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definitions - Pomegranate

pomegranate (n.)

1.(biology)large globular fruit having many seeds with juicy red pulp in a tough brownish-red rind

2.(ellipsis)shrub or small tree native to southwestern Asia having large red many-seeded fruit

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Merriam Webster

PomegranatePome"gran`ate (?; 277), n. [OE. pomgarnet, OF. pome de grenate, F. grenade, L. pomum a fruit + granatus grained, having many grains or seeds. See Pome, and Garnet, Grain.]
1. (Bot.) The fruit of the tree Punica Granatum; also, the tree itself (see Balaustine), which is native in the Orient, but is successfully cultivated in many warm countries, and as a house plant in colder climates. The fruit is as large as an orange, and has a hard rind containing many rather large seeds, each one separately covered with crimson, acid pulp.

2. A carved or embroidered ornament resembling a pomegranate. Ex. xxviii. 33.

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definition (more)

definition of Wikipedia

synonyms - Pomegranate

pomegranate (n.)

pomegranate tree

pomegranate (n.) (ellipsis)

pomegranate tree, Punica granatum

see also - Pomegranate

pomegranate (n.)

pomegranate tree

phrases

analogical dictionary



Wikipedia

Pomegranate

                   
Pomegranate
Fruit
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Myrtales
Family: Lythraceae
Genus: Punica
Species: P. granatum
Binomial name
Punica granatum
L.
Synonyms
Punica malus
Linnaeus, 1758

The pomegranate play /ˈpɒmɨɡrænɨt/, Punica granatum, is a fruit-bearing deciduous shrub or small tree growing between five and eight meters tall.

Native to the area of modern day Iran and Iraq, the pomegranate has been cultivated in the Caucasus since ancient times. From there it spread to Asian areas such as the Caucasus as well as the Himalayas in Northern India.[1] Today, it is widely cultivated throughout Turkey, Iran, Syria, Spain, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Afghanistan, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Iraq, Lebanon, Egypt, China, Burma, Saudi Arabia, Israel, Jordan, Philippines, the drier parts of southeast Asia, the Mediterranean region of Southern Europe, and tropical Africa.[2][3] Introduced into Latin America and California by Spanish settlers in 1769, pomegranate is also cultivated in parts of California and Arizona for juice production.[4]

In the Northern Hemisphere, the fruit is typically in season from September to February.[5] In the Southern Hemisphere, the pomegranate is in season from March to May.

The pomegranate has been mentioned in many ancient texts, notably the Book of Exodus, the Homeric Hymns and the Quran.[6] In recent years, it has reached mainstream prominence in the commercial markets of North America and the Western Hemisphere.[3][4]

Contents

  Description

  Illustration by Otto Wilhelm Thomé, 1885

The Punica granatum leaves are opposite or sub-opposite, glossy, narrow oblong, entire, 3–7 cm long and 2 cm broad. The flowers are bright red, 3 cm in diameter, with four to five petals (often more on cultivated plants). Some fruitless varieties are grown for the flowers alone. The edible fruit is a berry and is between a lemon and a grapefruit in size, 5–12 cm in diameter with a rounded hexagonal shape, and has thick reddish skin. The exact number of seeds in a pomegranate can vary from 200 to about 1400 seeds, contrary to some beliefs that all pomegranates have exactly the same number of seeds.[7] Each seed has a surrounding water-laden pulp—the edible aril—ranging in color from white to deep red or purple. The seeds are embedded in a white, spongy, astringent pulp.[8]

  Cultivation

Punica granatum is grown as a fruit crop plant, and as ornamental trees and shrubs in parks and gardens. Mature specimens can develop sculptural twisted bark multi-trunks and a distinctive overall form. Pomegranates are drought-tolerant, and can be grown in dry areas with either a Mediterranean winter rainfall climate or in summer rainfall climates. In wetter areas, they can be prone to root decay from fungal diseases. They are tolerant of moderate frost, down to about −10 °C (14 °F).[citation needed] Insect pests of the pomegranate can include the pomegranate butterfly Virachola isocrates and the leaf-footed bug Leptoglossus zonatus. Pomegranate grows easily from seed, but is commonly propagated from 25–50 cm hardwood cuttings to avoid the genetic variation of seedlings. Air layering is also an option for propagation, but grafting fails.[3]

  Varieties

Punica granatum nana is a dwarf variety of Punica granatum popularly planted as an ornamental plant in gardens and larger containers, and used as a bonsai specimen tree. It could well be a wild form with a distinct origin. The only other species in the genus Punica is the Socotran pomegranate (Punica protopunica), which is endemic to the island of Socotra. It differs in having pink (not red) flowers and smaller, less sweet fruit.

  Cultivars

Punica granatum has more than 500 named cultivars, but the pomegranate evidently has considerable synonymy in which the same genotype is named differently across regions of the world.[9]

Several characteristics between pomegranate genotypes vary for identification, consumer preference, preferred use, and marketing, the most important of which are fruit size, exocarp color (ranging from yellow to purple, with pink and red most common), aril color (ranging from white to red), hardness of seed, maturity, juice content and its acidity, sweetness, and astringency.[9]

  Etymology

Pomegranate, arils only
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 346 kJ (83 kcal)
Carbohydrates 18.7 g
- Sugars 13.7 g
- Dietary fiber 4.0 g
Fat 1.2 g
Protein 1.7 g
Thiamine (vit. B1) 0.07 mg (6%)
Riboflavin (vit. B2) 0.05 mg (4%)
Niacin (vit. B3) 0.29 mg (2%)
Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.38 mg (8%)
Vitamin B6 0.08 mg (6%)
Folate (vit. B9) 38 μg (10%)
Vitamin C 10 mg (12%)
Calcium 10 mg (1%)
Iron 0.30 mg (2%)
Magnesium 12 mg (3%)
Phosphorus 36 mg (5%)
Potassium 236 mg (5%)
Zinc 0.35 mg (4%)
Percentages are relative to
US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
  Flower

The name pomegranate derives from medieval Latin pōmum "apple" and grānātum "seeded".[10] This has influenced the common name for pomegranate in many languages (e.g. Granatapfel or Grenadine in German, grenade in French, pomogranà in venetian). Mālum grānātus, using the classical Latin word for apple, gives rise to the Italian name melograno, or less commonly melagrana.

Perhaps stemming from the old French word for the fruit, pomme-grenade, the pomegranate was known in early English as "apple of Grenada"—a term which today survives only in heraldic blazons. This is a folk etymology, confusing Latin granatus with the name of the Spanish city of Granada, which derives from Arabic.

The genus name Punica refers to the Phoenicians, who were active in broadening its cultivation, partly for religious reasons.

Garnet comes from Old French grenat by metathesis, from Medieval Latin granatum, here used in a different meaning: "of a dark red color". This meaning perhaps originated from pomum granatum because of the color of pomegranate pulp, or from granum in the sense of "red dye, cochineal".[11]

The French term grenade for pomegranate has given its name to the military grenade.[12] Soldiers commented on the similar shape of early grenades and the name entered common usage.

While most European languages have cognate names for the fruit, stemming from Latin granatus, an exception is the Portuguese term romã which is derived from Arabic ruman, and has cognates in other Semitic languages (eg. Hebrew rimmon) and Ancient Egyptian rmn.

  Cultural history

  Young pomegranate trees

The pomegranate is native to the region of Persia (modern day Iran) and the western Himalayan range,[13] and has been cultivated in Iran, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Russia, and the Mediterranean region for several millennia.[14][15]

Carbonized exocarp of the fruit has been identified in Early Bronze Age levels of Jericho in Israel, as well as Late Bronze Age levels of Hala Sultan Tekke on Cyprus and Tiryns.[citation needed] A large, dry pomegranate was found in the tomb of Djehuty, the butler of Queen Hatshepsut in Egypt; Mesopotamian cuneiform records mention pomegranates from the mid-Third millennium BC onwards.[16]

It is also extensively grown in South China and in Southeast Asia, whether originally spread along the route of the Silk Road or brought by sea traders. Kandahar is famous in Afghanistan for its high quality pomegranates.

Although not native to Korea or Japan, the pomegranate is widely grown there and many cultivars have been developed. It is widely used for bonsai because of its flowers and for the unusual twisted bark that older specimens can attain.[17] The term "balaustine" (Latin: balaustinus) is also used for a pomegranate-red color.[18]

In Italy are diffuse the coltivation in south area, specially in Olevano sul Tusciano and the rest of Campania's area. The ancient city of Granada in Spain was renamed after the fruit during the Moorish period. Spanish colonists later introduced the fruit to the Caribbean and Latin America, but in the English colonies it was less at home: "Don't use the pomegranate inhospitably, a stranger that has come so far to pay his respects to thee," the English Quaker Peter Collinson wrote to the botanizing John Bartram in Philadelphia, 1762. "Plant it against the side of thy house, nail it close to the wall. In this manner it thrives wonderfully with us, and flowers beautifully, and bears fruit this hot year. I have twenty-four on one tree... Doctor Fothergill says, of all trees this is most salutiferous to mankind."[19] The pomegranate had been introduced as an exotic to England the previous century, by John Tradescant the elder, but the disappointment that it did not set fruit there led to its repeated introduction to the American colonies, even New England. It succeeded in the South: Bartram received a barrel of pomegranates and oranges from a correspondent in Charleston, South Carolina, 1764. John Bartram partook of "delitious" pomegranates with Noble Jones at Wormsloe Plantation, near Savannah, Georgia, in September 1765. Thomas Jefferson planted pomegranates at Monticello in 1771: he had them from George Wythe of Williamsburg.[20]

  Culinary use

  Pomegranate fruit, opened
  Pomegranate arils
  A bowl of ash-e anar, a Persian soup made with pomegranate juice

After opening the pomegranate by scoring it with a knife and breaking it open, the arils (seed casings) are separated from the peel and internal white pulp membranes. Separating the red arils is easier in a bowl of water, because the arils sink and the inedible pulp floats. Freezing the entire fruit also makes it easier to separate. Another very effective way of quickly harvesting the arils is to cut the pomegranate in half, score each half of the exterior rind four to six times, hold the pomegranate half over a bowl and smack the rind with a large spoon. The arils should eject from the pomegranate directly into the bowl, leaving only a dozen or more deeply embedded arils to remove.

The entire seed is consumed raw, though the watery, tasty aril is the desired part. The taste differs depending on the subspecies of pomegranate and its ripeness. The pomegranate juice can be very sweet or sour, but most fruits are moderate in taste, with sour notes from the acidic tannins contained in the aril juice. Pomegranate juice has long been a popular drink in Persian and Indian cuisine, and began to be widely distributed in the United States and Canada in 2002.[21]

Grenadine syrup is thickened and sweetened pomegranate juice used in cocktail mixing. Before tomatoes (a New World fruit) arrived in the Middle East, grenadine was widely used in many Iranian foods, and is still found in traditional recipes such as fesenjān, a thick sauce made from pomegranate juice and ground walnuts, usually spooned over duck or other poultry and rice, and in ash-e anar (pomegranate soup).[22][23]

Wild pomegranate seeds are used as a spice known as anardana (from Persian: anar+dana, pomegranate+seed), most notably in Indian and Pakistani cuisine, but also as a substitute for pomegranate syrup in Persian cuisine. Dried whole arils can often be obtained in ethnic Indian subcontinent markets. These seeds are separated from the flesh, dried for 10–15 days and used as an acidic agent for chutney and curry preparation. Ground anardana is also used, which results in a deeper flavoring in dishes and prevents the seeds from getting stuck in teeth. Seeds of the wild pomegranate variety known as daru from the Himalayas are regarded as quality sources for this spice.

Dried pomegranate arils, found in some natural specialty food markets, still contain the seed and residual aril water, maintaining a natural sweet and tart flavor. Dried arils can be used in several culinary applications, such as trail mix, granola bars, or as a topping for salad, yogurt, or ice cream. Chocolate covered arils, also available in gourmet food stores like Trader Joes, may be added to desserts and baked items.

  Green salad with roast beef, pomegranate vinaigrette, and lemon juice
  Making pomegranate juice at a stall in Turkey

In the Caucasus, pomegranate is used mainly as juice.[24] In Azerbaijan a sauce from pomegranate juice (narsharab) is usually served with fish[25] or tika kabab. In Turkey, pomegranate sauce, (Turkish: nar ekşisi) is used as a salad dressing, to marinate meat, or simply to drink straight. Pomegranate seeds are also used in salads and sometimes as garnish for desserts such as güllaç.[26] Pomegranate syrup or molasses is used in muhammara, a roasted red pepper, walnut, and garlic spread popular in Syria and Turkey.[27]

In Greece, pomegranate (Greek: ρόδι, rodi) is used in many recipes, including kollivozoumi, a creamy broth made from boiled wheat, pomegranates and raisins, legume salad with wheat and pomegranate, traditional Middle Eastern lamb kebabs with pomegranate glaze, pomegranate eggplant relish, and avocado-pomegranate dip. Pomegranate is also made into a liqueur and popular fruit confectionery used as ice cream topping or mixed with yogurt or spread as jam on toast. In Cyprus as well as in Greece and among the Greek Orthodox Diaspora, ρόδι is used to make kolliva, a mixture of wheat, pomegranate seeds, sugar, almonds and other seeds served at memorial services.

  In Ayurvedic medicine

  Developing fruit

In the Indian subcontinent's ancient Ayurveda system of medicine, the pomegranate (Hindi: अनार) has extensively been used as a source of traditional remedies for thousands of years.[28]

The rind of the fruit and the bark of the pomegranate tree is used as a traditional remedy against diarrhea, dysentery and intestinal parasites.[28] The seeds and juice are considered a tonic for the heart and throat, and classified as a bitter-astringent (pitta or fire) component under the Ayurvedic system, and considered a healthful counterbalance to a diet high in sweet-fatty (kapha or earth) components.[29] The astringent qualities of the flower juice, rind and tree bark are considered valuable for a variety of purposes, such as stopping nose bleeds and gum bleeds, toning skin, (after blending with mustard oil) firming-up sagging breasts and treating hemorrhoids.[30] Pomegranate juice (of specific fruit strains) is also used as eyedrops as it is believed to slow the development of cataracts.[31]

Ayurveda differentiates between pomegranate varieties and employs them for different remedies.[32]

Pomegranate has been used as a contraceptive and abortifacient by means of consuming the seeds, or rind, as well as by using the rind as a vaginal suppository. This practice is recorded in ancient Indian literature, in Medieval sources, and in modern folk medicine.[33]

  Pomegranate sepals and drying stamens after fertilization and petal fall
  Pomegranate Black - Saveh
  Pomegranate seeds on a plate.

  Nutrients and phytochemicals

Pomegranate aril juice provides about 16% of an adult's daily vitamin C requirement per 100 ml serving, and is a good source of vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid), potassium and natural phenols, such as ellagitannins and flavonoids.[34][35] Pomegranates are listed as high-fiber in some charts of nutritional value. That fiber, however, is entirely contained in the edible seeds which also supply unsaturated oils. People who choose to discard the seeds forfeit nutritional benefits conveyed by the seed fiber, oils and micronutrients.

  Phenolic content

The most abundant polyphenols in pomegranate juice are the hydrolyzable tannins called ellagitannins formed when ellagic acid binds with a carbohydrate. Pomegranate ellagitannins, also called punicalagins, are tannins with free-radical scavenging properties in laboratory experiments[36] and with potential human effects.[37] Punicalagins are absorbed into the human body and may have dietary value as antioxidants, but conclusive proof of efficacy in humans has not yet been shown.[38][39] During intestinal metabolism by bacteria, ellagitannins and punicalagins are converted to urolithins which have unknown biological activity in vivo.[40][41] The different punicalagins present in P. granatum are granatin A and B, punicacortein A, B, C and D, 5-O-galloylpunicacortein D, punicafolin, punigluconin, punicalagin, 1-alpha-O-galloylpunicalagin, punicalin and 2-O-galloyl-punicalin.[citation needed] Other phenolics include catechins, gallocatechins, and anthocyanins, such as prodelphinidins, delphinidin, cyanidin, and pelargonidin.[42] The ORAC (antioxidant capacity) of pomegranate juice was measured at 2,860 units per 100 grams.[43] Many food and dietary supplement makers use pomegranate phenolic extracts as ingredients in their products instead of the juice. One of these extracts is ellagic acid, which may become bioavailable only after parent molecule punicalagins are metabolized. However, ingested ellagic acid from pomegranate juice does not accumulate in the blood in significant quantities and is rapidly excreted.[44] Accordingly, ellagic acid from pomegranate juice does not appear to be biologically important in vivo.

  Potential health benefits

In preliminary laboratory research and clinical trials, juice of the pomegranate may be effective in reducing heart disease risk factors, including LDL oxidation, macrophage oxidative status, and foam cell formation.[45][46][47] In an article published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition in 2000, researchers detailed an experiment in which healthy adult men and unhealthy mice consumed pomegranate juice daily. After two weeks, the healthy men experienced increased antioxidant levels, which resulted in a ninety percent drop in LDL cholestoral oxidation. In the mice, "oxidation of LDL by peritoneal macrophages was reduced by up to 90% after pomegranate juice consumption...".[48]

In a limited study of hypertensive patients, consumption of pomegranate juice for two weeks was shown to reduce systolic blood pressure by inhibiting serum angiotensin-converting enzyme.[49] Juice consumption may also inhibit viral infections[50] while pomegranate extracts have antibacterial effects against dental plaque.[51]

Despite limited research data, manufacturers and marketers of pomegranate juice have liberally used evolving research results for product promotion, especially for putative antioxidant health benefits. In February 2010, the FDA issued a Warning Letter to one such manufacturer, POM Wonderful, for using published literature to make illegal claims of unproven antioxidant and anti-disease benefits.[52][53][54]

  Clinical trial rationale and activity

Metabolites of pomegranate juice ellagitannins localize specifically in the prostate gland, colon, and intestinal tissues of mice,[55] leading to clinical studies of pomegranate juice or fruit extracts for efficacy against several diseases.

In 2011, 32 clinical trials were registered with the National Institutes of Health to examine effects of pomegranate extracts or juice consumption on a list of diseases:[56]

  Symbolism

  Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egyptians regarded the pomegranate as a symbol of prosperity and ambition. According to the Ebers Papyrus, one of the oldest medical writings from around 1500 BC, Egyptians used the pomegranate for treatment of tapeworm and other infections.[57]

  Ancient Greece

Although the pomegranate was mentioned in the Ancient Greek history prior to the founding of Ancient Rome, the Greeks were familiar with the fruit far before it was introduced to Ancient Rome via Carthage.[58] In the Ancient Greek mythology, the pomegranate was also known as the "fruit of the dead".[57]

The wild pomegranate did not occur in the Aegean area in Neolithic times. It originated in eastern Iran and came to the Aegean world along the same cultural pathways that brought the goddess whom the Anatolians worshipped as Cybele and the Mesopotamians as Ishtar.[citation needed]

The myth of Persephone, the goddess of the Underworld, also prominently features the pomegranate. In one version of Greek mythology, Persephone was kidnapped by Hades and taken off to live in the underworld as his wife. Her mother, Demeter (goddess of the Harvest), went into mourning for her lost daughter and thus all green things ceased to grow. Zeus, the highest ranking of the Greek gods, could not allow the Earth to die, so he commanded Hades to return Persephone. It was the rule of the Fates that anyone who consumed food or drink in the Underworld was doomed to spend eternity there. Persephone had no food, but Hades tricked her into eating six pomegranate seeds while she was still his prisoner and so, because of this, she was condemned to spend six months in the Underworld every year. During these six months, when Persephone is sitting on the throne of the Underworld next to her husband Hades, her mother Demeter mourns and no longer gives fertility to the earth. This became an ancient Greek explanation for the seasons. Dante Gabriel Rossetti's painting Persephona depicts Persephone holding the fatal fruit. It should be noted that the number of seeds that Persephone ate varies, depending on which version of the story is told. The number of seeds she is said to have eaten ranges from three to seven, which accounts for just one barren season if it is just three or four seeds, or two barren seasons (half the year) if she ate six or seven seeds.[citation needed]

The pomegranate also evoked the presence of the Aegean Triple Goddess who evolved into the Olympian Hera, who is sometimes represented offering the pomegranate, as in the Polykleitos' cult image of the Argive Heraion (see below).[citation needed] According to Carl A. P. Ruck and Danny Staples, the chambered pomegranate is also a surrogate for the poppy's narcotic capsule, with its comparable shape and chambered interior.[59] On a Mycenaean seal illustrated in Joseph Campbell's Occidental Mythology 1964, figure 19, the seated Goddess of the double-headed axe (the labrys) offers three poppy pods in her right hand and supports her breast with her left. She embodies both aspects of the dual goddess, life-giving and death-dealing at once. The Titan Orion was represented as "marrying" Side, a name that in Boeotia means "pomegranate", thus consecrating the primal hunter to the Goddess. Other Greek dialects call the pomegranate rhoa; its possible connection with the name of the earth goddess Rhea, inexplicable in Greek, proved suggestive for the mythographer Karl Kerenyi, who suggested that the consonance might ultimately derive from a deeper, pre-Indo-European language layer.[citation needed]

In the 6th century BC, Polycleitus took ivory and gold to sculpt the seated Argive Hera in her temple. She held a scepter in one hand and offered a pomegranate, like a 'royal orb', in the other.[60] "About the pomegranate I must say nothing," whispered the traveller Pausanias in the 2nd century, "for its story is somewhat of a holy mystery."[60] In the Orion story Hera cast pomegranate-Side (an ancient city in Antalya) into dim Erebus — "for daring to rival Hera's beauty", which forms the probable point of connection with the older Osiris/Isis story.[citation needed] Since the ancient Egyptians identified the Orion constellation in the sky as Sah the "soul of Osiris", the identification of this section of the myth seems relatively complete.[original research?] Hera wears, not a wreath nor a tiara nor a diadem, but clearly the calyx of the pomegranate that has become her serrated crown.[citation needed] The pomegranate has a calyx shaped like a crown. In Jewish tradition it has been seen as the original "design" for the proper crown.[61] In some artistic depictions, the pomegranate is found in the hand of Mary, mother of Jesus.[citation needed]

A pomegranate is displayed on coins from the ancient city of Side, Pamphylia.[62]

Within the sanctuary of Hera at Foce del Sele, Magna Graecia, is a chapel devoted to the Madonna del Granato, "Our Lady of the Pomegranate", "who by virtue of her epithet and the attribute of a pomegranate must be the Christian successor of the ancient Greek goddess Hera", observes the excavator of the Heraion of Samos, Helmut Kyrieleis.[63]

  Girl with a pomegranate, by William-Adolphe Bouguereau, 1875

In modern times the pomegranate still holds strong symbolic meanings for the Greeks. On important days in the Greek Orthodox calendar, such as the Presentation of the Virgin Mary and on Christmas Day, it is traditional to have at the dinner table "polysporia", also known by their ancient name "panspermia," in some regions of Greece. In ancient times they were offered to Demeter[citation needed] and to the other gods for fertile land, for the spirits of the dead and in honor of compassionate Dionysus.[citation needed] When one buys a new home, it is conventional for a house guest to bring as a first gift a pomegranate, which is placed under/near the ikonostasi (home altar) of the house, as a symbol of abundance, fertility and good luck.[citation needed] Pomegranates are also prominent at Greek weddings and funerals.[citation needed] When Greeks commemorate their dead, they make kollyva as offerings, which consist of boiled wheat, mixed with sugar and decorated with pomegranate.[citation needed] It is also traditional in Greece to break a pomegranate on the ground at weddings and on New Years.[citation needed] Pomegranate decorations for the home are very common in Greece and sold in most home goods stores.[64]

  Judaism

Pomegranates were known in Ancient Israel as the fruits which the scouts brought to Moses to demonstrate the fertility of the "promised land".[65] The Book of Exodus[66] describes the me'il ("robe of the ephod") worn by the Hebrew High Priest as having pomegranates embroidered on the hem. According to the Books of Kings[67] the capitals of the two pillars (Jachin and Boaz) that stood in front of Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem were engraved with pomegranates. It is said that Solomon designed his coronet based on the pomegranate's "crown" (calyx).[61]

It is traditional to consume pomegranates on Rosh Hashana because the pomegranate, with its numerous seeds, symbolizes fruitfulness.[68] Also, it is said to have 613 seeds, which corresponds with the 613 mitzvot or commandments of the Torah.[69]

The pomegranate appeared on the ancient coins of Judea. When not in use, the handles of Torah scrolls are sometimes covered with decorative silver globes similar in shape to "pomegranates" (rimmonim) Some Jewish scholars believe that the pomegranate was the forbidden fruit in the Garden of Eden.[68] Pomegranates are one of the Seven Species (Hebrew: שבעת המינים, Shiv'at Ha-Minim) of fruits and grains enumerated in the Hebrew Bible (Deuteronomy 8:8) as being special products of the Land of Israel. The pomegranate is mentioned in the Bible many times, including this quote from the Songs of Solomon, "Thy lips are like a thread of scarlet, and thy speech is comely: thy temples are like a piece of a pomegranate within thy locks." (Song of Solomon 4:3). Pomegranates also symbolize the mystical experience in the Jewish mystical tradition, or kabbalah, with the typical reference being to entering the "garden of pomegranates" or pardes rimonim; this is also the title of a book by the 16th-century mystic Moses ben Jacob Cordovero.

  Christianity

In the earliest incontrovertible appearance of Christ in a mosaic, a fourth-century floor mosaic from Hinton St Mary, Dorset, now in the British Museum, the bust of Christ and the chi rho are flanked by pomegranates.[70] Pomegranates continue to be a motif often found in Christian religious decoration. They are often woven into the fabric of vestments and liturgical hangings or wrought in metalwork. Pomegranates figure in many religious paintings by the likes of Sandro Botticelli and Leonardo da Vinci, often in the hands of the Virgin Mary or the infant Jesus. The fruit, broken or bursting open, is a symbol of the fullness of Jesus' suffering and resurrection.[68]

In the Eastern Orthodox Church, pomegranate seeds may be used in kolyva, a dish prepared for memorial services, as a symbol of the sweetness of the heavenly kingdom.

  Islam

According to the Qur'an, pomegranates grow in the gardens of paradise (55:068).[68] The Qur'an also mentions pomegranates three times (6:99,[71] 6:141,[72] 55:68[68]) as examples of good things God creates.

  Azerbaijan

Annually in October, a cultural festival is held in Goychay, Azerbaijan known as Pomegranate Festival. The festival features Azerbaijani fruit-cuisine mainly the pomegranates from Goychay. At the festival, a parade is held with traditional Azerbaijani dances and Azerbaijani music.[73]

  Iran and ancient Persia

Pomegranate was the symbol of fertility in ancient Persian culture.[citation needed] In Persian mythology Isfandiyar eats a pomegranate and becomes invincible. In "The Persian War" Herodotus mentions golden pomegranates adorning the spears of warriors in the Persian phalanx. It also sometime symbolizes patriotism in death for the country. Even in today's Iran pomegranate sometimes implies love and fertility.[citation needed]

  The pomegranate is regarded as a symbol of fertility in China

Iran produces significant amount of high quality pomegranate every year.[citation needed] Its juice and in particular the paste has an essential role in some of the Iranian cuisines, e.g. Fesenjoon, chicken and some types of ghormas. For centuries, pomegranate skins have been used to stain wool and silk in the carpet industry.[citation needed] In addition you can find a pomegranate juice bar in every corner of the city and the suburbs.[citation needed]

  Hinduism

In Hinduism, the pomegranate (Sanskrit: Beejpur, literally: replete with seeds) symbolizes prosperity and fertility, and is associated with both Bhoomidevi (the earth goddess) and Lord Ganesha (who is also called Bijapuraphalasakta, or the one fond of the many-seeded fruit).[74][75]

Every part of the plant (root, bark, flowers, fruit, leaves) is used for medicinal purposes in Ayurveda[citation needed].

  China

Introduced to China during the Tang Dynasty (618-907 CE), the pomegranate (Chinese: 石榴; pinyin: shíliu) in olden times was considered an emblem of fertility and numerous progeny. This symbolism is a pun on the Chinese character 子 () which, as well as meaning seed also means offspring thus a fruit containing so many seeds is a sign of fecundity. Pictures of the ripe fruit with the seeds bursting forth were often hung in homes to bestow fertility and bless the dwelling with numerous offspring, an important facet of traditional Chinese culture.[76]

  Armenia

The pomegranate is one of the main fruits in Armenian culture, the others being the apricot and grapes. Pomegranate juice is famous with Armenians in food and heritage. One of the results of the Armenian Genocide is that it left millions of Armenians spread all over the world; Armenians use the pomegranate and its many seeds to symbolize the Armenian people. The pomegranate is also seen as the fruit of life for Armenians because during the genocide the only food they had came from fruits on trees. It is said that there are approximately 365 seeds in each pomegranate and the Armenians survived by eating one seed each day during their exile.

  References

  1. ^ Janick, Jules; Robert E. Paull (2008). The encyclopedia of fruit & nuts. CABI. p. 610. ISBN 978-0-85199-638-7. 
  2. ^ "Pomegranates: An Exquisite Fruit". Exotic Fruit for Health. 19 August 2011. http://www.exoticfruitx.com/2011/08/pomegranates-an-introduction/. Retrieved 20 September 2011. 
  3. ^ a b c "Purdue New Crops Profile, Pomegranate". Hort.purdue.edu. http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/pomegranate.html. Retrieved 2012-06-14. 
  4. ^ a b "Pomegranate. California Rare Fruit Growers". Crfg.org. http://www.crfg.org/pubs/ff/pomegranate.html. Retrieved 2012-06-14. 
  5. ^ LaRue, James H. (1980). "Growing Pomegranates in California". California Agriculture and Natural Resources. http://fruitsandnuts.ucdavis.edu/crops/pomegranate_factsheet.shtml. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  6. ^ Exodus 28:33-35
  7. ^ "Does a larger pomegranate yield more seeds?". AquaPhoenix. http://www.aquaphoenix.com/misc/pomegranate/. 
  8. ^ Floridata: Punica granatum
  9. ^ a b Stover E, Mercure EW (August, 2007). "The pomegranate: a new look at the fruit of paradise". HortScience 42 (5): 1088–92. 
  10. ^ medieval latin etymology of pomegranate on etymonline http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=pomegranate&allowed_in_frame=0
  11. ^ Harper, Douglas. "garnet". Online Etymology Dictionary. http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=garnet. 
  12. ^ Harper, Douglas (8 Oct 2011) "Grenade" Online Etymology Dictionary
  13. ^ Leslie Bilderback (2007). The Complete Idiot's Guide to Spices and Herbs. Penguin Group. ISBN 1-59257-674-5. http://books.google.com/?id=6CyAhK6zML0C. "... Native to Iran and the Himalayas, pomegranates also thrive in the drier climates of California and Arizona ..." 
  14. ^ Doijode, S. D. (2001). Seed storage of horticultural crops. New York: Food Products Press. p. 77. ISBN 1-56022-883-0. 
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  21. ^ Porter, Jane (2006-09-01). "Pomegranates Gain The Spotlight ; Fruit Earning Fans As More People Discover Its Health Benefits; Staying Healthy". http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/baltsun/access/1118248441.html?dids=1118248441:1118248441&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&date=Sep+1%2C+2006&author=Jane+Porter&pub=The+Sun&desc=POMEGRANATES+GAIN+THE+SPOTLIGHT+. 
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  24. ^ Bulletin — Page 52 by United States Bureau of Plant Industry, Division of Plant Industry, Queensland[clarification needed]
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  34. ^ Nutrition data for raw pomegranate, Nutritiondata.com
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  40. ^ Bialonska D, Kasimsetty SG, Khan SI, Ferreira D (11 November 2009). "Urolithins, intestinal microbial metabolites of Pomegranate ellagitannins, exhibit potent antioxidant activity in a cell-based assay". J Agric Food Chem 57 (21): 10181–6. DOI:10.1021/jf9025794. PMID 19824638. 
  41. ^ Larrosa M, González-Sarrías A, Yáñez-Gascón MJ, Selma MV, Azorín-Ortuño M, Toti S, Tomás-Barberán F, Dolara P, Espín JC (19 July 2009). "Anti-inflammatory properties of a pomegranate extract and its metabolite urolithin-A in a colitis rat model and the effect of colon inflammation on phenolic metabolism". J Nutr Biochem 21 (8): 717–25. DOI:10.1016/j.jnutbio.2009.04.012. PMID 19616930. 
  42. ^ Plumb GW; De Pascual-Teresa S, Santos-Buelga C, Rivas-Gonzalo JC, Williamson G (2002). "Antioxidant properties of gallocatechin and prodelphinidins from pomegranate peel". Redox Rep. 7 (41): 41–6. DOI:10.1179/135100002125000172. PMID 11981454. 
  43. ^ "Development of Accurate and Representative Food Composition Data for the U.S. Food Supply by the USDA". Ars.usda.gov. http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=224949. Retrieved 2012-06-14. 
  44. ^ Seeram NP, Lee R, Heber D (October 2004). "Bioavailability of ellagic acid in human plasma after consumption of ellagitannins from pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juice". Clin Chim Acta 348 (1–2): 63–8. DOI:10.1016/j.cccn.2004.04.029. PMID 15369737. 
  45. ^ Aviram M, Rosenblat M, Gaitini D et al. (June 2004). "Pomegranate juice consumption for 3 years by patients with carotid artery stenosis reduces common carotid intima-media thickness, blood pressure and LDL oxidation". Clin Nutr 23 (3): 423–33. DOI:10.1016/j.clnu.2003.10.002. PMID 15158307. 
  46. ^ Esmaillzadeh A, Tahbaz F, Gaieni I, Alavi-Majd H, Azadbakht L (2004). "Concentrated pomegranate juice improves lipid profiles in diabetic patients with hyperlipidemia". J Med Food 7 (3): 305–8. DOI:10.1089/1096620041938623. PMID 15383223. 
  47. ^ Kaplan M, Hayek T, Raz A et al. (1 August 2001). "Pomegranate juice supplementation to atherosclerotic mice reduces macrophage lipid peroxidation, cellular cholesterol accumulation and development of atherosclerosis". J Nutr. 131 (8): 2082–9. PMID 11481398. http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=11481398. 
  48. ^ Aviram M, Dornfeld L, Rosenblat M et al. (May 2000). "Pomegranate juice consumption reduces oxidative stress, atherogenic modifications to LDL, and platelet aggregation: studies in humans and in atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient mice". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 71 (5): 1062–76. PMID 10799367. http://www.ajcn.org/content/71/5/1062.full.pdf+html. Retrieved 2011-03-24. 
  49. ^ Aviram M, Dornfeld L (September 2001). "Pomegranate juice consumption inhibits serum angiotensin converting enzyme activity and reduces systolic blood pressure". Atherosclerosis 158 (1): 195–8. DOI:10.1016/S0021-9150(01)00412-9. PMID 11500191. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0021915001004129. 
  50. ^ Neurath AR, Strick N, Li YY, Debnath AK (2004). "Punica granatum (Pomegranate) juice provides an HIV-1 entry inhibitor and candidate topical microbicide". BMC Infect. Dis. 4: 41. DOI:10.1186/1471-2334-4-41. PMC 533885. PMID 15485580. //www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=533885. 
  51. ^ Menezes SM, Cordeiro LN, Viana GS (2006). "Punica granatum (pomegranate) extract is active against dental plaque". Journal of herbal pharmacotherapy 6 (2): 79–92. DOI:10.1300/J157v06n02_07. PMID 17182487. 
  52. ^ "Pom Wonderful Warning Letter". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. http://www.fda.gov/ICECI/EnforcementActions/WarningLetters/ucm202785.htm. Retrieved 2011-03-24. 
  53. ^ "Understanding Front-of-Package Violations: Why Warning Letters Are Sent to Industry". http://www.fda.gov/Food/LabelingNutrition/ucm202784.htm. Retrieved 2011-03-24. 
  54. ^ Starling S (March 3, 2010). "FDA says Pom Wonderful antioxidant claims not so wonderful". NutraIngredients.com. http://www.nutraingredients-usa.com/Regulation/FDA-says-Pom-Wonderful-antioxidant-claims-not-so-wonderful/?c=7InNqGv0Ajf%2BGsoljaV0RA%3D%3D&utm_source=newsletter_daily&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Newsletter%2BDaily. Retrieved March 6, 2010. 
  55. ^ Seeram NP, Aronson WJ, Zhang Y et al. (September 2007). "Pomegranate ellagitannin-derived metabolites inhibit prostate cancer growth and localize to the mouse prostate gland". J. Agric. Food Chem. 55 (19): 7732–7. DOI:10.1021/jf071303g. PMID 17722872. 
  56. ^ "NIH-listed human clinical trials on pomegranate". Clinicaltrials.gov. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?term=pomegranate. Retrieved 2012-06-14. 
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  64. ^ Christmas Traditions in Greece by folklorist Thornton B. Edwards
  65. ^ Why Hebrew Goes from Right to Left: 201 Things You Never Knew about Judaism, Ronald H. Isaacs (Newark, 2008), page 129
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  67. ^ 7:13–22
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  73. ^ iguide.travel Goychay Activities: Pomegranate Festival
  74. ^ Suresh Chandra (1998). Encyclopaedia of Hindu Gods and Goddesses. Sarup & Sons. ISBN 81-7625-039-2. http://books.google.com/?id=mfTE6kpz6XEC. "... Bhumidevi (the earth goddess) ... Attributes: ... pomegranate ..." 
  75. ^ Vijaya Kumar (2006). Thousand Names of Ganesha. Sterling Publishers. ISBN 81-207-3007-0. http://books.google.com/?id=koNhqLCSxRgC. "... Beejapoori ... the pomegranate in His hand is symbolic of bounteous wealth, material as well as spiritual ..." 
  76. ^ Doré S.J., Henry; Kennelly, S.J. (Translator), M. (1914). Researches into Chinese Superstitions. Tusewei Press, Shanghai.  Vol V p. 722

  Further reading

  • Seeram, N. P.; Schulman, R. N.; Heber, D., eds. (2006). Pomegranates: Ancient Roots to Modern Medicine. CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-8493-9812-4. 

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