definition of Wikipedia
|Conventional Magnetic Circuits|
|Phasor Magnetic Circuits|
|Gyrator-capacitor model variables|
In electromagnetism, permeability is the measure of the ability of a material to support the formation of a magnetic field within itself. In other words, it is the degree of magnetization that a material obtains in response to an applied magnetic field. Magnetic permeability is typically represented by the Greek letter μ. The term was coined in September, 1885 by Oliver Heaviside. The reciprocal of magnetic permeability is magnetic reluctivity.
We can simplify it by saying, the more conductive a material is to a magnetic field, the higher its permeability.
In SI units, permeability is measured in the henries per meter (H·m−1), or newtons per ampere squared (N·A−2). The permeability constant (μ0), also known as the magnetic constant or the permeability of free space, is a measure of the amount of resistance encountered when forming a magnetic field in a classical vacuum. The magnetic constant has the exact (defined) value µ0 = 4π×10−7 ≈ 1.2566370614…×10−6 H·m−1 or N·A−2).
A closely related property of materials is magnetic susceptibility, which is a measure of the magnetization of a material in addition to the magnetization of the space occupied by the material.
In electromagnetism, the auxiliary magnetic field H represents how a magnetic field B influences the organization of magnetic dipoles in a given medium, including dipole migration and magnetic dipole reorientation. Its relation to permeability is
In general, permeability is not a constant, as it can vary with the position in the medium, the frequency of the field applied, humidity, temperature, and other parameters. In a nonlinear medium, the permeability can depend on the strength of the magnetic field. Permeability as a function of frequency can take on real or complex values. In ferromagnetic materials, the relationship between B and H exhibits both non-linearity and hysteresis: B is not a single-valued function of H, but depends also on the history of the material. For these materials it is sometimes useful to consider the incremental permeability defined as
This definition is useful in local linearizations of non-linear material behavior, for example in a Newton-Raphson iterative solution scheme that computes the changing saturation of a magnetic circuit.
Permeability is the inductance per unit length. In SI units, permeability is measured in henries per metre (H·m−1 = J/(A2·m) = N A−2). The auxiliary magnetic field H has dimensions current per unit length and is measured in units of amperes per metre (A m−1). The product μH thus has dimensions inductance times current per unit area (H·A/m2). But inductance is magnetic flux per unit current, so the product has dimensions magnetic flux per unit area. This is just the magnetic field B, which is measured in webers (volt-seconds) per square-metre (V·s/m2), or teslas (T).
B is related to the Lorentz force on a moving charge q:
H is related to the magnetic dipole density. A magnetic dipole is a closed circulation of electric current. The dipole moment has dimensions current times area, units ampere square-metre (A·m2), and magnitude equal to the current around the loop times the area of the loop. The H field at a distance from a dipole has magnitude proportional to the dipole moment divided by distance cubed, which has dimensions current per unit length.
Relative permeability, sometimes denoted by the symbol μr, is the ratio of the permeability of a specific medium to the permeability of free space given by the magnetic constant :
In terms of relative permeability, the magnetic susceptibility is:
χm, a dimensionless quantity, is sometimes called volumetric or bulk susceptibility, to distinguish it from χp (magnetic mass or specific susceptibility) and χM (molar or molar mass susceptibility).
Diamagnetism is the property of an object which causes it to create a magnetic field in opposition of an externally applied magnetic field, thus causing a repulsive effect. Specifically, an external magnetic field alters the orbital velocity of electrons around their nuclei, thus changing the magnetic dipole moment in the direction opposing the external field. Diamagnets are materials with a magnetic permeability less than (a relative permeability less than 1).
Consequently, diamagnetism is a form of magnetism that a substance exhibits only in the presence of an externally applied magnetic field. It is generally a quite weak effect in most materials, although superconductors exhibit a strong effect.
Paramagnetism is a form of magnetism which occurs only in the presence of an externally applied magnetic field. Paramagnetic materials are attracted to magnetic fields, hence have a relative magnetic permeability greater than one (or, equivalently, a positive magnetic susceptibility). The magnetic moment induced by the applied field is linear in the field strength and rather weak. It typically requires a sensitive analytical balance to detect the effect. Unlike ferromagnets, paramagnets do not retain any magnetization in the absence of an externally applied magnetic field, because thermal motion causes the spins to become randomly oriented without it. Thus the total magnetization will drop to zero when the applied field is removed. Even in the presence of the field there is only a small induced magnetization because only a small fraction of the spins will be oriented by the field. This fraction is proportional to the field strength and this explains the linear dependency. The attraction experienced by ferromagnets is non-linear and much stronger, so that it is easily observed, for instance, in magnets on one's refrigerator.
The following table should be used with caution as the permeability of ferromagnetic materials varies greatly with field strength. For example 4% Si steel has an initial relative permeability (at or near 0T) of 2,000 and a maximum of 35,000 and, indeed, the relative permeability of any material at a sufficiently high field strength tends to 1.
|Permeability μ [H/m]||Relative Permeability μ/μ0||Magnetic field||Frequency max.|
|Metglas||1.25||1,000,000||at 0.5 T||100 kHz|
|Nanoperm||10×10−2||80,000||at 0.5 T||10 kHz|
|Mu-metal||2.5×10−2||20,000||at 0.002 T|
|Permalloy||1.0×10−2||8,000||at 0.002 T|
|Electrical steel||5.0×10−3||4,000||at 0.002 T|
|Ferrite (nickel zinc)||2.0×10−5 – 8.0×10−4||16–640||100 kHz ~ 1 MHz|
|Ferrite (manganese zinc)||>8.0×10−4||640 (or more)||100 kHz ~ 1 MHz|
|Steel||8.75×10−4||100||at 0.002 T|
|Nickel||1.25×10−4||100 – 600||at 0.002 T|
For passive magnetic levitation a relative permeability below 1 is needed (corresponding to a negative susceptibility).
Permeability varies with magnetic field. Values shown above are approximate and valid only at the magnetic fields shown. Moreover, they are given for a zero frequency; in practice, the permeability is generally a function of the frequency. When frequency is considered the permeability can be complex, corresponding to the in phase and out of phase response.
A useful tool for dealing with high frequency magnetic effects is the complex permeability. While at low frequencies in a linear material the magnetic field and the auxiliary magnetic field are simply proportional to each other through some scalar permeability, at high frequencies these quantities will react to each other with some lag time. These fields can be written as phasors, such that
where is the phase delay of from . Understanding permeability as the ratio of the magnetic field to the auxiliary magnetic field, the ratio of the phasors can be written and simplified as
so that the permeability becomes a complex number. By Euler's formula, the complex permeability can be translated from polar to rectangular form,
The ratio of the imaginary to the real part of the complex permeability is called the loss tangent,
which provides a measure of how much power is lost in a material versus how much is stored.
Dictionary and translator for handheld
New : sensagent is now available on your handheld
A windows (pop-into) of information (full-content of Sensagent) triggered by double-clicking any word on your webpage. Give contextual explanation and translation from your sites !
With a SensagentBox, visitors to your site can access reliable information on over 5 million pages provided by Sensagent.com. Choose the design that fits your site.
Improve your site content
Add new content to your site from Sensagent by XML.
Crawl products or adds
Get XML access to reach the best products.
Index images and define metadata
Get XML access to fix the meaning of your metadata.
Please, email us to describe your idea.
Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.
Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !
Change the target language to find translations.
Tips: browse the semantic fields (see From ideas to words) in two languages to learn more.