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Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.
Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !
Change the target language to find translations.
Tips: browse the semantic fields (see From ideas to words) in two languages to learn more.
|Spoken natively in||Greece, Russia, Ukraine, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkey|
|Native speakers||324,535 (date missing)|
|Writing system||Greek alphabet, Latin, Cyrillic|
|History of the
(see also: Greek alphabet)
|Proto-Greek (c. 3000–1600 BC)|
|Mycenaean (c. 1600–1100 BC)|
|Ancient Greek (c. 800–330 BC)
Aeolic, Arcadocypriot, Attic-Ionic,
Doric, Locrian, Pamphylian,
|Koine Greek (c. 330 BC–330)|
|Medieval Greek (330–1453)|
|Modern Greek (from 1453)
Calabrian, Cappadocian, Cheimarriotika, Cretan,
Cypriot, Demotic, Griko, Katharevousa,
Pontic, Tsakonian, Maniot, Yevanic
Pontic Greek (Greek: Ποντιακή διάλεκτος or Ποντιακά) is a form of the Greek language originally spoken in the Pontus area on the southern shores of the Black Sea, northeastern Anatolia, Eastern Turkish/Caucasus province of Kars, southern Georgia, and today mainly in northern Greece. Its speakers are referred to as Pontic Greeks or Pontian Greeks, although many Greeks mistakenly refer to some Pontic Greek speakers from Georgia as Russo-Ponti.
The linguistic lineage of Pontic Greek stems from Ionic Greek via Koine and Byzantine Greek and contains influences from Georgian, Russian, Turkish and to a lesser extent, Persian (via Ottoman Turkish) and various Caucasian languages. Pontic is most closely related to Cappadocian Greek, and the Greek spoken in Mariupolis (and formerly in Crimea, Ukraine) (see Mariupolitan Greek).
The language is called Rumca in Turkish, derived form the Turkish word Rum denoting ethnic Greeks living in Turkey in general; however, this term comprises other Greek speakers in Turkey such as those from Istanbul or Smyrna who speak a language close to Standard Modern Greek.
Greek linguist Manolis Triantafyllides has divided Pontic into two groups:
Speakers of Chaldiot were the most numerous. In phonology, some varieties of Pontic are reported to demonstrate vowel harmony, a well-known feature of Turkish (Mirambel 1965).
The inhabitants of the Of valley, who had converted to Islam in the 17th century, remained in Turkey and have partly retained the Pontic language until today. Their dialect is called "Ophitic" by linguists, but speakers generally call it Romeyka, (Romeika, Greek: Ρωμαίικα) which, in a more general sense, is also a historical and colloquial term for the modern Greek language as a whole. As few as 5,000 people speak this dialect.
Romeyka has retained the infinitive, which is present in Ancient Greek but has been lost in other variants of Modern Greek; it has therefore been characterized as "archaic" and as the living language that is closest to Ancient Greek.
A very similar dialect is spoken by descendants of Christians from the Of valley now living in Greece in the village of Nea Trapezounta (part of Kalamaria, Central Macedonia), with about 400 speakers.
Though Pontic was originally spoken on the southern shores of the Black Sea, substantial numbers migrated into the northern and eastern shores (into the Russian Empire of the 18th and 19th century); Pontic is still spoken by large numbers of people in Ukraine, Russia (around Stavropol'), and Georgia, and the language enjoyed some use as a literary medium in the 1930s, including a school grammar (Topkhara 1998 ). After the massacres of the 1910s, the majority of speakers remaining in Asia Minor were subject to the Treaty of Lausanne population exchange, and were resettled in Greece (mainly northern Greece). A second wave of migration occurred in the early 1990s, this time from the former Soviet Union.
In Greece, Pontic is now used mainly emblematically rather than as a medium of communication.
Pontic has no official status. During the late 1910s, it was destined to become the official language of the proposed Republic of Pontus. Historically, it was the de facto language of the Greek minority in the USSR, despite the fact that in the Πανσυνδεσμιακή Σύσκεψη (All-Union Conference) of 1926, organized by the Greek-Russian intelligentsia, it was decided that demotic should be the official language of the community.
The language has a rich oral tradition and folklore and Pontic songs are particularly popular in Greece. There is also some limited production of modern literature in Pontic, including poetry collections (among the most renowned writers is Kostas Diamantidis), novels, and translated Asterix comic albums.
Pontic in Greece is written in historical Greek orthography, with diacritics: σ̌ ζ̌ ξ̌ ψ̌ for /ʃ ʒ kʃ pʃ/, α̈ ο̈ for [æ ø] (phonological /ia io/). Pontic in Turkey is written in Latin script following Turkish conventions, and Pontic in Russia is written in Cyrillic. In early Soviet times, Pontic was written in the Greek script phonetically, as shown below, using digraphs instead of diacritics; [æ ø] were written out as ια, ιο.
|Α α||A a||А а||[ä]||ρομεικα, romeyika, ромейика|
|Β β||V v||В в||[v]||κατιβενο, kativeno, кативено|
|Γ γ||Ğ ğ||Г г||[ɣ] [ʝ]||γανεβο, ğanevo, ганево|
|Δ δ||DH dh||Д д||[ð]||δοντι, dhonti, донти|
|Ε ε||E e||Е е||[e̞]||εγαπεςα, eğapesa, егапеса|
|Ζ ζ||Z z||З з||[z]||ζαντος, zantos, зантос|
|ΖΖ ζζ||J j||Ж ж||[ʒ]||πυρζζυας, burjuvas, буржуас|
|Θ θ||TH th||С с, Ф ф, Т т||[θ]||θεκο, theko, теко|
|Ι ι||İ i||И и||[i]||τοςπιτοπον, tospitopon, тоспитопон|
|Κ κ||K k||К к||[k]||καλατζεμαν, kalaceman, калачеман|
|Λ λ||L l||Л л||[l]||λαλια, lalia, лалиа|
|Μ μ||M m||М м||[m]||μανα, mana, мана|
|Ν ν||N n||Н н||[n]||ολιγον, oliğоn, олигон|
|Ο ο||O o||О о||[o̞]||τεμετερον, temeteron, теметерон|
|Π π||P p||П п||[p]||εγαπεςα, eğapesa, егапеса|
|Ρ ρ||R r||Р р||[ɾ]||ρομεικα, romeyika, ромейка|
|Σ ς||S s||С с||[s]||καλατζεπςον, kalacepson, калачепсон|
|ΣΣ ςς||Ş ş||Ш ш||[ʃ]||ςςερι, şeri, шери|
|Τ τ||T t||Т т||[t]||νοςτιμεςα, nostimesa, ностимеса|
|ΤΖ τζ||C c||Ч ч||[d͡ʒ]||καλατζεμαν, kalaceman, калачеман|
|ΤΣ τς||Ç ç||Ц ц||[t͡ʃ]||μανιτςα, maniça, маница|
|Υ υ||U u||У у||[u]||νυς, nus, нус|
|Φ φ||F f||Ф ф||[f]||εμορφα, emorfa, эморфа|
|Χ χ||H, KH (sert H)||Х х||[x]||χαςον, hason, хасон|
||This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. (September 2009)|
ράψεινε, κράξεινε, μεθύσεινε, καλέσεινε, λαλήσεινε, κτυπήσεινε, καθίσεινε
|Pontic Greek edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia|