Poles in Lithuania
The Polish minority in Lithuania (Polish: Polacy na Litwie) numbers 234,989 persons, and at 6.74% of the population of Lithuania (the current population of Lithuania (Polish: Litwa) is estimated at approximately 3,350,400 people), it forms the largest ethnic minority in modern Lithuania and one of the largest Polish diaspora groups in a former Soviet republic. Poles are concentrated in the Vilnius Region (Polish: Wileńszczyzna). People of Polish ethnicity have lived on the territory of modern Lithuania for many centuries.
The relationship between the two groups is long and complex. The countries were united during the era of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, but this ended after that state was partitioned in the late 18th century. Both countries succeeded in regaining their independence in the wake of World War I, but hostilities over the ownership of Vilnius (Polish: Wilno) and the surrounding region, broke out in 1920. The disputes became moot after the Soviet Union exercised its authority over both countries during and immediately after World War II. Some tensions over the Vilnius Region resurfaced after Lithuania regained its independence in 1990, but have since remained at manageable levels. Poland was highly supportive of the Lithuanian independence, and became one of the first countries to recognize independent Lithuania, despite apprehensions over Lithuania's mistreatment of its Polish minority.
According to the Lithuanian census of 2001, the Polish minority in Lithuania numbers 234,989 persons. The Polish minority (or Polonia), forming 6.74% of the population of Lithuania, is the largest ethnic minority in modern Lithuania; the second largest being Russian minority in Lithuania. Poles are concentrated in the Vilnius region. The vast majority of Poles live in Vilnius county (216,012 people, forming 26% of the county's population); Vilnius, the capital of Lithuania, has 101,526 Poles, who form 19.3% of the city's population. Especially large Polish communities are found in Vilnius district municipality (61.3% of the population) and Šalčininkai (Soleczniki) district municipality (79.5%).
Lithuanian municipalities which, according to the 2001 census, have a Polish minority exceeding 1% of the total population are listed in the table below:
|Municipality name||County||Total population||Number of ethnic Poles||Percentage|
|Varėna district municipality||Alytus||31,137||2,067||6.6%|
|Jonava district municipality||Kaunas||52,289||713||1.4%|
|Kaišiadorys district municipality||Kaunas||37,649||374||1.0%|
|Ignalina district municipality||Utena||23,018||1,908||8.3%|
|Molėtai district municipality||Utena||25,387||2,053||8.1%|
|Zarasai district municipality||Utena||22,826||1,518||6.7%|
|Vilnius city municipality||Vilnius||553,904||104,446||18.9%|
|— Vilnius proper||Vilnius||542,287||101,526||18.7%|
|Šalčininkai district municipality||Vilnius||39,282||31,223||79.5%|
|Širvintos district municipality||Vilnius||20,207||2,019||10%|
|Švenčionys district municipality||Vilnius||33,135||9,098||27.5%|
|Trakai district municipality||Vilnius||37,376||12,403||33.2%|
|Vilnius district municipality||Vilnius||88,586||54,322||61.3%|
Out of the 234,989 Poles in Lithuania, 187,918 (80.0%) consider the Polish language to be their mother tongue. 22,439 Poles (9.5%) speak Russian as their first language, while 17,233 (7.3%) speak Lithuanian. 6,279 Poles (2.7%) did not indicate their first language. The remaining 0.5% speaks various other languages.
|Population with Polish ethnic affiliations |
within current Lithuanian borders
|Census year||1897||1923 est.||1959||1970||1979||1989||2001||2007 est.||2008 est.||2009 est.|
|Population||260 000||415 000||230 000||240 200||247 000||258 000||235 000||212 100||208 300||205 500|
|Percentage of Poles in Lithuania stating Polish as their mother tongue |
|Absolute numbers with Polish language education at Lithuanian rural schools (1980)|
|Vilnius / Wilno||1250||4150||6400|
|Šalčininkai / Soleczniki||500||2050||3200|
|Švenčionys / Święciany||1350||600||100|
|Trakai / Troki||2900||50||950|
|Varėna / Orany||6000||0||50|
|Širvintos / Szyrwinty||2400||100||100|
|Absolute number with Polish language education at Lithuanian urban schools was 5 600|
As of 1980, about 20% of Polish-Lithuanian students chose Polish at school. In the same year, about 60-70% of rural Polish community chose Polish. However, even in towns with predominantly Polish population the share of Polish language education was less than the percentage of Poles. Even though, historically Poles tended to strongly oppose Russification, one of the most important reasons to choose Russian language education was the absence of Polish language college and university learning in the USSR, and during Soviet times Polish students were not allowed to get college/university education directly in Poland. Only in 2007, the first small branch of the Polish Białystok University opened in Vilnius. In 1980 there were 16,400 school students instructed in Polish. Their number declined to 11,400 in 1990. In independent Lithuania between 1990 and 2001 the number of Polish mother tongue children attending schools with Polish as the language of instruction doubled to over 22,300, then gradually decreased to 18,392 in 2005 .
People of Polish ethnicity have lived in Lithuania for many centuries. Many Poles in Lithuania today are the descendants of Polonized Lithuanians or Ruthenians. Historically, the number of Poles on modern Lithuanian territory has varied during different periods. Polish culture began to influence the Grand Duchy of Lithuania around the time of the Union of Lublin (16th century), and during the time of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569-1795) much of the Lithuanian nobility was polonized and joined the Polish-Lithuanian szlachta class. Reformation gave another impetus to the spread of the Polish language, as the Bible and other religious texts were translated from Latin to Polish. In 1697 Polish replaced Ruthenian as an chancellery language. In 19th century peasants of Polish nationality started to appear in Lithuania, mostly by Polonization of Lithuanian peasants in Dzūkija and to a lesser degree in Aukštaitija.
|This article may require copy-editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone or spelling. You can assist by editing it. (April 2009)|
A large portion of the Vilnius area was controlled by the Second Polish Republic during the interwar period, particularly the area of the Republic of Central Lithuania, which contained a significant Polish speaking population (for example, the Wilno Voivodeship in 1931 contained 59.7% Polish speakers and only 5.2% Lithuanian speakers). From 1918 to 1921 several conflicts - such as the activity of Polish Military Organization, Sejny uprising (that was met with massive outrage in Lithuania) and discovered attempted of Polish coup on Lithuanian government. From the documents stolen in POW headquarters safe in Vilnius and given to Prime Minister of Lithuania Augustinas Voldemaras it is clear, that this plot was directed by Józef Piłsudski himself., the Polish-Lithuanian War and Żeligowski's Mutiny contributed to worsening of Polish-Lithuanian relations; increasingly Polish people were viewed with suspicion in Lithuania. The loss of Vilnius was a stunning blow to Lithuanian aspirations and identity, and the unrelenting irredentist demand for its return became one of the most important elements of Lithuanian political and social life in the interwar period. The irredentist campaign resulted in the emergence of feelings of hatred and revenge directed against the Poles in the Lithuanian society. In fact, the largest social organization in interwar Lithuania was the League for the liberation of Vilnius (Vilniaus Vadavimo Safunga, or WS), which trumpeted the irredentist line in its magazine "Our Vilnius" (Mūsų Vilnius)." 
Hence in the interwar period Polish minority was persecuted by the administration of independent Lithuania. The Lithuanian census of 1923 showed that Poles constituted 65,600 of Lithuania inhabitants (3.2% of total population). In interwar Lithuania, people declaring Polish ethicity were officially described as polonized Lithuanians who merely needed to be re-Lithuanianized, Polish-owned land were confistacted, Polish religious services, schools, publications, and voting rights were restricted.
During the WWII expulsions and shortly after the war, the Soviet Union, during its struggle to establish the People's Republic of Poland, forcibly resettled many Poles who lived in the Lithuanian SSR and were seen as 'enemies of the state' into Siberia. After the war, in 1945-1948, the Soviet Union allowed to leave 197,000 of Poles to Poland; in 1956-1959, another 46,600 were able to leave. In 1950s the remaining Polish minority was a target of several attempted campaigns of Lithuanization by Communist Party of Lithuania, which tried to ban any teaching in Polish language; those attempts where however vetoed by Moscow which saw them as too nationalistic. The Soviet census of 1959 showed 230,100 Poles concentrated in the Vilnius region (8.5% of the Lithuanian SSR's population). The Polish minority increased in size, but more slowly than other ethnic groups in Lithuania; the last Soviet census of 1989 showed 258,000 Poles (7.0% of the Lithuanian SSR's population). The Polish minority, subject in the past to massive, often voluntary  Russification and Sovietization, and recently to mostly voluntary processes of Lithuanization, shows many and increasing signs of assimilation with Lithuanians. However some young Poles don't speak Lithuanian fluently, so they prefer to study in Poland or in Polish language University of Białystok branch in Vilnius, rather than in Lithuanian universities.
The situation of the Polish minority in Lithuania has caused occasional tensions in Polish-Lithuanian relations during the late 20th and early 21st centuries. When Lithuania declared its independence from the Soviet Union in 1990, Gorbachev sought help from the Polish minority. Polish minority, still remembering the 1950s attempts to ban Polish language, was much more supportive of the Soviet Union and afraid that the new Lithuanian government might want to reintroduce the Lithuanization policies. According to surveys conducted in the spring of 1990, 47% of Poles in Lithuania supported the pro-Soviet Communist party (in contrast to 8% support among ethnic Lithuanians), while 35% supported Lithuanian independence. The regional authorities in Vilnius and Šalčininkai region, under Polish leadership, with support from Soviet authorities, argued for the establishment of an autonomous region in South Eastern Lithuania, a request that was declined by the Lithuanian government and left lasting resentment among some residents. The same Polish regional leaders later voiced support for the Soviet coup attempt of 1991 in Moscow. Government of Poland however never supported the separatist tendencies of the Polish minority in Lithuania.
Current tensions arise regarding Polish education and spelling of names. The United States Department of State stated, in a report issued in 2001, that the Polish minority had issued complaints with regard to its status in Lithuania, and that members of the Polish Parliament criticized the government of Lithuania over alleged discrimination against the Polish minority.  In recent years, the Lithuanian government budgets 40,000 litas (~$15,000) for the needs of the Polish minority (out of the 7 million litas budget of the Department of National Minorities). In 2006 Polish Foreign Minister Stefan Meller asserted that Polish educational institutions in Lithuania are severely underfunded. Similar concerns were voiced in 2007 by a Polish parliamentary commission. According to a report issued by the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights in 2004, Poles in Lithuania were the second least-educated minority group in Lithuania. Branch of University of Białystok in Vilnius educates mostly members of the Polish minority.
A report by the Council of Europe, issued in 2007, stated that on the whole, minorities were integrated quite well into the everyday life of Lithuania. The report expressed a concern with Lithuanian nationality law, which contains a right of return clause. The citizenship law was under discussion during 2007; it was deemed unconstitutional on 13 November 2006. A proposed constitutional amendment would allow the Polish minority in Lithuania to apply for Polish passports. Several members of the Lithuanian Seimas, including Gintaras Songaila and Andrius Kubilius, publicly stated that two members of the Seimas who represent Polish minority there (Waldemar Tomaszewski and Michal Mackiewicz) should resign, because they accepted the Karta Polaka.
A report by the Council of Europe, issued in 2007, stated that on the whole, minorities were integrated quite well into the everyday life of Lithuania. The report expressed a concern with Lithuanian nationality law, which contains a right of return clause, and recommended additional financial support for translations of textbooks. The citizenship law was under discussion during 2007; it was deemed unconstitutional on 13 November 2006. A proposed constitutional amendment would allow the Polish minority in Lithuania to apply for Polish passports..
Lithuanian law stipulates that everyone who has Lithuanian citizenship and resides within the country has to forcibly Lithuanianise their name (i.e. spell it in the Lithuanian phonetics and alphabet); for example, the name Kleczkowski has to be spelled Klečkovski in official documents. Representatives of the Lithuanian government demanded removal of Polish names of the streets in Maišiagala (Mejszagoła), Raudondvaris (Czerwony Dwór), Riešė (Rzesza) and Sudervė (Suderwa). Tensions have been reported between the Lithuanian Roman Catholic clergy and its Polish parishioniers in Lithuania.
The situation is further escalated by extremist groups on both sides. Lithuanian extremist nationalist organization Vilnija seeks the Lithuanization of ethnic Poles living in the Eastern part of Lithuania. The former Polish ambassador to Lithuania, Jan Widacki, has criticized some Polish organizations in Lithuania as being extreme far-right and nationalist. Jan Sienkiewicz has criticized Jan Widacki .
In late May 2008, Association of Poles in Lithuania issued a letter, addressed to the government of Lithuania, complaining about anti-minority (primarily, anti-Polish) rhetoric in media, citing upcoming parliamentary elections as a motive, and asking for better treatment of the ethnic minorities. The Association has also filed a complain with the Lithuanian prosecutor, asking for investigation of the issue.
Lithuania has not ratified European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages .
The surnames of Lithuanian Poles are of Polish forms, many of them ending in suffixes -e/owski, -e/owicz, rarer -(ń)ski and more rare -cki (Lithuanian spelling -e/ovski, -e/ovič, -(n)ski, -cki), are commonly the same as their counterparts in Poland and usually has cognates among Lithuanian surnames, what reflects the historical living in the common cultural area, ethnic, cultural or linguistic assimilation, common use of the same Slavic patronymic suffixes: Pol. -e/owski, -e/owicz : Lith. -(i)auskas, -e/avičius : Belarusian -оўскі, -e/овіч. The suffixes -e/owski, -(ń)ski, -cki is historically characteristic to Polish names and -e/ovič − to Belarusian names. The surname ending -e/ovič, which is more frequent among Lithuanians (-e/-avičius), Belarusians and Lithuanian Poles is rarer in Poland.
The frequency of Lithuanian-specific surnames among the surnames of Lithuanian Poles is moderate. The sketchy examples include anthroponyms of two roots − Talmont, Narvoiš, Bowgerd, Dowgiało, Golmont, Žybort etc.; with Lithuanian patronymic suffixes – Pieciun, Wickun, Mikalajun, Masojć, Matulaniec; with Lithuanian diminutive suffixes − Jurgiel, Wierbiel, Jusel, Drawnel, Rekiel, Szuksztul; Lithuanian root − Garszwo, Plokszto, Pażuś, Gejgall, Szyllo, Wojsznis; Lithuanian root with a Slavic suffix − Mieżewicz, Pażusińskaja, Dziedulewicz, Gilewicz, Błaszkiewicz, Balsewicz, Dajnowicz, Tarejkowicz, Narkiewicz.
Measuring the historical ethnic "charge" of a surname has certain specific features, as, for example, there were many surnames made from the same Christian names and Slavic-form suffixes used by Lithuanian, Belarusian and Polish speakers, surnames could also be made from Lithuanian root and Slavic suffix, Belarusian-characteristic root and Polish-characteristic suffix and so on.
The Lithuanian arm of the "Polonia" diaspora is organized by several groups and associations.
The Electoral Action of Poles in Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuvos lenkų rinkimų akcija, Polish: Akcja Wyborcza Polaków na Litwie) is an ethnic minority-based political party formed in 1994, able to exert significant political influence in the administrative districts where Poles form a majority or significant minority. This party has held 1-2 seats in the parliament of Lithuania for the past decade; in the last general elections it got about 4% of votes. The party is more active in local politics and controls several municipal councils.
The Association of Poles in Lithuania (Polish: Związek Polaków na Litwie) is an organization formed in 1989 to bring together Polish activists in Lithuania. It numbers between 6,000 to 11,000 members. It defends the civil rights of the Polish minority and engages in educational, cultural and economic activities.
Prior to 1940
- Gabriel Narutowicz - president of Poland
- Józef Piłsudski - Polish statesman
- Wiktor Budzyński - politician
- Dariusz Ławrynowicz (Lithuanian: Darjuš Lavrinovič) - basketball player
- Krzysztof Ławrynowicz (Lithuanian: Kšyštof Lavrinovič) - basketball player
- Artur Ludkowski (Lithuanian: Artur Liudkovski) - former deputy mayor of Vilnius
- Jarosław Niewierowicz (Lithuanian: Jaroslav Neverovič) - former vice-minister of foreign affairs
- Czesław Okińczyc (Lithuanian: Česlav Okinčic) - politician, journalist
- Artur Płokszto (Lithuanian: Artur Plokšto) - secretary of Ministry of National Defence
- Leokadia Poczykowska (Lithuanian: Leokadija Počikovska) - politician
- Jan Sienkiewicz (Lithuanian: Jan Senkevič) - politician, journalist
- Waldemar Tomaszewski (Lithuanian: Valdemar Tomaševski) - leader of Electoral Action of Poles in Lithuania
- Jarosław Wołkonowski - dean of branch of University of Białystok in Vilnius
- ↑ Evaldas Nekrasas. "Is Lithuania a Northern or Central European Country?" (PDF). Lithuanian Foreign Policy Review. pp. 5. http://www.lfpr.lt/uploads/File/1998-1/Nekrasas.pdf. Retrieved 2008-03-30. "In a letter written to Vytautas Landsbergis in December of 1991, Polish President Lech Walesa described Lithuanian-Polish relations as "close to critical.""
- ↑ Antanas Valionis, Evaldas Ignatavièius, Izolda Brièkovskienë. "From Solidarity to Partnership: Lithuanian-Polish Relations 1988-1998" (PDF). Lithuanian Foreign Policy Review, 1998, issue 2. http://www.lfpr.lt/uploads/File/1998-2/Valionis.pdf. Retrieved 2008-03-29. "The interval between the restoration of diplomatic relations in September 1991 and the signing of the Treaty on Friendly Relations and Good Neighborly Cooperation on April 26, 1994 was probably the most difficult period for Lithuanian-Polish relations (there were even assertions that relations in this period were “in some ways even worse than before the war”)."
- ↑ George Sanford, "Poland: the conquest of history", Taylor & Francis, 1999, pg. 99
- ↑ A. T. Lane, "Lithuania: Stepping Westward", Routledge, 2001, pg. 209
- ↑ Stephen R. Burant and Voytek Zubek, Eastern Europe's Old Memories and New Realities: Resurrecting the Polish-lithuanian Union, East European Politics and Societies 1993; 7; 370, online
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 Population by ethnicity. Data from Statistikos Departamentas, 2001 Population and Housing Census.
- ↑ 7.0 7.1 Population by some ethnicities by county and municipality. Data from Statistikos Departamentas, 2001 Population and Housing Census.
- ↑ Source: Population by some ethnicities by county and municipality and Number of population by county, city (town) and municipality
- ↑ Population by ethnicity and mother tongue. Data from Statistikos Departamentas, 2001 Population and Housing Census.
- ↑ Atlas of Lithuanian SSR, Moscow, 1981 (in Russian), p.129
- ↑ Data from Statistikos Departamentas Accessed 2009-08-09
- ↑ Mercator - Education information, documentation, research. The Polish language education in Lithuania see: graph on p.12 (PDF file, 2.2 MB) Accessed 2008-01-16.
- ↑ 13.0 13.1 "Атлас Литовской ССР" 1981, Государственный плановый комитет Литовской ССР. Министерство высшего и среднего специального образования Литовской ССР. Главное управление геодезии и картографии при Совете Министров СССР. Москва 1981.
- ↑ Mercator - Education information, documentation, research. The Polish language education in Lithuania see: graph on p.16 (PDF file, 2.2 MB) Accessed 2008-01-14.
- ↑ Walter C. Clemens (1991). Baltic Independence and Russian Empire. St. Martin's Press. pp. 150. ISBN 0-312-04806-8. "In reality, many Poles in Lithuania were the offspring of Polonized Lithuanians or Belarussians."
- ↑ Universal Lithuanian Encyclopedia Vol. 11. 2007.
- ↑ (Polish) [Expression error: Missing operand for > "Drugi Powszechny Spis Ludności z dnia 9 XII 1931 r."]. Statystyka Polski D (34). 1939. See ethnic history of the region of Vilnius for details.
- ↑ (in Lithuanian) Karo archyvas XVIII. Vilnius: Generolo Jono Žemaičio Lietuvos karo akademija. 2003. pp. 188–189. ISSN 1392-6489.
- ↑ Juozas, Rainys (1936). P.O.W. : (Polska Organizacja Wojskowa) Lietuvoje. Kaunas: Spaudos fondas. pp. 184.
- ↑ Julius, Būtėnas; Mečys Mackevičius (1995). Mykolas Sleževičius: advokatas ir politikas. Vilnius: Lietuvos rašytojų sąjungos leidykla. pp. 263. ISBN 9986-413-31-1. http://books.google.com/books?id=XDg1AAAAMAAJ&pgis=1.
- ↑ Lesčius, Vytautas (2004). Lietuvos kariuomenė nepriklausomybės kovose 1918-1920. Vilnius: Vilnius University, Generolo Jono Žemaičio Lietuvos karo akademija. pp. 269.
- ↑ 22.0 22.1 22.2 Michael MacQueen, The Context of Mass Destruction: Agents and Prerequisites of the Holocaust in Lithuania, Holocaust and Genocide Studies, Volume 12, Number 1, pp. 27-48, 1998, 
- ↑ Fearon, James D.; Laitin, David D. (2006). "Lithuania" (pdf). Stanford University. pp. 4. http://www.stanford.edu/group/ethnic/Random%20Narratives/LithuaniaRN1.3.pdf. Retrieved 2008-06-02. "The nationalizing Lithuanian state took measures to confiscate Polish owned land. It also restricted Polish religious services, schools, Polish publications, Polish voting rights. Poles were often referred to in the press in this period as the "lice of the nation"."
- ↑ Does not include Vilnius and Klaipėda regions. Census of 1923 is the only census carried out in Lithuania during the interwar period. (Lithuanian) Vaitiekūnas, Stasys (2006). Lietuvos gyventojai: Per du tūkstantmečius. Vilnius: Mokslo ir enciklopedijų leidybos institutas. pp. 189. ISBN 5-420-01585-4.
- ↑ Fearon, James D.; Laitin, David D. (2006). "Lithuania" (pdf). Stanford University. pp. 4. http://www.stanford.edu/group/ethnic/Random%20Narratives/LithuaniaRN1.3.pdf. Retrieved 2008-06-02. "Lithuanian nationalists resented demands by Poles for greater cultural autonomy (similar to that granted to the Jewish minority), holding that most of Lithuania's Poles were really deracinated Lithuanians who merely needed to be re-Lithuanianized. Resentments were exacerbated when Lithuanian Poles expressed a desire to "re-unite" the country with Poland. As a result, the nationalizing Lithuanian state took measures to confiscate Polish owned land. It also restricted Polish religious services, schools, Polish publications, Polish voting rights. Poles were often referred to in the press in this period as the "lice of the nation""
- ↑ Eberhardt, Piotr. "Liczebność i rozmieszczenie ludności polskiej na Litwie (Numbers and distribution of Polish population in Lithuania)" (in Polish). http://www.wspolnota-polska.org.pl/index.php?id=kw4_5_06. Retrieved 2008-06-02. "Było to już po masowej "repatriacji" Polaków z Wileńszczyzny, która w latach 1945-1948 objęła 197 tys. Polaków (w tym z Wilna - 107,6 tys.) oraz kolejnej z lat 1956-1959, która umożliwiła wyjazd do Polski 46,6 tys. osób narodowości polskiej."
- ↑ Stravinskienė, Vitalija (2004). "Poles In Lithuania From The Second Half Of 1944 Until 1946: Choosing Between Staying Or Emigrating To Poland (English Summary)". Lietuvos istorijos metraštis 2. http://www.istorija.lt/lim/stravinskiene2004en2.html. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
- ↑ 28.0 28.1 28.2 28.3 28.4 (English) Dovile Budryte (2005). Taming Nationalism?: Political Community Building in the Post-Soviet Baltic States. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing. pp. 147–148. ISBN 0754637573. http://books.google.com/books?id=UJMzpeUHkQcC&pg=PA149&lpg=PA149&sig=s8BnP6xV4TGxoLbhZxJ1_9F8FFU#PPA148,M1.
- ↑ 29.0 29.1 29.2 Eberhardt, Piotr. "Liczebność i rozmieszczenie ludności polskiej na Litwie (Numbers and distribution of Polish population in Lithuania)"] (in Polish). http://www.wspolnota-polska.org.pl/index.php?id=kw4_5_06. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
- ↑ Fearon, James D.; Laitin, David D. (2006). "Lithuania" (pdf). Stanford University. pp. 4. http://www.stanford.edu/group/ethnic/Random%20Narratives/LithuaniaRN1.3.pdf. Retrieved 2008-06-02. "For example, in Vilnius where in the Soviet years education in Polish was offered by some 13–14 schools, only 25 percent of the children born to monoethnic Polish families attended Polish schools. Fifty percent of them chose Russian schools, and only 10 per cent Lithuanian schools."
- ↑ Valerijus Čekmonas, Laima Grumadaitė Kalbų paplitimas rytų Lietuvoje (The distribution of the languages in the east of Lithuania) in Lietuvos rytai; straipsnių rinkinys (The east of Lithuania; the collection of the articles) Vilnius 1993; p. 132; ISBN 9986-09-002-4
- ↑ Lithuania. Stanford University, 2006
- ↑ 33.0 33.1 33.2 Understanding Ethnic Violence: Fear, Hatred, and Resentment in Twentieth-century Eastern Europe, Cambridge University Press, 2002, ISBN 0521007747, Roger Dale Petersen, Google Print, p.153
- ↑ 34.0 34.1 (English) Robert G. Moser (2005 pages = p.130). Ethnic Politics After Communism. Aldershot: Cornell University Press. ISBN 0801472768. http://books.google.com/books?id=QodWT_BdOs8C&pg=RA1-PA130&lpg=RA1-PA130&ots=qH3lMyjLx8&sig=cQH6Lz6O7hGbtCs7KdBL_dNkKiA#PRA1-PA130,M1.
- ↑ Lithuania -Country Reports on Human Rights Practices. US Department of State, February 23, 2001. Accessed September 14, 2007.
- ↑ (Polish) Tadeusz Andrzejewski, IX posiedzenie podzespołu ds. edukacji mniejszości narodowych w sprawach litewskiej oświaty na Sejneńszczyźnie, Tygodnik Wileńszczyzny, 23 - 29 marca 2006 r. nr 12
- ↑ (Polish) 5 kadencja, 10 posiedzenie, 1 dzień (15.02.2006) 2 punkt porządku dziennego: Informacja Ministra Spraw Zagranicznych o zadaniach polskiej polityki zagranicznej w 2006 r.
- ↑ (Polish) Posiedzenie Komisji w dniu 11 kwietnia 2007 roku, Komisja Spraw Emigracji i Łączności z Polakami za Granicą.
- ↑ RAXEN_CC National Focal Point Lithuania
- ↑ 40.0 40.1 Memorandum to the Lithuanian Government Assessment of the progress made in implementing the 2004 recommendations of the Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights Council of Europe, 16 May 2007.
- ↑ 41.0 41.1 Ruling On The Compliance Of The Provisions Of Legal Acts Regulating The Citizenship Relations With The Constitution Of The Republic Of Lithuania
- ↑ Polish press review - Government & Economy. Wirtualna Polska, 10/08/2007
- ↑ Lithuanian Parliament plays with Pole's Card, Rzeczpospolita daily, February 20, 2009
- ↑ Polish press review - Government & Economy. Wirtualna Polska, 10/08/2007
- ↑ (Polish) [http://www.tvn24.pl/-1,1569708,0,1,mickiewicz-czy-mickeviius,wiadomosc.html Mickiewicz czy Mickevičius?WALKA O POLSKIE NAZWISKA NA LITWIE], TVN24, 22.10.2008
- ↑ (Polish) Polak z Wilna walczy o polską pisownię swego nazwiska, Gazeta Wyborcza, 2005-07-25
- ↑ (Polish) Michal Klečkovskis walczy o rodowe nazwisko Kleczkowski
- ↑ (Polish) Kleczkowski czy Klečkovski?, Tygodnik Wileńszczyzny, no.31, 2005
- ↑ Przedstawiciel rządu na powiat wileński narusza Konwencję Ramową RE
- ↑ Radio "Znad Wilii" 103.8 FM
- ↑ New Page 1
- ↑ "The Divine Painting". Archived from the original on 2006-10-06. http://web.archive.org/web/20061006184227/http://www.balticsww.com/pope.htm.
- ↑ News
- ↑ (Polish) "Litewska prokuratura przesłuchuje weteranów AK" (in Polish). Gazeta Wyborcza. http://serwisy.gazeta.pl/swiat/1,34175,151474.html. Retrieved 2009-05-10. "Vilnija to organizacja skrajna, nacjonalistyczna, której głównym celem jest likwidacja skutków wielowiekowej dominacji Polski nad Litwą i tzw. okupacji Wileńszczyzny w międzywojniu.".
- ↑ (Polish) Polish Ministry of Foreign Affairs (September 2004). [Expression error: Missing operand for > "Dr Garsva - prezes nacjonalistycznego stowarzyszenia Vilnija (...)"]. Media zagraniczne o Polsce (Foreign Media on Poland) XIII (2409 (3162)).
- ↑ (Polish) "Uknuli prowokację". Tygodnik Wileńszczyzny. November 2005. http://www.tygodnik.lt/200511/aktualia.html. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
- ↑ (Lithuanian) BNS. "Buvęs ambasadorius kritikuoja Lietuvos lenkų lyderius (Ex-ambassador criticizes leaders of Polish community)". Delfi.lt. http://www.delfi.lt/archive/article.php?id=20424. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
- ↑ http://www.rzeczpospolita.pl/dodatki/plus_minus_070609/plus_minus_a_4.html
- ↑ (Polish) Polacy atakowani w mediach, rp.pl, 21-05-2008
- ↑ (Polish) Litwa: Polacy zwracają się do władz o pomoc[dead link], interia.pl, 21-05-2008
- ↑ (Polish) Związek Polaków na Litwie apeluje o zaprzestanie kampanii przeciwko mniejszościom narodowym, 21-05-2008
- ↑ http://conventions.coe.int/treaty/Commun/ChercheSig.asp?NT=148&CM=1&DF=&CL=ENG
- ↑ Some graduates' surnames from Władysław Syrokomla's name school, Vilnius
- ↑ Some Lithuanian Polish girls' surnames on "Kurier Wileński"
- ↑ 65.0 65.1 (Polish) AKCJA WYBORCZA POLAKÓW NA LITWIE. Encyklopedia Interia. Last accessed 20 January 2007.
- POLES IN LITHUANIA FROM THE SECOND HALF OF 1944 UNTIL 1946: CHOOSING BETWEEN STAYING OR EMIGRATING TO POLAND by VITALIJA STRAVINSKIENĖ, The Lithuanian Institute of History, January 19, 2006
- Chronology for Poles in Lithuania
- The Polish language in education in Lithuania
- (Polish) Organizacje Polonii na Litwie (Organizations of Polonia in Lithuania)
- (Polish) Polonia na świecie (Polonia worldwide) with section on Lithuania
- (Polish) "Polacy na Litwie". Archived from the original on 2005-04-03. http://web.archive.org/web/20050403173639/http://placieniszki.pl/polacy.php. (Poles in Lithuania)
- (Polish) Losy ludności polskiej na Litwie (Fate of Polish population in Lithuania)
- (Polish) Jan Sienkiewicz, Przestrzeganie praw polskiej grupy etnicznej w Republice Litewskiej (Respecting the righs of the Polish minority in Lithuania)
- (Polish) Polacy na Litwie w prawie (Lithuanian law on minorities)
- Łossowski, Piotr; Bronius Makauskas (2005) (in Polish). "Kraje bałtyckie w latach przełomu 1934-1944". Scientific Editor Andrzej Koryna. Warszawa: Instytut Historii PAN; Fundacja Pogranicze. ISBN 8388909428.
- Kupczak, Janusz M. (1998). [Expression error: Missing operand for > "Z problematyki stosunków narodowościowych na Litwie współczesnej"]. Politologia XXII. ISSN 02396661.
- Zbigniew Kurcz, "Mniejszość polska na Wileńszczyźnie", Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego, Wrocław 2005, ISSN 0239-6661, ISBN 83-229-2601-4.