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definitions - Poles

Pole (n.)

1.a person of Polish descent

2.a native or inhabitant of Poland

pole (n.)

1.a long (usually round) rod of wood or metal or plastic

2.one of the two ends of a magnet where the magnetism seems to be concentrated

3.a long fiberglass sports implement used for pole vaulting

4.a contact on an electrical device (such as a battery) at which electric current enters or leaves

5.one of two divergent or mutually exclusive opinions"they are at opposite poles" "they are poles apart"

6.one of two antipodal points where the Earth's axis of rotation intersects the Earth's surface

7.one of two points of intersection of the Earth's axis and the celestial sphere

8.a square rod of land

9.a linear measure of 16.5 feet

pole (v.)

1.deoxidize molten metals by stirring them with a wooden pole

2.support on poles"pole climbing plants like beans"

3.propel with a pole"pole barges on the river" "We went punting in Cambridge"

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Merriam Webster

PolePole (?), n. [Cf. G. Pole a Pole, Polen Poland.] A native or inhabitant of Poland; a Polander.

PolePole, n. [As. pāl, L. palus, akin to pangere to make fast. Cf. Pale a stake, Pact.]
1. A long, slender piece of wood; a tall, slender piece of timber; the stem of a small tree whose branches have been removed; as, specifically: (a) A carriage pole, a wooden bar extending from the front axle of a carriage between the wheel horses, by which the carriage is guided and held back. (b) A flag pole, a pole on which a flag is supported. (c) A Maypole. See Maypole. (d) A barber's pole, a pole painted in stripes, used as a sign by barbers and hairdressers. (e) A pole on which climbing beans, hops, or other vines, are trained.

2. A measuring stick; also, a measure of length equal to 5� yards, or a square measure equal to 30� square yards; a rod; a perch. Bacon.

Pole bean (Bot.), any kind of bean which is customarily trained on poles, as the scarlet runner or the Lima bean. -- Pole flounder (Zoöl.), a large deep-water flounder (Glyptocephalus cynoglossus), native of the northern coasts of Europe and America, and much esteemed as a food fish; -- called also craig flounder, and pole fluke. -- Pole lathe, a simple form of lathe, or a substitute for a lathe, in which the work is turned by means of a cord passing around it, one end being fastened to the treadle, and the other to an elastic pole above. -- Pole mast (Naut.), a mast formed from a single piece or from a single tree. -- Pole of a lens (Opt.), the point where the principal axis meets the surface. -- Pole plate (Arch.), a horizontal timber resting on the tiebeams of a roof and receiving the ends of the rafters. It differs from the plate in not resting on the wall.

PolePole, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Poled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Poling.]
1. To furnish with poles for support; as, to pole beans or hops.

2. To convey on poles; as, to pole hay into a barn.

3. To impel by a pole or poles, as a boat.

4. To stir, as molten glass, with a pole.

PolePole, n. [L. polus, Gr. � a pivot or hinge on which anything turns, an axis, a pole; akin to � to move: cf. F. pôle.]
1. Either extremity of an axis of a sphere; especially, one of the extremities of the earth's axis; as, the north pole.

2. (Spherics) A point upon the surface of a sphere equally distant from every part of the circumference of a great circle; or the point in which a diameter of the sphere perpendicular to the plane of such circle meets the surface. Such a point is called the pole of that circle; as, the pole of the horizon; the pole of the ecliptic; the pole of a given meridian.

3. (Physics) One of the opposite or contrasted parts or directions in which a polar force is manifested; a point of maximum intensity of a force which has two such points, or which has polarity; as, the poles of a magnet; the north pole of a needle.

4. The firmament; the sky. [Poetic]

Shoots against the dusky pole. Milton.

5. (Geom.) See Polarity, and Polar, n.

Magnetic pole. See under Magnetic. -- Poles of the earth, or Terrestrial poles (Geog.), the two opposite points on the earth's surface through which its axis passes. -- Poles of the heavens, or Celestial poles, the two opposite points in the celestial sphere which coincide with the earth's axis produced, and about which the heavens appear to revolve.

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definition (more)

definition of Wikipedia

synonyms - Poles

see also - Poles

pole (n.)

polar, transpolar

phrases

-Association of Poles in Lithuania • Blue Poles • Congress of Poles in the Czech Republic • Deportation of Poles • Electoral Action of Poles in Lithuania • Ethnic Poles • Expulsion of Poles • Expulsion of Poles by Germany • Federation of Poles in Great Britain • Five Flag Poles • Germanisation of Poles during Partitions • Germanization of Poles during Partitions • Light Poles and Pine Trees • List of Poles by net worth • List of Soviet Union prison sites that detained Poles • List of ethnic Poles • London Poles • Massacres of Poles in Volhynia • May poles • Nazi crimes against ethnic Poles • Peter Poles • Phantom of the Poles • Poles Apart • Poles in Belarus • Poles in Chicago • Poles in Germany • Poles in Latvia • Poles in Lithuania • Poles in Omaha • Poles in Romania • Poles in Ukraine • Poles in the Wehrmacht • Poles in the former Soviet Union • Poles of astronomical bodies • Poles of cerebral hemispheres • Repatriation of Poles • Repatriation of Poles (1955–1959) • Rescue of Jews by Poles during the Holocaust • Ryan Poles • Soviet extermination of Poles 1937-1938 • Spot Poles • Subject of Ethnic Poles • Three Poles Challenge • Union of Poles in Belarus • Union of Poles in Germany • Union of Poles of Romania Dom Polski

-1 (Pole album) • 1986 European Athletics Championships – Men's pole vault • 1990 European Championships in Athletics – Men's Pole Vault • 1991 World Championships in Athletics – Men's pole vault • 1993 World Championships in Athletics – Men's pole vault • 2 (Pole album) • 2 pole electric motor • 2005 World Championships in Athletics – Men's pole vault • 2007 World Championships in Athletics – Men's pole vault • 2007 World Championships in Athletics – Women's pole vault • 3 (Pole album) • 3 pole motor • Amundsen's South Pole expedition • Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station • Animal pole • Asherah pole • Athletics at the 1896 Summer Olympics – Men's pole vault • Athletics at the 1900 Summer Olympics – Men's pole vault • Athletics at the 1904 Summer Olympics – Men's pole vault • Athletics at the 1908 Summer Olympics – Men's pole vault • Athletics at the 1912 Summer Olympics – Men's pole vault • Athletics at the 1920 Summer Olympics – Men's pole vault • Athletics at the 1952 Summer Olympics – Men's pole vault • Athletics at the 1964 Summer Olympics – Men's pole vault • Athletics at the 1988 Summer Olympics – Men's pole vault • Athletics at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's pole vault • Austro-Hungarian North Pole Expedition • Barber Pole • Barber's pole • Barn-pole paradox • Battle of Dobro Pole • Battle of Ovche Pole • Bean Pole International • Belo pole • Bisj Pole • Budweiser Pole Award • Cardinal Pole RC School • Cataclysmic pole shift hypothesis • Celestial pole • Chinese pole • Conquest of the Pole • Danish pole • David Pole • Devichye Pole • Dlhé Pole • Edmund de la Pole, 3rd Duke of Suffolk • Eight-Diagram Pole Fighter • Electrical pole • F1 Pole Position • F1 Pole Position 64 • Fireman's pole • Flag pole • Freddy Goes to the North Pole • Gallow's Pole • Gallus Pole • Geographic north pole • Geographic south pole • Geographical pole • Geomagnetic Pole • Geomagnetic north pole • Geomagnetic south pole • George Pole • Gladiolus pole-evansii • Gmina Legnickie Pole • Gmina Stare Pole • Grain Pole Hill • Greasy pole • Hale T-Pole • Henry Pole, 1st Baron Montagu • Icy pole • Iggy Vs. the Volcano/A Dip in the Pole • Independent Democratic Pole • Independent Republican and Liberal Pole • J-pole • J-pole antenna • Jigger pole • Jin-pole • John de la Pole • Královo Pole indoor arena • Legnickie Pole • Liberty Pole, Wisconsin • List of Champ Car pole positions • List of Indianapolis 500 pole-sitters • Live Totem Pole • Lodeynoye Pole • Lodeynoye Pole (air base) • Lodeynoye Pole Air Base • Lodge Pole, Montana • Magnetic pole • Margaret Pole, 8th Countess of Salisbury • Martin the Pole • McMurdo-South Pole highway • Michael de la Pole • Michael de la Pole, 1st Earl of Suffolk • NLV Pole Star • Namco Pole Position • Nithing pole • North Galactic Pole • North Pole • North Pole (disambiguation) • North Pole Stream • North Pole depot • North Pole, Alaska • Oktyabrskoye Pole • Orbital pole • Pike pole • Pole (album) • Pole (complex analysis) • Pole (disambiguation) • Pole (mathematics) • Pole (musician) • Pole Chudes • Pole Folder • Pole Hill • Pole Mokotowskie (Warsaw Metro) • Pole Position (TV series) • Pole Position (video game) • Pole Position 2 • Pole Position II • Pole Tavern Circle • Pole bending • Pole buildings • Pole cell • Pole climbing (gymnastic) • Pole figure • Pole of Communist Rebirth in France • Pole of Freedoms • Pole of Good Government • Pole of inaccessibility • Pole of inaccessibility (Antarctic research station) • Pole position • Pole position (disambiguation) • Pole star • Pole to Pole (book) • Pole to Pole – The Photographs • Pole vault • Pole weapon • Pole, Hungarian, two good friends • Pole–zero plot • Polyushko Pole • Posterior pole • Psie Pole • Pusté Pole • Pôle Caraibes • Pôle urbain • Quant pole • Ranging Pole • Regiment of the North Pole • Reginald Pole • Richard de la Pole • Robel pole • Round-the-pole flying • Rupert Pole • Scratch pole • Scratching pole • See You at the Pole • Setting pole • Shaded-pole synchronous motor • Sir Charles Pole, 1st Baronet • Sir Richard Carew Pole, 13th Baronet • Social Democratic Pole of Romania • South Magnetic Pole • South Pole (disambiguation) • South Pole Telescope • South Pole-Aitken basin • Spanie Pole • Spindle pole body • Spinnaker pole • Stanedge Pole • Steel Pole Bath Tub • Stobie pole • Storey pole • Tehelné pole • Telephone-pole beetle • Tent-pole programming • The Curtain Pole • The Gallows Pole • The Greasy Pole • The Monkey Pole • The North Pole by Submarine • Totem pole • Totem pole (disambiguation) • Trekking pole • Urinary pole • Vascular pole • Velke Pole • Veľké Pole • Wellesley Tudor Pole • Whisker Pole • Whisker pole • William Miller (pole vault) • William Pole • William Pole-Tylney-Long-Wellesley, 4th Earl of Mornington • William Pole-Tylney-Long-Wellesley, 5th Earl of Mornington • William de la Pole • William de la Pole, 1st Duke of Suffolk • World Grand-Prix - Pole To Finish • Čierne Pole • Španie Pole

analogical dictionary



 

MESH root[Thème]

pole [MeSH]






pole (n.)











Wikipedia - see also

Wikipedia

Poles

                   
Polish people
(Polacy)
Blank300.png
WŁokietek.JPGMikolaj Kopernik.jpgJan Kochanowski.pngIgnacy Krasicki 111.PNGThaddeus Kosciuszko.jpg

Stanisław Staszic.PNGEugène Delacroix - Frédéric Chopin - WGA06194.jpgIgnacy Lukasiewicz.jpgWieniawski Henryk 3.pngPrus 002.jpg
Malczewski Jacek Autoportret z paleta.jpgJoseph Conrad.PNG1908-kl-t-zamenhof.jpgMarie Curie 1903.jpgJozef Pilsudski1.jpg
Bronislawmalinowski.jpgWladyslaw Tatarkiewicz.jpgMR 1932 small.jpgJosef Rotblat ID badge.png
Irena Sendlerowa 1942.jpg2007.09.16. Hilary Koprowski by Kubik 01.JPGSt Lem resize.jpg2008.04.22. Andrzej Wajda by Kubik 02.JPGAleksander Wolszczan (2007).jpg
Władysław Elbow-highCopernicusKochanowskiKrasickiKościuszko
StaszicChopinŁukasiewiczWieniawskiPrus
MalczewskiConradZamenhofSkłodowska-CuriePiłsudski
MalinowskiTatarkiewiczBanachRejewskiRotblat
SendlerKoprowskiLemWajdaWolszczan

Total population
ca. 60 million (est.)[1]
Regions with significant populations
 Poland 37,152,500 [2][3]
   United States (Polish ancestry) 10,000,000 [4]
   Germany 2,000,000 - 3,000,000 [1][5][6]
   Brazil 1,500,000 [7]
   Israel 1,250,000 [8]
   Canada 984,565 [9]
   United Kingdom 500,000 - 1,000,000 [1][10]
   Argentina 500,000 [11]
   Belarus 294,549 [12]
   Lithuania 212,800 [13]
   Ireland 122,585 [14]
   Australia 78,340 [15]
   Ukraine 144,130 [16]
   Norway 120,000 [17]
   Italy 109,018 [18]
   France 90,000 [19]
   Russia 73,000 [20]
   Czech Republic 51,968 [21]
   Latvia 44,783 [22]
   Netherlands 39,500 [23]
   Kazakhstan 34,057 [24]
   South Africa 30,000 [25]
   Sweden 27,518 [26]
   Austria 21,000 [27]
   Iceland 10,540 [28]
   Denmark 5,300 [29]
   Moldova 4,174 [30]
   Romania 3,671 [31]
   Slovakia 3,084 [32]
   Finland 3,000 [33]
Languages

Polish

Religion

Predominantly Roman Catholicism, also Eastern Orthodoxy, Protestantism and Judaism.

Related ethnic groups

related ethno-linguistic people group: Czechs, Slovaks, Sorbs

The Polish people, or Poles (Polish: Polacy [pɔˈlat​͡sɨ]; singular: Polak), are a nation indigenous to Poland. They speak the Polish language, which belongs to the historical Lechitic subgroup of West Slavic languages of Central Europe. The Polish word for a Polish person is "Polak" (masculine) and "Polka" (feminine).

The preamble to the Constitution of the Republic of Poland defines the Polish nation as comprising all the citizens of Poland. Poland's inhabitants live in the following historic regions of the country: Wielkopolska, Małopolska, Mazovia, Pomerania, Warmia, Mazury, Podlasie, Kujawy and Silesia. A wide-ranging Polish diaspora exists throughout Europe (Germany, France, the United Kingdom, Belarus, Lithuania and Ukraine), the Americas (the United States, Brazil and Argentina) and Australia. Chicago, in the United States, has the world's largest urban Polish population after Warsaw.[34]

Over a thousand years ago, the Polans of Giecz, Gniezno and Poznań — an influential tribe in Wielkopolska — succeeded in uniting Lechitic tribes under what became the Piast dynasty,[35] thus giving rise to the Polish state.

Contents

  Statistics

  Poland's state flag (with eagle national emblem inserted), as used by government and diplomatic authorities

Polish people are the sixth largest national group in the European Union.[36] Estimates vary depending on source, though available data suggest a total number of around 60 million people worldwide (with roughly 21 million living outside of Poland, many of whom are not of Polish ethnicity, but Polish nationals).[1] There are almost 39 million Poles in Poland alone. There are also Polish minorities in the surrounding countries including Germany, and indigenous minorities in the Czech Republic, Lithuania, Ukraine, and Belarus. There are some smaller indigenous minorities in nearby countries such as Moldova and Latvia. There is also a Polish minority in Russia which includes indigenous Poles as well as those forcibly deported during and after World War II; the total number of Poles in what was the former Soviet Union is estimated at up to 3 million.[37]

The term "Polonia" is usually used in Poland to refer to people of Polish origin who live outside Polish borders, officially estimated at around 10 to 20 million. There is a notable Polish diaspora in the United States, Canada, and Brazil. France has a historic relationship with Poland and has a relatively large Polish-descendant population. Poles have lived in France since the 18th century. In the early 20th century, over a million Polish people settled in France, mostly during world wars, among them Polish émigrés fleeing either Nazi occupation or later Soviet rule.

In the United States a significant number of Polish immigrants settled in Chicago, Ohio, Detroit, New York City, Orlando, Pittsburgh, Buffalo, and New England. The highest concentration of Poles in the United States is in New Britain, Connecticut. The majority of Polish Canadians have arrived in Canada since World War II. The number of Polish immigrants increased between 1945 and 1970, and again after the end of Communism in Poland in 1989. In Brazil the majority of Polish immigrants settled in Paraná State. The city of Curitiba has the second largest Polish diaspora in the world (after Chicago) and Polish music, dishes and culture are quite common in the region.

In recent years, since joining the European Union, many Polish people have emigrated to countries such as Ireland, where an estimated 200,000 Polish people have entered the labour market. It is estimated that over half a million Polish people have come to work in the United Kingdom from Poland. Since 2011, Poles have been able to work freely throughout the EU and not just in the UK, Ireland, Denmark and Sweden where they have had limited rights since Poland's EU accession in 2004. The Polish community in Norway has increased substantially and has grown to a total number of 120,000, making Poles the largest immigrant group in Norway.

Before World War II many Polish Jews became followers of Zionism and subsequently emigrated to the British Mandate of Palestine. Following the Holocaust, the vast majority of surviving Polish Jews moved to Israel. Poland is the largest single place of origin of Israeli Jews.

(for ethnic Poles living abroad see Polonia, for those living and working in the United Kingdom see Polish British)

  Culture

The culture of Poland has a history of 1000 years.[38] Located in Central Europe, its character developed as a result of its geography at the confluence of fellow Central European cultures (German, Western Ukrainian, Czech and Austrian) the Western European cultures (French and Dutch), Southern European cultures (Italian and Turkish), Northern European cultures (Lithuanian, Swedish and Danish) and Eastern European cultures (East Ukrainian and Russian) along with cultural influence of the Jewish culture. Confluences were conveyed by immigrants (Jewish, German and Dutch), political alliances (with Lithuania, Hungary, Saxony, France and Sweden), conquests of the Polish state (Ukraine, Belarus and Latvia) or conquerors of the Polish lands (Tsardom of Russia, Kingdom of Prussia and the Habsburg Monarchy, later on Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary).

With origins in the culture of the Lechites, over time Polish culture has been greatly influenced by its ties with the Germanic, Latinate and other ethnic groups and minorities living in Poland like the Jews.[39] The people of Poland have traditionally been seen as hospitable to artists from abroad (especially Italy) and open to cultural and artistic trends popular in other European countries. Owing to this central location, the Poles came very early into contact with both civilizations - eastern and western, and as a result developed economically, culturally, and politically. A German general Helmut Carl von Moltke, in his Poland. A historical sketch (1885), stated that Poland prior to her partitions was "the most civilized country in Europe".

In the 19th and 20th centuries the Polish focus on cultural advancement often took precedence over political and economic activity, experiencing severe crisis, especially during the II World War and in the coming years. These factors have contributed to the versatile nature of Polish art, with all its complex nuances.[39]

  Language

Polish (język polski, polszczyzna) is a Lechitic languages and the official language of Poland. Its written standard is the Polish alphabet which corresponds basically to the Latin alphabet with a few additions. Polish-speakers use the language in a uniform manner throughout most of Poland, though numerous languages, speeches and dialects coexist along the standard Polish language. The Encyclopædia Britannica says that "Lekhitic languages, also spelled Lechitic, group of West Slavic languages composed of Polish, Kashubian and its archaic variant Slovincian, and the extinct Polabian language. All these languages except Polish are sometimes classified as a Pomeranian subgroup. In the early Middle Ages, before their speakers had become Germanized, Pomeranian languages and dialects were spoken along the Baltic in an area extending from the lower Vistula River to the lower Oder River. Kashubian and Slovincian survived into the 20th century; there were still a considerable number of native speakers of Kashubian in Poland and Canada in the 1990s. The extinct Polabian language, which bordered the Sorbian dialects in eastern Germany, was spoken by the Slavic population of the Elbe River region until the 17th or 18th century; a dictionary and some phrases written in the language exist".[40]

  Religion

Most Poles, by far, adhere to the Christian faith, the majority belonging to the Roman Catholic Church.[41] The rest of the population consists mainly of Eastern Orthodox, Jehovah's Witnesses, various Protestant and Judaism.[42] Roman Catholics live all over the country, while Orthodox Christians can be found mostly in north-east, in the area of Białystok, and Lutherans in Cieszyn Silesia.

  Exonyms

Among the exonyms not native to the Polish people or language are: лях (lyakh) used in East Slavic languages. Today, the word Lachy is used by Eastern Slavs as synonyms for "Poles" and "Poland". The foreign exonyms include also: Lithuanian Lenkai, Hungarian Lengyelek and Turkish Leh.[43] The former became the basis for Poland exonyms in a number of other Middle Eastern languages, including: Armenian: Լեհաստան Lehastan; Persian: لهستانLehestân; Tajik: لهستان Lahestan).

  See also

  References

  King John III Sobieski's coat-of-arms crowning the Royal Chapel, St. Mary's Church, in Gdańsk, 1681
  1. ^ a b c d Świat Polonii, witryna Stowarzyszenia Wspólnota Polska: „Polacy za granicą” (Polish people abroad as per summary by Świat Polonii, internet portal of the Polish Association Wspólnota Polska)
  2. ^ Poles with polish descent
  3. ^ http://www.stat.gov.pl/gus/45_4520_PLK_HTML.htm
  4. ^ USA National Census 2010. Ancestries With 100,000 or More People in 2010.
  5. ^ (German) Erstmals mehr als 16 Millionen Menschen mit Migrationshintergrund in Deutschland Statistisches Bundesamt Deutschland (German text about migrants in Germany)
  6. ^ (Polish) Raport o sytuacji Polonii i Polaków za granicą 2009. Ministerstwo Spraw Zagranicznych 2009. p. 177, ISBN 978-83-89607-81-2
  7. ^ Stowarzyszenie Wspólnota Polska, Strona finansowana przez SENAT RP [1] [2]
  8. ^ Article on Ynet news site, Hebrew (Google translator).
  9. ^ http://www40.statcan.gc.ca/l01/cst01/demo26a-eng.htm
  10. ^ (English)British Office for National Statistics, Population by Country of Birth & Nationality, Jan 2009 to Dec 2009 with imigrants for 2012
    ^ (English) "UK lets in more Poles than there are in Warsaw", Steve Doughty, Daily Mail; see also: "Record numbers leave Britain as Poles head home - but new arrivals increase to half a million" by James Slack, Daily Mail, November 27, 2009. Please note: The British Office for National Statistics recorded the number of Poles who have travelled to the UK in 2006 at over 2,000,000; they are not to be mistaken for permanent residents.
  11. ^ http://edant.clarin.com/diario/2004/04/27/t-749506.htm
  12. ^ Belarus National Census 2009 (preliminary results)(in rus.)
  13. ^ [3]
  14. ^ Census 2011 Results
  15. ^ 2006 Census Community Profile Series : Australia
  16. ^ Poles in Ukraine
  17. ^ Aftenposten.no: - 120.000 polakker i Norge (Innenriks)
  18. ^ Istat.it
  19. ^ http://www.prezydent.pl/
  20. ^ Polish minority in Russia, WorldNews.com
  21. ^ Czech Republic National Census 2001 (PDF)
  22. ^ [4]
  23. ^ http://www.cbs.nl/NR/rdonlyres/CCD504EA-9D41-40C2-AE28-BFB0A51C2045/0/2005k3b15p096art.pdf
  24. ^ Kazakhstan National Census 2009
  25. ^ http://www.wspolnota-polska.org.pl/index.php?id=dubd2
  26. ^ http://www.immi.se/alfa/p.htm
  27. ^ Poles in AustriaPDF
  28. ^ Mannfjöldi eftir fæðingarlandi 1981-2008: Pólland
  29. ^ http://www.joshuaproject.net/countries.php?rog3=DA&sf=population&so=asc
  30. ^ 2004 Moldovan census, including Transnistria
  31. ^ 2002 Romanian census.
  32. ^ http://portal.statistics.sk/files/tab.11.pdf
  33. ^ http://www.helsinki.polemb.net/index.php?document=46
  34. ^ "Sections of North Milwaukee Avenue are Main Street for Chicago's huge Polish population (the second-largest urban concentration after Warsaw's)" [in:] Chicago for Dummies by Laura Tibert 2007. p. 125; "DID YOU KNOW? Chicago, with nearly a million residents of Polish extraction, is often cited as the world's second - largest Polish city after Warsaw." [in:] Poland by Neil Wilson, Tom Parkinson, Richard Watkins, 2005, p. 33; "In 1960, Chicago claimed 700 000 residents of Polish descent, making it the American city with the largest Polish community and, after Warsaw, the second largest aggregation of urban Poles in the world." [in:] Human development by James O. Lugo, Gerald L. Hershey, 1979
  35. ^ Gerard Labuda. Fragmenty dziejów Słowiańszczyzny zachodniej, t.1-2 p.72 2002; Henryk Łowmiański. Początki Polski: z dziejów Słowian w I tysiącleciu n.e, t. 5 p.472; Stanisław Henryk Badeni, 1923. p. 270
  36. ^ NationMaster.com 2003-2008. People Statistics: Population (most recent) by country. Retrieved 2008-01-25.
  37. ^ Gil Loescher, Beyond Charity: International Cooperation and the Global Refugee Crisis, published by the University of Oxford Press US, 1993, 1996. ISBN 0-19-510294-0. Retrieved 12-12-2007.
  38. ^ Adam Zamoyski, The Polish Way: A Thousand Year History of the Poles and Their Culture. Published 1993, Hippocrene Books, Poland, ISBN 0-7818-0200-8
  39. ^ a b Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Poland, 2002–2007, AN OVERVIEW OF POLISH CULTURE. Access date 12-13-2007.
  40. ^ [5]. Retrieved July 2003 2008
  41. ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/pl.html
  42. ^ (Polish) Kościoły i związki wyznaniowe w Polsce. Retrieved on June 17, 2008.
  43. ^ (Turkish) Lehistan in Turkish Wikipedia

  External links

Other

   
               

Pole

                   

Contents

Pole may refer to:

  Astronomy

  • Celestial pole, the projection of the planet Earth's axis of rotation onto the celestial sphere; also applies to the axis of rotation of other planets
  • Pole star, a visible star that is approximately aligned with the Earth's axis of rotation
  • Orbital pole, the projection of the line perpendicular to planet Earth's orbit onto the celestial sphere; also applies to the orbit of other planets
  • Poles of astronomical bodies, concepts analogous to the Earth's geographic and magnetic poles on other planets and Solar System bodies

  Cylindrical objects

A solid cylindrical object or column with its length greater than its diameter, for example:

  • Barber's pole, advertising the barber shop
  • Fireman's pole, wooden pole or a metal tube or pipe installed between floors in fire stations
  • Flagpole (structure), metal pole from which a flag is hung
  • Lamppost, a raised source of light on the edge of a road
  • Totem pole, monumental sculptures carved from great trees
  • Utility pole, also called a telephone pole, telegraph pole or power pole, a pole that carries utility wires
  • Poles used in sporting and other activities:
    • Dance pole, a pole used for pole dancing
    • Danish pole, a circus prop
    • Festivus pole, a pole used in the celebration of Festivus that is traditionally made of aluminium
    • Fishing pole, tool used to catch fish
    • Foul pole, used in the sport of baseball to distinguish foul balls from fair balls hit into the outfield
    • Maypole, a tall wooden pole with ornaments, like ribbons, that is danced around
    • Pole bending, a rodeo event that involves riding a horse around six poles arranged in a line
    • Pole position, in motorsport, the position at the front of the starting grid (originally marked with a pole)
    • Pole-sitting pole, a pole used for pole sitting, which is the practice of sitting on a pole for extended lengths of time
    • Pole vaulting pole, a pole used for pole vaulting
    • Pole weapon, combat weapon in which the main fighting part of the weapon is placed on the end of a long shaft, typically of wood
    • Ski pole, a pole used by skiers to improve balance, speed and acceleration
    • Spinnaker pole, a spar used in sailboats to help support and control a variety of headsails, particularly the spinnaker
    • Trekking pole, also called hiking sticks or hiking poles, a pole used for hiking

  Geography and places

  • Geographical pole, either of two fixed points on the surface of a spinning body or planet, at 90 degrees from the equator, based on the axis around which a body spins
    • North Pole, the northernmost point on the surface of the Earth, where the Earth's axis of rotation intersects the Earth's surface
    • Polar circle, either of two circles of latitude marking the extreme southerly points (northern hemisphere) or northerly points (southern hemisphere) at which the sun may remain above or below the horizon for 24 continuous hours at some point during the year
    • Polar region, the region within the polar circles, referred to as the Arctic and Antarctic
    • South Pole, the southernmost point on the surface of the Earth, where the Earth's axis of rotation intersects the Earth's surface
  • Magnetic pole (disambiguation)
    • North Magnetic Pole, the shifting point on the Earth to which the "north" end of a dipole magnet points
    • South Magnetic Pole, the shifting point on the Earth to which the "south" end of a dipole magnet points
  • Mount Everest, the third "top" of the Earth
  • Pole of inaccessibility, a location that is the most challenging to reach owing to its remoteness from geographical features which could provide access
  • Pole, Lubusz Voivodeship (west Poland)
  • The West Pole, Texas
  • Hanbury Manor, Ware, Hertfordshire, formerly known as "Poles"

  Fictional

  • "East Pole" and "West Pole", imaginary locations; Christopher Robin tells Winnie-the-Pooh that these exist as well but "people don't like talking about them"

  Mathematics, Science and Technology

  • One "half" of a dipole
  • Pole, term used in electrical circuits used to describe switch contact variations
  • Pole (unit of length), a unit of length equal to 5½ yards, or 16½ feet (5.0292 metres): also known as a rod, or a perch
  • Landau pole, the energy scale where a coupling constant of a quantum field theory becomes infinite
  • Magnetic pole, one of the two ends of a magnet
  • Monopole (disambiguation)
    • Magnetic monopole, a hypothetical particle that may be loosely described as a magnet with only one pole
    • Monopole (mathematics), a connection over a principal bundle G with a section (the Higgs field) of the associated adjoint bundle
    • Monopole (wine), an appellation controlled by a single winery
    • Monopole antenna, a radio antenna that replaces half of a dipole antenna with a ground plane at right-angles to the remaining half
  • Mathematics
  • Meteorology
    • Polar climate, the climate of the polar regions, characterized by a lack of warm summers
    • Polar front, the boundary region between the polar cell and the Ferrel cell in each hemisphere
  • Pole figure, a method for representing crystal symmetry

  Psychology and Biology

  • Anterior and posterior poles, surface vertices of the eye's lens
  • Fetal pole, a thickening on the margin of the yolk sac of a fetus during pregnancy
  • Pole of kidney
  • POLE, a DNA polymerase epsilon catalytic subunit - enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLE gene
  • Cell (biology), either extremity of the main axis of a nucleus, cell, or organism. Important structures situated close to such extremities have also been regarded as poles (e.g. animal cell centrosomes).
  • East Pole–West Pole Divide, an intellectual schism between researchers in the fields of cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience

  Music

  Names & People

  Fictional characters

  • Pole, an opponent in the video game Yie Ar Kung-Fu
  • Jill Pole, a fictional character from C. S. Lewis' Chronicles of Narnia series

  Politics

  See also

   
               

 

All translations of Poles


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