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Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.
Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !
Change the target language to find translations.
Tips: browse the semantic fields (see From ideas to words) in two languages to learn more.
|Secretary-General||María Dolores de Cospedal|
|Spokesperson||Esteban González Pons|
|Founder||Manuel Fraga Iribarne|
|Honorary President||José María Aznar|
|Founded||20 January 1989|
|Preceded by||People's Alliance|
|Headquarters||C/ Genova, 13
|Youth wing||New Generations|
|Political position||Centre-right to right-wing|
|International affiliation||Centrist Democrat International,
International Democrat Union
|European affiliation||European People's Party|
|European Parliament group||European People's Party|
|Congress of Deputies|
|Politics of Spain
The People's Party was a re-foundation in 1989 of the People's Alliance (Spanish: Alianza Popular, AP), a party led and founded by Manuel Fraga Iribarne, a former Minister of Tourism during Francisco Franco's dictatorship. The new party combined the conservative AP with several small Christian democratic and liberal parties (the party call this fusion of views Reformist centre). In 2002, Manuel Fraga received the honorary title of "Founding Chairman".
The PP was until November 2011 the largest opposition party in the Congress of Deputies, with 153 out of 350 deputies, and the largest party represented in the Senate, with 101 out of 208 senators. Its youth organization is New Generations of the People’s Party of Spain (NNGG). In the elections of November 2011 the PP won a majority with 186 seats in the Deputies.
The PP is a member of the center-right European People's Party (EPP) and in the European Parliament its 23 MEPs sit in the EPP Group. The PP is also a member of the Centrist Democrat International and the International Democrat Union.
The People's Alliance was founded in 9 October 1976 by Manuel Fraga, who had served as a government minister under Franco and who had expected to play a key role in post-Franco governments. He underestimated the popular desire for change and distaste for Francoism, and he advocated an extremely gradual transition to democracy. Although Fraga had originally intended to convey a reformist image, his party was perceived by the electorate as both reactionary and authoritarian. In the June 1977 general election, the AP garnered only 8.3 percent of the vote.
In the months following the 1977 elections, dissent erupted within the AP over constitutional issues that arose as the draft document was being formulated. Fraga wanted to move the AP toward the political centre in order to form a larger centre-right party. Most of the disenchanted reactionaries left the AP, and Fraga and the remaining AP members joined other more moderately conservative party leaders to form the Democratic Coalition (Coalición Democrática, CD).
It was hoped that this new coalition would capture the support of those who had voted for the Union of the Democratic Centre (UCD) in 1977, but who had become disenchanted with the Adolfo Suárez government. In the March 1979 general election, however, the CD received 6.1 percent of the vote.
At the AP's Third Party Congress in December 1979, party leaders re-assessed their involvement in the CD. Many felt that the creation of the coalition had merely confused the voters, and they sought to emphasise the AP's independent identity. Fraga resumed control of the party, and the political resolutions adopted by the party congress reaffirmed the conservative orientation of the AP.
In the early 1980s, Fraga succeeded in rallying the various components of the right around his leadership. He was aided in his efforts to revive the AP by the increasing disintegration of the UCD. In the general elections held in October 1982, the AP gained votes both from previous UCD supporters and from the far right, and it became the major opposition party, securing 25.4 percent of the popular vote.
Whereas the AP's parliamentary representation had dropped to 9 seats in 1979, the party allied itself with the small Christian democratic Democratic Popular Party (PDP) and won 106 seats in 1982. The increased strength of the AP was further evidenced in the municipal and regional elections held in May 1983, when the party drew 26 percent of the vote. A significant portion of the electorate appeared to support the AP's emphasis on law and order as well as its pro-business policies.
Subsequent political developments belied the party's aspirations to continue increasing its base of support. Prior to the June 1986 elections, the AP once again joined forces with the PDP and with the Liberal Party (PL), formed the Popular Coalition (CP), in another attempt to expand its constituency to include the centre of the political spectrum. The coalition called for stronger measures against terrorism, for more privatisation, and for a reduction in public spending and in taxes. The CP failed to increase its share of the vote in the 1986 elections, however, and it soon began to disintegrate.
When regional elections in late 1986 resulted in further losses for the coalition, Fraga resigned as AP chairman, although he retained his parliamentary seat. At the party congress in February 1987, Antonio Hernández Mancha was chosen to head the AP, declaring that under his leadership the AP would become a "modern right-wing European party". But Hernández Mancha lacked political experience at the national level, and the party continued to decline. When support for the AP plummeted in the municipal and regional elections held in June 1987, it was clear that it would be overtaken as major opposition party by Suarez's Democratic and Social Centre (CDS).
After the resignation of Manuel Fraga and the successive victories of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) in the general election of 1982 and 1986 general election, the Popular Alliance entered a period of deep crisis. Fraga then took the reins and, at the Congress of January 1989, the CP was re-established as a single party, the People's Party, that bore the characteristics of the AP. Fraga was the first chairman of the party, with Francisco Álvarez Cascos as the secretary general.
On 4 September 1989, and at the suggestion of Fraga himself, José María Aznar (then premier of the Autonomous Region of Castile and León) was elected candidate for Prime Minister of Spain at the general elections. In April 1990, Aznar became chairman of the party. Fraga would later be named Founding Chairman of the People's Party.
The PP was the governing party from 1996 to 2004, led by Prime Minister José María Aznar. The PP won the general elections for the first time in 1996, and José María Aznar became Prime Minister with the support of the Basque Nationalist Party, the Catalan Convergence and Union and the Canarian Coalition. In the 2000 elections, the PP gained an absolute majority.
During this time period, Spain saw a large increase in house prices (19%). This situation was referred to as a "housing bubble" or "real-estate boom", the subsequent collapse of which led to the 2008–2011 Spanish financial crisis.
A truce was declared in 1998 after Aznar's government relocated 135 convicted ETA members to prisons in the Basque region. The truce lasted for 14 months until ETA ended it on November 28, 1999. Aznar's government began a severe policy of harassing ETA, proscribed internationally as a terrorist organization, and its environment in all possible political, legal, and social ways.
During the Aznar years, compulsory military service was ended, and the Spanish Armed Forces were reformed to become more professional. The National Hydrological Plan meant that most of the dry areas of the South-East would receive water from elsewhere in Spain. Efforts were also made to combat corruption.
The People's Party fiercely defended Spain's agricultural and fishery rights within the EU. Spain joined the Eurozone and signed the Treaty of Nice, under which Spain achieved parity with France and Germany. The PP strongly opposed EU enlargement.
Known to have a strong Atlanticist ideology, the People's Party fostered stronger ties to the USA. Rather than getting closer to countries that the PP believed were harmful to Spanish interests in the EU (France and Germany), Spain preferred to foster stronger relations with the United Kingdom. Spain joined the Coalition in the Iraq War. Despite not sending any forces to take part in operations during the war, it sent in peace-keeping troops after the end of the conflict.
On 11 July 2002, Morocco occupied Perejil, a disputed deserted island near the Moroccan shore. After concerted diplomatic efforts to remove Moroccan troops from the island, Spanish troops were sent in and captured all Moroccan soldiers. With the assistance of NATO and of the USA, Spain persuaded Morocco to accept the status quo ante.
In August 2003, Mariano Rajoy was appointed Secretary General by Aznar. Thus, Rajoy became the party's candidate for Prime Minister in the 2004 general election, held three days after the 11 March 2004 Madrid train bombings, and which Rajoy lost by a big margin to Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) leader José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero.
The PP under Mariano Rajoy has opposed the PSOE government since the PP lost the general election in 2004, arguing that this victory was influenced by the Madrid bombings of 11 March 2004. At a national level, its political strategy has followed two main axes, both linked to Spain's delicate regional politics: Firstly, opposing further administrative devolution to Catalonia by means of the newly-approved " Estatut" or Statute of Catalonia that lays out the powers of the Catalan regional government. Secondly, opposition to political negotiations with the Basque separatist organization ETA.
The People's Party has supported the Association of Victims of Terrorism (AVT) with respect to the Government's actions concerning ETA's ceasefire, and was able to mobilise hundreds of thousands of people in demonstrations against Government policies that, in its opinion, would result in political concessions to ETA. Nevertheless, the end of the ceasefire in December 2006 ended prospects for government negotiations with ETA.
The prospect of increased demands for autonomy in the programs of Catalan and Basque parties, and Zapatero's alleged favouring of them, became a focus for the party's campaign for the March 2008 general election. Basque President Juan José Ibarretxe's proposal for a unilateral referendum for the solution of the Basque Conflict was another important issue.
The People's Party under Rajoy has an increasingly patriotic, or nationalist, element to it, appealing to the sense of "Spanishness" and making strong use of national symbols such as the Spanish flag. Prior to the national celebrations of Spanish Heritage Day, Rajoy made a speech asking Spaniards to "privately or publicly" display their pride in their nation and to honor their flag, an action which received some criticism from many political groups of the Congress.
On 9 March 2008, Spain held a general election, with both main parties led by the same candidates who competed in 2004: 154 People's Party MPs were elected, up six on the previous election. However, the failure to close the gap with the ruling Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (which increased its number of MPs by five) provoked a party crisis, in which some internal groups and supportive media questioned the leadership of Rajoy, who was said to be close to resigning.
After an impasse of three days, he decided to stay, and summoned a Party Convention to be held in June 2008 in Valencia. Speculation about alternative candidates erupted in the media, with discussion of the possible candidacies of Madrid Mayor Alberto Ruíz Gallardón and Madrid autonomous community Premier Esperanza Aguirre creating a national debate, calls for support and opposition from the media, etc.
In the end neither one stood, with Gallardón explicitly backing Rajoy and Aguirre refusing to comment on the issue. The only politician who explicitly expressed his intention to stand was Juan Costa, who had been a minister under Aznar, but he was unable to garner the 20% support required to stand in the election because of the support Rajoy had received prior to his nomination. At the convention, Mariano Rajoy was re-elected chairman with 79% of the vote, and in order to "refresh the negative public image of the party", which had been a major factor in the electoral defeat, its leadership was controversially renewed with young people, replacing a significant number of politicians from the Aznar era.
Among the latter, most resigned of their own accord to make room for the next generation, like the PP Spokesman in the Congress of Deputies Eduardo Zaplana, replaced by Soraya Sáenz de Santamaría; and the party Secretary-General Ángel Acebes, whose office was taken by María Dolores de Cospedal. Also, María del Mar Blanco, sister of the PP councilor Miguel Ángel Blanco (who was assassinated by ETA in 1997), was elected into the new leadership to represent the Association of Victims of Terrorism.
The convention also saw significant reforms to the Party Statutes, including the reform of election to the office of Party Chairperson, which was to be open to more competition; and linking that office to the party candidacy in the general elections, etc. María San Gil, Chairwoman of the Basque PP, left the party (even resigning from her Basque Parliament seat) over disagreements on the party policies towards regional nationalisms in Spain, and particularly over the deletion of a direct reference to the Basque Nationalist Party accusing them of being too passive and "contemptuous" regarding the armed Basque group ETA. Most PP members rallied behind San Gil at first, but when it became clear that her decision was final the national leadership called a regional party election, in which Antonio Basagoiti was chosen as the new Basque PP leader.
The PP won a clear victory in the 2011 Spanish general elections overthrowing PSOE, from the government. With 44.62% of the votes, the conservatives won 186 seats in the Congreso de los Diputados, the biggest victory they have ever had. On the other hand, the center-left PSOE suffered a huge defeat, losing 59 MPs. The PP, under Mariano Rajoy's leadership, returns to power after 7 years of opposition.
In early 2009 a scandal involving several senior members of the party came to the public's attention. The Gürtel case ultimately resulted in the resignation of the party's treasurer Luis Barcenas in April 2010. However, the case against him was dropped in July 2011 due to lack of evidence.
The leader of the party in the Valencia region, Francisco Camps, was also forced to step down in July 2011. He was accused of having received gifts in exchange for public contracts.
Leaders, deputy Prime Ministers, Government ministers and regional Presidents elected as PP members have included: