex variations include pasta paired with fresh vegetables, olives, capers or seafood. Varieties include puttanesca, pasta alla norma (tomatoes, eggplant and fresh or baked cheese), pasta con le sarde (fresh sardines, pine nuts, fennel and olive oil), spaghetti aglio, olio e peperoncino (literally with garlic, [olive] oil and hot chili peppers).

  Process of Pasta Production

  Homemade Pasta

Ingredients to make pasta dough include semolina flour, egg, salt and water. Flour is first mound on a flat surface and then a well in the pile of flour is created. Egg is then poured into the well and a fork is used to mix the egg and flour. Salt is added to the dough and is kneaded until it is smooth and dry. If the dough remains sticky, semolina flour is further added and is kneaded until it is dry. The dough is then shaped into pieces that are needed to make sheets of pasta.[35] Then a rolling pin is used to flatten the dough. There are a variety of ways to shape the sheets of pasta depending on the type of pasta that needs to be made. The most popular types include penne, spaghetti, and macaroni.[36]

  Storing Pasta

The storage of pasta depends on how far along it is processed. Uncooked pasta is kept dry and can sit in the cupboard for a year. The pasta must be airtight and stored in a dry area. Make sure it is kept in a cool place. Cooked pasta is stored in the refrigerator for a maximum of five days in an airtight container. Adding a couple teaspoons of oil helps keep the food from sticking to each other and the container. If the cooked pasta is not used in the five days it may be frozen for up to two or three months. The pasta will start to dry after a period of time, but it varies with the type of pasta. Should the pasta be dried completely, place it back into the cupboard.[37][38]

  Factory Manufactured Pasta

The ingredients to make dried pasta usually include water, semolina flour, egg for colour and richness, vegetable juice (such as spinach, beet, tomato, carrot) for colour and taste, and herbs or spices for flavour; however, ingredients may vary. Semolina flour is piled in silos that will transfer the semolina through a pipe and into a mixing machine. Warm water is poured into the machine to mix with the semolina flour. The machine kneads it until the mixture becomes firm and dry. If pasta is to be flavoured, eggs, vegetable juices, and herbs are added to the mixture. The dough is then passed into the laminator to be flattened into sheets. It is then further compressed by the vacuum mixer-machine to clear out air bubbles and excess water from the dough until the moisture content is reduced to 12%. Next, the dough is processed in the steamer to kill any existing bacteria it may contain. After steaming, the dough is ready to be cut. Depending on the type of pasta to be made, the dough can either be cut or extruded through dies. Then the pasta is set in a drying tank so that it can be dried under specific conditions of heat, moisture, and time depending on the type of pasta that is being dried. The final step is to package the pasta properly. Fresh pasta is sealed in a clear, airtight plastic container. During the sealing process air is sucked out of the container and replaced with carbon dioxide and nitrogen mixture. This slows microbial growth and prolongs its shelf life. Dried pastas are packaged differently than fresh pasta. It is placed in stainless steel buckets that are transferred to appropriate packaging stations to be portioned and sealed in plastic or cardboard packages.[39]

  Nutritional Value of Pasta

There are several health benefits to consuming pasta, especially whole wheat pasta. Whole wheat are low in calories and contains considerable amounts of minerals including, magnesium, iron, calcium, potassium, zinc, selenium and manganese.[40] Minerals are important for the body because they help with the structure of bones, regulate heart beat, maintain muscle, and take part in regulating cell growth.[41] In addition, an equivalent amount of whole and white grains are recommended for a complete and healthy diet with essential vitamins, minerals and nutrients. Pasta is normally an intake combined with other foods rich in nutrients. Fiber for example, can be found in vegetables, beans, fish, tomato sauce, cheese and meats such as poultry and lean ground beef.

Pasta is a complex carbohydrate that helps sustain energy because it releases energy slowly compared to sugar; sugar tends to release its energy rapidly. Pasta also contains a small amount of sodium, and does not include cholesterol. Furthermore, assorted pastas has rich essential nutrients, such as iron and vitamin B.[42] Another benefit to eating pasta is that it provides niacin for the body. This vitamin is essential for bodily functions, such as converting the carbohydrates into glucose, which produces energy for the body. Enriched pasta also contains folic acid that is beneficial for those of child bearing. Folic acid is needed for the proper growth of cells and development of the embryo.[43] Furthermore, when desiring to lose weight, it’s important to reduce the calories instead of carbohydrates. It is confirmed by scientists that pasta dishes are not a factor of weight gaining and obesity. Therefore, pasta is advantageous to people who have these problems because it will help them to retain good health.[44]

Glycemic Index measures how quickly carbohydrates cause the blood sugar to rise. The blood sugar response rises depending on how quickly the carbohydrate increases. Pasta has a minimum Glycemic Index, therefore containing no sugar benefiting people's health. [42] In addition, the amount of protein in pasta depends on the type of flour used to make the dish. If it is made from durum wheat, the pasta contains protein and gluten. After digestion, the protein is converted into sugar and then released as energy. Fortunately, the protein is not converted into fat. However, less fat is burnt due to the storing of energy. The slow release of energy then results in the slow rid of fat. Pasta is considered to be a good source for vegetarians because it contains extensive amounts of protein, proteins that consists of the six essential amino acids.[45][46]

The Mediterranean Diet is a health approach in which the goal is to prevent oneself from illness and diseases. This particular diet includes a number of plant foods. Pasta as one of the dishes, helps benefit the health with this dietary patten. Other foods include olive oil, dairy products, eggs, red meats, and small amounts of fish and poultry.[44][47][48]

  International Adaptations

  An Asian Style "Italian" Pasta

As pasta was introduced elsewhere in the world, it became incorporated into a number of local cuisines, which often have significantly different ways of preparation from those of Italy. In Hong Kong, the local Chinese have adopted pasta, primarily spaghetti and macaroni, as an ingredient in the Hong Kong-style Western cuisine.

When pasta was introduced to several nations, every culture adopted different style of preparing it. In the past, ancient Romans cooked pastas by frying or boiling it. It is also sweetened with honey or tossed with garum. Ancient Romans also enjoy baking it in rich pies, called timballi.[49]

In Cha chaan teng (茶餐廳), macaroni is cooked in water and served in broth with ham or frankfurter sausages, peas, black mushrooms, and optionally eggs, reminiscent of noodle soup dishes. This is often a course for breakfast or light lunch fare.[50] These affordable dining shops evolved from American food rations after World War II due to lack of supplies, and they continue to be popular for people with modest means.

Two common spaghetti dishes served in Japan are the Bolognese (ミートソース) and the Napolitan (ナポリタン). In India, macaroni has been adopted and cooked in an Indianized way. Boiled macaroni is sautéed along with cumin, turmeric, finely chopped green chillies, onions & cabbage. In Greece hilopittes is considered one of the finest types of dried egg pasta. It is cooked either in tomato sauce or with various kinds of casserole meat. It is usually served with Greek cheese of any type.

Pasta is also widespread in Argentina and Brazil, especially in the areas with strong Italian roots, like Buenos Aires and São Paulo. The local names for the pasta are varieties of the Italian names, such as ñoquis/nhoque for gnocchi, ravioles/ravióli for ravioli, or tallarines/talharim for tagliatelle. In Sweden, spaghetti is traditionally served with köttfärssås (Bolognese sauce), which is minced meat in a thick tomato soup. In the Philippines, spaghetti is often served with a distinct, slightly sweet yet flavorful meat sauce, frequently containing diced hot dogs. In Malta, baked pasta is commonly served.

Fettuccine alfredo with cream, cheese and butter, and spaghetti with tomato sauce (with or without meat) are popular Italian-style dishes in the United States.

In Australia, boscaiola sauce, based on bacon and mushrooms, is one favourite among many.

  Regulations

  Italian Regulations

Although numerous variations of ingredients for different pasta products are known, in Italy the commercial manufacturing and labeling of pasta for sale as a food product within the country is highly regulated.[51] [52] Italian regulations recognize three categories of commercially manufactured dried pasta as well as manufactured fresh and stabilized pasta:

Pasta: Dried pasta with three subcategories – (i.) Durum wheat semolina pasta (pasta di semola di grano duro), (ii.) Low grade durum wheat semolina pasta (pasta di semolato di grano duro) and (iii.) Durum wheat whole meal pasta (pasta di semola integrale di grano duro). Pastas made under this category must be made only with durum wheat semolina or durum wheat whole-meal semolina and water, with an allowance for up to 3% of soft-wheat flour as part of the durum flour. Dried pastas made under this category must be labeled according to the subcategory.

Special pastas (paste speciali): As Pasta above, with additional ingredients other than flour and water or eggs. Special pastas must be labeled as durum wheat semolina pasta on the packaging completed by mentioning the added ingredients used (e.g., spinach). The 3% soft flour limitation still applies.

Egg pasta (pasta all'uovo): May only be manufactured using durum wheat semolina with at least 4 hens’ eggs (chicken) weighing at least 200 grams (without the shells) per kilogram of semolina, or a liquid egg product produced only with hen’s eggs. Pasta made and sold in Italy under this category must be labeled egg pasta.

  A small hand cranked pasta machine designed to sheet fresh pasta dough and cut tagliatelle.

Fresh and stabilized pastas (paste alimentari fresche e stabilizzate): Includes fresh and stabilized pastas, which may be made with soft-wheat flour without restriction on the amount. Prepackaged fresh pasta must have a water content not less than 24%, must be stored refrigerated at a temperature of not more than 4 °C (with a 2°C tolerance), must have undergone a heat treatment at least equivalent to pasteurization, and must be sold within 5 days of the date of manufacture. Stabilized pasta has a lower allowed water content of 20%, and is manufactured using a process and heat treatment that allows it to be transported and stored at ambient temperatures.

The Italian regulations under Presidential Decree N° 187 apply only to the commercial manufacturing of pastas both made and sold within Italy. They are not applicable either to pasta made for export from Italy or to pastas imported into Italy from other countries. They also do not apply to pastas made in restaurants.

  U.S. Regulations

In the U.S. regulations for commercial pasta products occur both at the Federal and State levels.

At the Federal level, consistent with Section 341 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act,[53][54] the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has defined standards of identity for what are broadly termed macaroni and noodle products. These standards appear in 21 CFR Part 139.[55] In those regulations the requirements for standardized macaroni and noodle products of 15 specific types of dried pastas are detailed, including ingredients and product specific labeling for conforming products sold in the U.S., including imports:

Macaroni products – is defined as the class of food prepared by drying formed units of dough made from semolina, durum flour, farina, flour, or any combination of those ingredients with water. Within this category various optional ingredients may also be used within specified ranges, including egg white, frozen egg white or dried egg white alone or in any combination; disodium phosphate; onions, celery, garlic or bay leaf, alone or in any combination; salt; gum gluten; and concentrated glyceryl monostearate. Specific dimensions are given for the shapes named macaroni, spaghetti and vermicelli.

Enriched macaroni products – is largely the same as macaroni products except that each such food must contain of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin or niacinamide, folic acid and iron, with specified limits. Additional optional ingredients that may be added include vitamin D, calcium, and defatted wheat germ. The optional ingredients specified may be supplied through the use of dried yeast, dried torula yeast, partly defatted wheat germ, enriched farina, or enriched flour.

Enriched macaroni products with fortified protein–similar to enriched macaroni products with the addition of other ingredients to meet specific protein requirements. Edible protein sources that may be used include food grade flours or meals from nonwheat cereals or oilseeds. Products in this category must include specified amounts of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin or niacinamide and iron, but not folic acid. The products in this category may also optionally contain up to 625 milligrams of calcium.

Milk macaroni products – the same as macaroni products except that milk or a specified milk product is used as the sole moistening ingredient in preparing the dough. Other than milk, allowed milk products include concentrated milk, evaporated milk, dried milk, and a mixture of butter with skim, concentrated skim, evaporated skim, or nonfat dry milk, in any combination, with the limitation on the amount of milk solids relative to amount of milk fat.

Nonfat milk macaroni products - the same as macaroni products except that nonfat dry milk or concentrated skim milk is used in preparing the dough. The finished macaroni product must contain between 12 and 25 percent milk solids-not-fat. Carageenan or carageenan salts may be added in specified amounts. The use of egg whites, disodium phosphate and gum gluten optionally allowed for macaroni products is not permitted for this category.

Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products – similar to nonfat milk macaroni products with added requirements that products in this category contain thiamin, riboflavin, niacin or niacinamide, folic acid and iron, all within specified ranges.

Vegetable macaroni products – begins as macaroni products except that tomato (of any red variety), artichoke, beet, carrot, parsley or spinach is added in a quantity such that the solids of the added component are at least 3 percent by weight of the finished macaroni product. The vegetable additions may be I the form of fresh, canned, dried or a puree or paste. The addition of either the various forms of egg whites or disodium phosphate allowed for macaroni products is not permitted in this category.

Enriched vegetable macaroni products - the same as vegetable macaroni products with the added requirement for nutrient content specified for enriched macaroni products.

Whole wheat macaroni products – similar to macaroni products except that only whole wheat flour or whole wheat durum flour, or both, may be used as the wheat ingredient. Further the addition of the various forms of egg whites, disodium phosphate and gum gluten are not permitted.

Wheat and soy macaroni products – begins as macaroni products with the addition of at least 12.5 percent of soy flour as a fraction of the total soy and wheat flour used. The addition the various forms of egg whites and disodium phosphate are not permitted. Gum gluten may be added with a limitation that the total protein content derived from the combination of the flours and added gluten not exceed 13 percent.

Noodle products – are the class of food that is prepared by drying units of dough made from semolina, durum flour, farina, flour, alone or in any combination with liquid eggs, frozen eggs, dried eggs, egg yolks, frozen yolks, dried yolks, alone or in any combination, with or without water. Optional ingredients that may be added in allowed amounts are onions, celery, garlic, and bay leaf; salt; gum gluten; and concentrated glyceryl monostearate.

Enriched noodle products – similar to noodle products with the addition of specific requirements for amounts of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin or niacinamide, folic acid and iron, each within specified ranges. Additionally products in this category may optionally contain added vitamin D, calcium or defatted wheat germ, each within specified limits.

Vegetable noodle products - the same as noodle products with the addition of tomato (of any red variety), artichoke, beet, carrot, parsley, or spinach in an amount that is at least 3 percent of the finished product weight. The vegetable component may be added as fresh, canned, dried, or in the form of a puree or paste.

Enriched vegetable noodle products – the same as vegetable noodle products excluding carrot, with the specified nutrient requirements for enriched noodle products.

Wheat and soy noodle products – similar to noodle products except that soy flour is added in a quantity not less than 12.5 percent of the combined weight of the wheat and soy ingredients.

It is important to note that the federal regulations under 21 CFR Part 139 are standards for the products noted, not mandates. Following the FDA’s standards, a number of states have, at various times, enacted their own statutes that serve as mandates for various forms of macaroni and noodle products that may be produced or sold within their borders. Many of these specifically require that the products sold within those states be of the enriched form.[56][57][58][59] According to a report released by the Connecticut Office of Legislative Research, when Connecticut’s law was adopted in 1972 that mandated certain grain products, including macaroni products, sold within the state to be enriched it joined 38 to 40 other states in adopting the federal standards as mandates.[60]

Beyond the FDA’s standards and state statutes the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), which regulates federal school nutrition programs,[61][62] broadly requires grain and bread products served under these programs either be enriched or whole grain (see 7 CFR 210.10 (k)(5)). This includes macaroni and noodle products that are served as part the category grains/breads requirements within those programs. The USDA also allows that 'enriched macaroni products fortified with protein may be used and counted to meet either a gains/breads or meat/alternative meat requirement, but not as both components within the same meal.[63]

  Additional Facts

  • For the production of one billion pounds of pasta, you would need 2,021,452,000 gallons of water – that is enough to fill approximately 75,000 Olympic-size swimming pools.[64]
  • One billion pounds of pasta is approximately 212,595 miles of 16-ounce packages of spaghetti stacked end-to-end – that is enough to circle the earth's equator nearly nine times.[64]
  • In the United States it is a federal law that a noodle must contain 5.5 percent egg solids to be called a noodle – without egg, a noodle legally isn't a noodle.[64]
  • The term “cooked al dente” (al-DEN-tay) literally means "to the tooth", this is the correct technique of checking if the pasta is properly cooked. The pasta should be a bit firm, posing some resistance to the tooth, but also tender.[64]
  • Pasta is available in a variety of colours. The majority of pasta is cream-coloured, however there are also various coloured pastas. Pasta that is green is made using spinach, red pasta is made using tomato, gray pasta is made using squid ink, and some pasta is called "cellophane" because it becomes transparent when cooked.[64]
  • In the nation of Italy, 51 pounds of pasta are consumed by the average person yearly. This is in comparison to the 15.5 pounds of pasta eaten yearly by the average individual in North America.[64]
  • Pasta is a great and beloved commodity in the Americas. Due to the high consumership, 1.3 million pounds of pasta were sold in American grocery stores in 2000.[64]
  • Top-quality pasta is made from durum wheat. According to the North Dakota Agricultural Statistics Service, about 73% of the durum wheat grown in the U.S. is grown in North Dakota.[64]
  • Italy produces about 2.75 million tons of pasta yearly, in comparison to the 1.9 million tons of pasta produced yearly in the United States.[64]
  • There are more than 600 pasta shapes produced worldwide.[64]
  • Each Italian Region has its typical type of pasta. Sardinia, Puglia, Emilia Romagna, Campania and Sicily are very famous for their local pasta production, that Barilla decided to product a national industrial distribuition of some types, as Gnocchetti Sardi, Casarecce Siciliane and Orecchiette Pugliesi

  See also

  References

Notes
  1. ^ Process of elimination
  2. ^ McClatchey, Caroline. "How pasta became the world's favourite food". BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-13760559. Retrieved 23 March 2012. 
  3. ^ Hazan, Marcella Essentials of Classic Italian Cooking, Knopf, ISBN 0-394-58404-X
  4. ^ a b c Zanini De Vita, Oretta, Encyclopedia of Pasta, University of California Press, ISBN 978052025227
  5. ^ Hazan, Giuliano, The Classic Pasta Cookbook, Dorling Kindersley, ISBN 978-1-56458-292-8
  6. ^ http://italianfood.about.com/od/pastarecipesandsauces/a/aa102298.htm , retrieved March 21, 2012.
  7. ^ Pasta. UK: Parragon Publishing. 2005. pp. 6–57. 
  8. ^ παστός, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library
  9. ^ pasta - Wiktionary, http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/pasta, retrieved 2008-04-06 
  10. ^ Watson, Andrew M (1983). Agricultural innovation in the early Islamic world. New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 22-3
  11. ^ Serventi & Sabban 2002:24
  12. ^ a b c d e Serventi & Sabban 2002:15–16
  13. ^ a b Serventi, Silvano; Françoise Sabban (2002), Pasta: The Story of a Universal Food, Trans. Antony Shugaar, New York: Columbia University Press, pp. 10, ISBN 0-231-12442-2 
  14. ^ a b Serventi & Sabban 2002:17
  15. ^ Serventi & Sabban 2002:29
  16. ^ "A medical text in Arabic written by a Jewish doctor living in Tunisia in the early 900s", according to John Dickie, Delizia! The Epic History of Italians and Their Food (New York, 2008), p. 21f.
  17. ^ The Sicilian coast east of Palermo is being described.
  18. ^ Quoted in Dickie 2008, p. 21 and references.
  19. ^ a b Demetri, Justin. "History of pasta". lifeinitaly. http://www.lifeinitaly.com/food/pasta-history.asp. Retrieved 24 March 2012. 
  20. ^ National Pasta Association article FAQs section "Who "invented" pasta?"; "The story that it was Marco Polo who imported noodles to Italy and thereby gave birth to the country's pasta culture is the most pervasive myth in the history of Italian food." (Dickie 2008, p. 48).
  21. ^ S. Serventi, F. Sabban La pasta. Storia e cultura di un cibo universale, VII. Economica Laterza 2004
  22. ^ a b Walker, Margaret E.. "The History of Pasta". inmamaskitchen. http://www.inmamaskitchen.com/FOOD_IS_ART/pasta/historypasta.html. Retrieved 24 March 2012. 
  23. ^ "The History of Pasta: It's not what you think!". Pasta Recipes by Italians. http://www.pasta-recipes-by-italians.com/history-of-pasta.html. Retrieved 26 March 2012. 
  24. ^ "The History of Pasta in the Italian Kitchen". http://pastarito.info/. Retrieved 26 March 2012. 
  25. ^ a b Demetri, Justin. "History of Pasta". http://www.lifeinitaly.com/food/pasta-history.asp. Retrieved 29 March 2012. 
  26. ^ Tracey, Michael. "The Origin and History of Pasta where Pasta comes from". http://africhef.com/Pasta/. Retrieved 28 March 2012. 
  27. ^ a b c Quessenberry, Sara. "Dried Vs. Fresh Pasta". Real Simple. http://www.realsimple.com/food-recipes/shopping-storing/food/dried-vs-fresh-pasta-10000001609408/. Retrieved 28 March 2012. 
  28. ^ a b Christensen, Emma. "Dry Pasta vs. Fresh Pasta: What's the Difference?". The Kitchn. http://www.thekitchn.com/dry-pasta-vs-fresh-pasta-whats-47888. Retrieved 28 March 2012. 
  29. ^ a b c Laux, Sandra. "Types of Pasta". Mangia Bene Pasta. http://www.mangiabenepasta.com/types.html. Retrieved 28 March 2012. 
  30. ^ a b c d e f g "Pasta Facts". Pasta Canada. http://www.pastacanada.com/english/pastafacts/pastafacts.html. Retrieved 29 March 2012. 
  31. ^ Montany, Gail (2011-06-19). "Lidia Bastianich on the quintessential Italian meal". The Aspen Business Journal. http://www.aspenbusinessjournal.com/article/id/736/sid/16. Retrieved 2012-01-01. 
  32. ^ Bastianich, Lidia; Tania, Manuali. Lidia Cooks from the Heart of Italy: A Feast of 175 Regional Recipes (1st ed.). 
  33. ^ Bastianich, Lidia; John, Mariani. How Italian Food Conquered the World (1st ed.). 
  34. ^ Bramblett, Reid (2004). Frommer's Florence, Tuscany & Umbria. Wiley Publishing Inc. ISBN 0-7645-4219-2. 
  35. ^ "How to Make Pasta Dough". allrecipes. http://allrecipes.com/howto/making-pasta-dough/. Retrieved 24 March 2012. 
  36. ^ "Fresh Pasta". allrecipes. http://allrecipes.com/HowTo/Fresh-Pasta/Detail.aspx. Retrieved 24 March 2012. 
  37. ^ "How to Store Pasta". http://www.ilovepasta.org/storing_pasta.html%7Clanguage=English. Retrieved 27 March 2012. 
  38. ^ Recipe Tips. "Pasta Handling, Safety & Storage". http://www.recipetips.com/kitchen-tips/t--166/pasta-handling-safety-storage.asp. Retrieved 27 March 2012. 
  39. ^ "How pasta is made". made how. http://www.madehow.com/Volume-2/Pasta.html#b. Retrieved 27 March 2012. 
  40. ^ "Spaghetti, whole-wheat, cooked". http://nutritiondata.self.com/facts/cereal-grains-and-pasta/5784/2. Retrieved 30 March 2012. 
  41. ^ "Minerals". http://www.brianmac.co.uk/minerals.htm. Retrieved 29 March 2012. 
  42. ^ a b "Pasta Nutrition". National Pasta Association. http://www.ilovepasta.org/nutrition.html. Retrieved 28 March 2012. 
  43. ^ "Folic Acid: What Women of Childbearing Age Need to Know". http://www.ivillage.com/folic-acid-what-women-childbearing-age-need-know/6-n-138557. Retrieved 28 March 2012. 
  44. ^ a b "Scientists Confirms Health Benefits of Pasta Meal". http://www.foodnutritionscience.com/index.cfm/do/monsanto.article/articleId/493.cfm. Retrieved 29 March 2012. 
  45. ^ "Incomplete Pasta Protein?". http://www.weightlossforall.com/protein-pasta.htm. Retrieved 29 March 2012. 
  46. ^ "Pasta Nutrition Facts". http://www.glycemic-index.org/pasta-nutrition.html. Retrieved 29 March 2012. 
  47. ^ "The Healthy Pasta Meal". http://www.internationalpasta.org/resources/extra/FENS%20Conf%20program.pdf. Retrieved 29 March 2012. 
  48. ^ "Pasta Health facts". http://www.ilovepasta.org/health_facts.html. Retrieved 29 March 2012. 
  49. ^ "Pasta". eNotes. http://www.enotes.com/pasta-reference/pasta-178091. Retrieved 27 March 2012. 
  50. ^ AP, Explore the world of Canto-Western cuisine, January 8, 2007 http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/16440507/
  51. ^ Presidential Decree 187, dated 9 February 2001, in Italian
  52. ^ Presidential Decree 187, dated 9 February, 2001, English translation from UA A.F.P.A.
  53. ^ 21 U.S.C. 341 - Definitions and standards for food
  54. ^ FD&C Act - Section 341 pdf
  55. ^ 21 CFR Part 139
  56. ^ Connecticut – General Provisions. Pure Foods and Drugs
  57. ^ Florida – Food Products (see 500.301 – 500.306)
  58. ^ Utah - Enrichment of Flour and Cereal Products
  59. ^ Oregon Laws – Standards of Identity and Quality
  60. ^ Connecticut Legislative History of Statute Concerning the Enrichment of Certain Grain Products
  61. ^ 7 CFR 210 – National School Lunch Program
  62. ^ 7 CFR 220 – National School Breakfast Program.
  63. ^ Grains/Breads – Buying Guide for Child Nutrition Programs
  64. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Fun Facts about Pasta". National Pasta Association. http://www.ilovepasta.org/funfacts.html. Retrieved 29 March 2012. 
Literature
  • Serventi, Silvano; Sabban, Francoise (2000). Pasta: The story of a universal food (translated ed.). New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-12442-3. 

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