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Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.
Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !
Change the target language to find translations.
Tips: browse the semantic fields (see From ideas to words) in two languages to learn more.
1.located on the left side of a ship or aircraft
1.(computer science) computer circuit consisting of the hardware and associated circuitry that links one device with another (especially a computer and a hard disk drive or other peripherals)
2.the left side of a ship or aircraft to someone who is aboard and facing the bow or nose
3.an opening (in a wall or ship or armored vehicle) for firing through
4.sweet dark-red dessert wine originally from Portugal
5.a place (seaport or airport) where people and merchandise can enter or leave a country
1.drink port"We were porting all in the club after dinner"
2.carry or hold with both hands diagonally across the body, especially of weapons"port a rifle"
3.carry, bear, convey, or bring"The small canoe could be ported easily"
4.turn or go to the port or left side, of a ship"The big ship was slowly porting"
5.land at or reach a port"The ship finally ported"
6.bring to port"the captain ported the ship at night"
7.put or turn on the left side, of a ship"port the helm"
8.transfer data from one computer to another via a cable that links connecting ports
9.modify (software) for use on a different machine or platform
PortPort (?), n. [From Oporto, in Portugal, i. e., � porto the port, L. portus. See Port harbor.] A dark red or purple astringent wine made in Portugal. It contains a large percentage of alcohol.
PortPort, n. [AS. port, L. portus: cf. F. port. See Farm, v., Ford, and 1st, 3d, & 4h Port.]
1. A place where ships may ride secure from storms; a sheltered inlet, bay, or cove; a harbor; a haven. Used also figuratively.
Peering in maps for ports and piers and roads. Shak.
We are in port if we have Thee. Keble.
2. In law and commercial usage, a harbor where vessels are admitted to discharge and receive cargoes, from whence they depart and where they finish their voyages.
Free port. See under Free. -- Port bar. (Naut,) (a) A boom. See Boom, 4, also Bar, 3. (b) A bar, as of sand, at the mouth of, or in, a port. -- Port charges (Com.), charges, as wharfage, etc., to which a ship or its cargo is subjected in a harbor. -- Port of entry, a harbor where a customhouse is established for the legal entry of merchandise. -- Port toll (Law), a payment made for the privilege of bringing goods into port. -- Port warden, the officer in charge of a port; a harbor master.
PortPort (?), n. [F. porte, L. porta, akin to portus; cf. AS. porte, fr. L. porta. See Port a harbor, and cf. Porte.]
1. A passageway; an opening or entrance to an inclosed place; a gate; a door; a portal. [Archaic]
Him I accuse
The city ports by this hath entered. Shak.
Form their ivory port the cherubim
Forth issuing. Milton.
2. (Naut.) An opening in the side of a vessel; an embrasure through which cannon may be discharged; a porthole; also, the shutters which close such an opening.
Her ports being within sixteen inches of the water. Sir W. Raleigh.
3. (Mach.) A passageway in a machine, through which a fluid, as steam, water, etc., may pass, as from a valve to the interior of the cylinder of a steam engine; an opening in a valve seat, or valve face.
Air port, Bridle port, etc. See under Air, Bridle, etc. -- Port bar (Naut.), a bar to secure the ports of a ship in a gale. -- Port lid (Naut.), a lid or hanging for closing the portholes of a vessel. -- Steam port, and Exhaust port (Steam Engine), the ports of the cylinder communicating with the valve or valves, for the entrance or exit of the steam, respectively.
PortPort, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Ported; p. pr. & vb. n. Porting.] [F. porter, L. portare to carry. See Port demeanor.]
1. To carry; to bear; to transport. [Obs.]
They are easily ported by boat into other shires. Fuller.
2. (Mil.) To throw, as a musket, diagonally across the body, with the lock in front, the right hand grasping the small of the stock, and the barrel sloping upward and crossing the point of the left shoulder; as, to port arms.
Began to hem him round with ported spears. Milton.
Port arms, a position in the manual of arms, executed as above.
PortPort, n. [F. port, fr. porter to carry, L. portare, prob. akin to E. fare, v. See Port harbor, and cf. Comport, Export, Sport.] The manner in which a person bears himself; deportment; carriage; bearing; demeanor; hence, manner or style of living; as, a proud port. Spenser.
And of his port as meek as is a maid. Chaucer.
The necessities of pomp, grandeur, and a suitable port in the world. South.
PortPort, n. [Etymology uncertain.] (Naut.) The larboard or left side of a ship (looking from the stern toward the bow); as, a vessel heels to port. See Note under Larboard. Also used adjectively.
PortPort, v. t. (Naut.) To turn or put to the left or larboard side of a ship; -- said of the helm, and used chiefly in the imperative, as a command; as, port your helm.
Port Arthur • Port Jackson fig • Port Jackson heath • Port Jackson pine • Port Louis • Port Moresby • Port Orford cedar • Port Sudan • Port Vila • Port of Spain • Port-Wine Stain • Port-au-Prince • Port-of-Spain • car port • container port • fishing port • free on board (... named port of shipment) • free port • home port • international port • leave port • naval port • parallel port • port administration • port of call • port of entry • port of registry • port of transshipment • port side • port traffic • port watcher • port wine • port-access coronary bypass surgery • port-wine stain • serial port • transit port • treaty port
42nd Street – Port Authority Bus Terminal (IND Eighth Avenue Line) • 42nd Street-Port Authority Bus Terminal (IND Eighth Avenue Line station) • 42nd Street-Port Authority Bus Terminal (New York City Subway stattion) • Accelerated Graphics Port • Baltimore and Port Deposit Railroad • Boglestone, Port Glasgow • Cairns Port Authority • Chennai Port • Coat of arms of Port Coquitlam • Coat of arms of Port Moody • Corps of the Port Captaincies – Coast Guard • Dennis Port, Massachusetts • Division of Port Adelaide • E-Port • East Port Orchard, Washington • Electoral division of Port Darwin • Ennore Port • Ephemeral port • Game port • George Robertson, Baron Robertson of Port Ellen • Gulf Port, Illinois • Harwich Port, Massachusetts • Legacy port • Louisiana Offshore Oil Port • Network address port translation • New Port Richey East, Florida • New Port Richey, Florida • North Port, Florida • Parallel port • Park Farm, Port Glasgow • Port (nautical) • Port Adelaide Football Club • Port Alexander, Alaska • Port Allen, Louisiana • Port Alsworth, Alaska • Port Angeles East, Washington • Port Angeles, Washington • Port Aransas, Texas • Port Arthur • Port Arthur massacre (Australia) • Port Arthur, Tasmania • Port Arthur, Texas • Port Austin Township, Michigan • Port Austin, Michigan • Port Authority Trans-Hudson • Port Authority Trans-Hudson (PATH) • Port Authority of Allegheny County • Port Authority of New York and New Jersey • Port Barre, Louisiana • Port Barrington, Illinois • Port Byron, Illinois • Port Byron, New York • Port Campbell • Port Campbell National Park • Port Charlotte, Florida • Port Charlotte, Islay • Port Chester, New York • Port Clarence, Alaska • Port Clinton, Ohio • Port Colborne, Ontario • Port Columbus International Airport • Port Costa, California • Port Deposit, Maryland • Port Dickinson, New York • Port Douglas • Port Edwards (town), Wisconsin • Port Edwards, Wisconsin • Port Elizabeth • Port Elizabeth Airport • Port Elphinstone • Port Ewen, New York • Port Fouad • Port Gibson, Mississippi • Port Graham, Alaska • Port Hadlock-Irondale, Washington • Port Hawkesbury • Port Hawkesbury, Nova Scotia • Port Heiden, Alaska • Port Henry, New York • Port Hills • Port Hood, Nova Scotia • Port Hope Township, Beltrami County, Minnesota • Port Hope, Michigan • Port Hope, Ontario • Port Hudson • Port Hueneme, California • Port Huron Beacons • Port Huron Flags • Port Huron Township, Michigan • Port Huron, Michigan • Port Isabel, Texas • Port Island (Gdansk) • Port Island Line • Port Jackson • Port Jackson Painter • Port Jefferson • Port Jefferson Station, New York • Port Jefferson, New York • Port Jefferson, Ohio • Port Jervis, New York • Port Joli, Nova Scotia • Port La Belle, Florida • Port Lavaca, Texas • Port Leyden, New York • Port Lions, Alaska • Port Louis • Port Louis, Mauritius • Port Ludlow, Washington • Port Madison • Port Madison Indian Reservation • Port Maitland, Nova Scotia • Port Mann Bridge • Port Mansfield, Texas • Port Mayaca, Florida • Port Meadow, Oxford • Port Monmouth, New Jersey • Port Moresby • Port Moresby Vipers • Port Mouton • Port Mouton, Nova Scotia • Port Neches, Texas • Port Norris, New Jersey • Port Orange, Florida • Port Orchard, Washington • Port Phillip • Port Protection, Alaska • Port Radium, NWT • Port Rashid • Port Reading, New Jersey • Port Republic, New Jersey • Port Richey, Florida • Port Royal • Port Royal, Virginia • Port Said • Port Salerno, Florida • Port Sanilac, Michigan • Port Security Badge • Port Sheldon Township, Michigan • Port St. Joe, Florida • Port St. John, Florida • Port St. Lucie, Florida • Port St. Lucie-River Park, Florida • Port Sudan • Port Sulphur, Louisiana • Port Talbot • Port Tobacco Village, Maryland • Port Townsend, Washington • Port Union, Newfoundland and Labrador • Port Union, Ohio • Port Victoria • Port Vincent, Louisiana • Port Washington • Port Washington (town), Wisconsin • Port Washington North, New York • Port Washington, New York • Port Washington, Wisconsin • Port Wentworth, Georgia • Port William, Ohio • Port Wing (town), Wisconsin • Port Zayed • Port address translation • Port and Airport Development Strategy • Port au Port Peninsula • Port lotniczy Gdańsk-Trójmiasto • Port lotniczy Katowice-Pyrzowice • Port lotniczy Kraków-Balice • Port lotniczy Poznań-Ławica • Port lotniczy Wrocław-Strachowice • Port of Beirut • Port of Bruges-Zeebrugge • Port of Gdansk • Port of Hamburg • Port of London • Port of London Authority • Port of Mongla • Port of New York • Port of South Louisiana • Port of Spain • Port of Varna • Port of Victoria (Texas) • Port scan • Port wine • Port-Cros National Park • Port-Royal-des-Champs • Port-Salut (cheese) • Port-du-Salut cheese • Port-of-Spain, Trinidad and Tobago • Registered port • Rock Port, Missouri • Serial port • Seven Sisters, Neath Port Talbot • Siege of Port Hudson • Space port • USCG transportable port security boat • USS Port Royal • USS Port Royal (CG-73) • Warm water port • World Wide Port Name • Yarmouth Port, Massachusetts
lieu où s'effectue quelque chose (fr)[Classe...]
borough; town; city[Classe]
bateau et navire (fr)[DomaineCollocation]
port; haven; harbour; harbor[ClasseHyper.]
lieu d'arrivée ou de départ (fr)[ClasseParExt.]
vin (boisson froide) (fr)[Classe]
vin de cru étranger (fr)[Classe...]
mathématiques appliquées (fr)[Classe]
high technology; high-tech; hi-tech; high tech[ClasseParExt.]
bateau et navire (fr)[DomainDescrip.]
autre élément constitutif d'un navire (fr)[DomainDescrip.]
autre élément constitutif d'un navire (fr)[DomainDescrip.]
ouverture : espace libre ou vide (fr)[ClasseParExt...]
(artilleryman; cannoneer; gunner; machine gunner)[termes liés]
château fort (fr)[DomainDescrip.]
vin cuit (fr)[Classe]
port, port wine[Dérivé]
boozing, crapulence, drink, drinking, drunkenness - alcoholic beverage, booze, hard drink, hard liquor, John Barleycorn, liquor, spirits, strong drink - alcohol, alcoholic, alky, boozer, dipsomaniac, drinker, drunk, drunkard, lush, rummy, soak, soaker, sot, souse, tippler, wino - drinker, imbiber, juicer, toper - port[Dérivé]
conveyance, transfer, transferral, transit, transport, transportation - carry - aircraft carrier, attack aircraft carrier, carrier, flattop - carrier - conveyer, conveyer belt, conveyor, conveyor belt, moving walkway, transporter, travelator - car transporter, transporter - carrier, common carrier, contract carrier, haulage business, haulage contractor, haulage firm, hauler, haulier, transit company, transport company - bearer, carrier, Carrier, toter[Dérivé]
conveyance, transfer, transferral, transit, transport, transportation - carry - aircraft carrier, attack aircraft carrier, carrier, flattop - carrier - conveyer, conveyer belt, conveyor, conveyor belt, moving walkway, transporter, travelator - car transporter, transporter - carrier, common carrier, contract carrier, haulage business, haulage contractor, haulage firm, hauler, haulier, transit company, transport company - bearer, carrier, Carrier, toter - port - porter[Dérivé]
autre élément constitutif d'un navire (fr)[DomainDescrip.]
autre élément constitutif d'un navire (fr)[DomainDescrip.]
change; alter; modify[ClasseHyper.]
change - adjustment, alteration, change, changing, edit, modification, variation - change - alteration, change, modification, transformation - changer, modifier - change - change - alterable - editable, modifiable[Dérivé]
alter, change, modify[Hyper.]
||It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Software portability. (Discuss) Proposed since June 2012.|
||This article may contain original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding references. Statements consisting only of original research may be removed. (October 2008)|
||This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2008)|
In computer science, porting is the process of adapting software so that an executable program can be created for a computing environment that is different from the one for which it was originally designed (e.g. different CPU, operating system, or third party library). The term is also used when software/hardware is changed to make them usable in different environments.
Software is portable when the cost of porting it to a new platform is less than the cost of writing it from scratch. The lower the cost of porting software, relative to its implementation cost, the more portable it is said to be.
The term "port" is derived from the Latin portare, meaning "to carry". When code is not compatible with a particular operating system or architecture, the code must be "carried" to the new system.
The term is not generally applied to the process of adapting software to run with less memory on the same CPU and operating system, nor is it applied to the rewriting of source code in a different language (i.e. language conversion or translation).
Software developers often claim that the software they write is portable, meaning that little effort is needed to adapt it to a new environment. The amount of effort actually needed depends on several factors, including the extent to which the original environment (the source platform) differs from the new environment (the target platform), the experience of the original authors in knowing which programming language constructs and third party library calls are unlikely to be portable, and the amount of effort invested by the original authors in only using portable constructs (platform specific constructs often provide a cheaper solution).
The number of significantly different CPUs and operating systems used on the desktop today is much smaller than in the past. The dominance of the x86 architecture means that most desktop software is never ported to a different CPU. In that same market, the choice of operating systems has effectively been reduced to three: Microsoft Windows, Mac OS/Mac OS X, and Unix/Linux. However, in the embedded systems market, portability remains a significant issue.
International standards, such as those promulgated by the ISO, greatly facilitate porting by specifying details of the computing environment in a way that helps reduce differences between different standards-conforming platforms. Writing software that stays within the bounds specified by these standards represents a practical although nontrivial effort. Porting such a program between two standards-compliant platforms (such as POSIX.1) can be just a matter of loading the source code and recompiling it on the new platform. However, practitioners often find that various minor corrections are required, due to subtle platform differences. Most standards suffer from "gray areas" where differences in interpretation of standards lead to small variations from platform to platform.
There also exists an ever-increasing number of tools to facilitate porting, such as the GNU Compiler Collection, which provides consistent programming languages on different platforms, and Autotools, which automates the detection of minor variations in the environment and adapts the software accordingly before compilation.
The compilers for some high-level programming languages (e.g. Eiffel, Esterel) gain portability by outputting source code in another high level intermediate language (such as C) for which compilers for many platforms are generally available.
Instead of translating directly into machine code, modern compilers translate to a machine independent intermediate code in order to enhance portability of the compiler and minimize design efforts. The intermediate language defines a virtual machine that can execute all programs written in the intermediate language (a machine is defined by its language and vice versa). The intermediate code instructions are translated into equivalent machine code sequences by a code generator to create executable code. It is also possible to skip the generation of machine code by actually implementing the virtual machine in machine code. This virtual machine implementation is called an interpreter, because it reads in the intermediate code instructions one by one and after each read executes the equivalent machine code sequences (the interpretation) of the read intermediate instruction directly.
The use of intermediate code enhances portability of the compiler, because only the machine dependent code (the interpreter or the code generator) of the compiler itself needs to be ported to the target machine. The remainder of the compiler can be imported as intermediate code and then further processed by the ported code generator or interpreter, thus producing the compiler software or directly executing the intermediate code on the interpreter. The machine independent part can be developed and tested on another machine (the host machine). This greatly reduces design efforts, because the machine independent part needs to be developed only once to create portable intermediate code.
An interpreter is less complex and therefore easier to port than a code generator, because it is not able to do code optimizations due to its limited view of the program code (it only sees one instruction at a time and you need a sequence to do optimization). Some interpreters are extremely easy to port, because they only make minimal assumptions about the instruction set of the underlying hardware. As a result the virtual machine is even simpler than the target CPU.
Writing the compiler sources entirely in the programming language the compiler is supposed to translate, makes the following approach, better known as compiler bootstrapping, feasible on the target machine:
The difficult part of coding the optimization routines is done using the high-level language instead of the assembly language of the target.
According to the designers of the BCPL language, interpreted code (in the BCPL case) is more compact than machine code; typically by a factor of two to one. Interpreted code however runs about ten times slower than compiled code on the same machine.
The designers of the Java programming language try to take advantage of the compactness of interpreted code, because in Java a program needs to be transmitted over the Internet before execution can start on the target's Java Virtual Machine.
Porting is also the term used when a video game designed to run on one platform, be it an arcade, video game console, or personal computer, is converted to run on a different platform. Earlier video game "ports" were often not true ports, but rather reworked versions of the games. However, more and more video games are now being developed using software that can output code for one or more consoles as well as for a PC without the need for actual porting. Many early ports suffered significant gameplay quality issues because the hardware of PCs and consoles differed so dramatically.
Arcade perfect is a term used to describe video games which have been ported from an arcade version to another platform, such as a console or computer, without any alterations to the game's workings. This means that graphics, sound and gameplay, along with the game's other characteristics, are identical to the arcade version.
"Console port" is a term specifically used to describe a game that was originally made for a console (such as Wii or Xbox 360) before an identical version is created which can be played on a personal computer. This term has been widely used by the gaming community, often in a negative way due to the higher levels of performance that computers generally have been underutilized, partially due to console hardware being fixed throughout their run (with games being developed for console specs), while PCs become more powerful as hardware evolves, but also due to ported games sometimes being poorly optimized for PCs, or lazily ported.
A port is a location on a coast or shore containing one or more harbors where ships can dock and transfer people or cargo to or from land. Port locations are selected to optimize access to land and navigable water, for commercial demand, and for shelter from wind and waves. Ports with deeper water are rarer, but can handle larger, more economical ships. Since ports throughout history handled every kind of traffic, support and storage facilities vary widely, may extend for miles, and dominate the local economy. Some ports have an important military role.
Ports often have cargo-handling equipment, such as cranes (operated by longshoremen) and forklifts for use in loading ships, which may be provided by private interests or public bodies. Often, canneries or other processing facilities will be located nearby. Some ports feature canals, which allow ships further movement inland. Access to intermodal transportation, such as trains and trucks, are critical to a port, so that passengers and cargo can also move further inland beyond the port area. Ports with international traffic have customs facilities. Harbour pilots and tugboats may maneuver large ships in tight quarters when near docks.
|This unreferenced section requires citations to ensure verifiability.|
The terms "port" and "seaport" are used for different types of port facilities that handle ocean-going vessels, and river port is used for river traffic, such as barges and other shallow-draft vessels. Some ports on a lake, river (fluvial port), or canal have access to a sea or ocean, and are sometimes called "inland ports".
A fishing port is a port or harbour for landing and distributing fish. It may be a recreational facility, but it is usually commercial. A fishing port is the only port that depends on an ocean product, and depletion of fish may cause a fishing port to be uneconomical. In recent decades, regulations to save fishing stock may limit the use of a fishing port, perhaps effectively closing it.
A "dry port" is a term sometimes used to describe a yard used to place containers or conventional bulk cargo, usually connected to a seaport by rail or road.
A warm water port is one where the water does not freeze in winter time. Because they are available year-round, warm water ports can be of great geopolitical or economic interest. Such settlements as Murmansk and Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky in Russia, Odessa in Ukraine, Kushiro in Japan and Valdez at the terminus of the Alaska Pipeline owe their very existence to being ice-free ports.
A seaport is further categorized as a "cruise port" or a "cargo port". Additionally, "cruise ports" are also known as a "home port" or a "port of call". The "cargo port" is also further categorized into a "bulk" or "break bulk port" or as a "container port".
A cruise home port is the port where cruise-ship passengers board (or embark) to start their cruise and disembark the cruise ship at the end of their cruise. It is also where the cruise ship's supplies are loaded for the cruise, which includes everything from fresh water and fuel to fruits, vegetable, champagne, and any other supplies needed for the cruise. "Cruise home ports" are a very busy place during the day the cruise ship is in port, because off-going passengers debark their baggage and on-coming passengers board the ship in addition to all the supplies being loaded. Currently, the Cruise Capital of the World is the Port of Miami, Florida, closely followed behind by Port Everglades, Florida and the Port of San Juan, Puerto Rico.
A port of call is an intermediate stop for a ship on its sailing itinerary, which may include up to half a dozen ports. At these ports, a cargo ship may take on supplies or fuel, as well as unloading and loading cargo. But for a cruise ship, it is their premier stop where the cruise lines take on passengers to enjoy their vacation.
Cargo ports, on the other hand, are quite different from cruise ports, because each handles very different cargo, which has to be loaded and unloaded by very different mechanical means. The port may handle one particular type of cargo or it may handle numerous cargoes, such as grains, liquid fuels, liquid chemicals, wood, automobiles, etc. Such ports are known as the "bulk" or "break bulk ports". Those ports that handle containerized cargo are known as container ports. Most cargo ports handle all sorts of cargo, but some ports are very specific as to what cargo they handle. Additionally, the individual cargo ports are divided into different operating terminals which handle the different cargoes, and are operated by different companies, also known as terminal operators or stevedores.
Ports sometimes fall out of use. Rye, East Sussex, was an important English port in the Middle Ages, but the coastline changed and it is now 2 miles (3.2 km) from the sea, while the ports of Ravenspurn and Dunwich have been lost to coastal erosion. Also in the United Kingdom, London, on the River Thames, was once an important international port, but changes in shipping methods, such as the use of containers and larger ships, put it at a disadvantage.
For details on East Asian ports, see the List of East Asian ports.
The largest ports are Los Angeles in the U.S., Manzanillo in Mexico and Vancouver in Canada. Panama also has the Canal that connects the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean, and is a key conduit for international trade.
For details on all North American ports, see the List of North American ports.
The ports of the United States handle more than 2 billion metric tons of domestic and import/export cargo annually. American ports are responsible for moving over 99 percent of the country's overseas cargo.
For details on U.S. Ports, see the List of ports in the United States.