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A prefect apostolic (an alternate term) may be a titular bishop but is normally a priest. If a prefecture grows and flourishes, it is elevated to an apostolic vicariate, which is headed by a bishop, though it is again not yet a diocese. In both cases, the hope is that with time the region will generate enough Catholics and stability for its Catholic institutions, to warrant being established as a diocese.
The usual sequence of development is: mission, prefecture, vicariate, diocese.
During the last centuries of the second millennium it was the practice of the Holy See to govern either through prefects apostolic or apostolic vicariates, many of those territories where no dioceses with resident bishops existed. This was owing to local circumstances such as the character and customs of the people or hostility of civil powers, and was doubtful whether an episcopal see could be permanently established. The establishing of a prefecture apostolic in a place supposes that the Church has attained only a small development in the area. Fuller growth leads to the foundation of an apostolic vicariate as intermediate stage to becoming a diocese.
A prefect apostolic is of lower rank than a vicar apostolic. The prefect's powers are more limited and do not normally possess the episcopal character, as is ordinarily the case with a vicar apostolic. The duties of a prefect apostolic consist in directing the work of the mission entrusted to his care; his powers are in general those necessarily connected with the ordinary administration of such an office, for instance: the assigning of missionaries and the making of regulations for the good management of the affairs of the mission. Until the Second Vatican Council, the prefect apostolic had extraordinary faculties for several cases reserved otherwise to diocesan bishops, such as absolutions from censures, dispensations from matrimonial impediments and the faculty of consecrating chalices, patens, and portable altars, with some having the power to administer Confirmation.
Prefects apostolic govern independent territories and are subject only to the pope. When a vicariate or a diocese extended over a very large territory in which the Catholic population was unequally distributed, the Holy See sometimes placed a portion of the territory in charge of a prefect apostolic; in which case the faculties of the prefect were more limited, and in the exercise of his office he was supervised by the vicar apostolic or the diocesan bishop. With a view to better protecting the authority of the local vicar apostolic or bishop, it was proposed in the First Vatican Council to abolish prefects apostolic having jurisdiction over districts within a vicariate or diocese of the Latin Rite, but the Council was interrupted and the practice continued until Pope Leo XIII abolished them within the Oriental Churches by a decree of Propaganda Fide on 12 September 1896, and established superiors with special dependence on the papal representatives of the areas concerned.
In 1911 there were 66 prefectures apostolic: 5 in Europe; 17 in Asia; 3 in North America (e.g., the Yukon); 11 in South America; 23 in Africa and 7 in Oceania.
The entire missionary structure of the Catholic Church underwent major restructuring with the Second Vatican Council, the promulgation of Lumen Gentium and the decree Ad Gentes, the reorganising of the Sacred Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith (Propaganda Fide) as the Congregation for the Evangelisation of Peoples, the separation of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches from that of the Propagation of the Faith, the issuance of the Code of Canon Law in 1983 and the Code of Canon Law for the Oriental Churches in 1990.
Apostolic prefectures thus fell out of use in the 20th century, as most traditional mission areas had reached a more advanced stage of development. However Pope John Paul II created some particularly for China.
Present apostolic prefectures
In May 2006, there were 45, all of them Roman rite.
- Ankang 安康 / Hinganfu 兴安
- Baojing 保靖 / Paoking
- Guilin 桂林 / Kweilin
- Hainan 海南 / Hainan
- Haizhou 海州 / Haichow
- Jiamusi 佳木斯 / Kiamusze
- Jian′ou 建甌 / Kienow
- Lingling 零岭 / Yongzhou 永州 / Yungchow
- Linqing 臨清 / Lintsing
- Lintong 臨潼 / Lintung
- Lixian 澧縣 / Lizhou 澧州 / Lichow
- Qiqihar 齊齊哈爾 / Tsitsibar
- Shaowu 邵武 /
- Shashi 沙市 / Shasi
- Shiqian 石阡 / Shihtsien
- Suixian 隨縣 / Suihsien
- Tongzhou 同州 / Tungchow
- Tunxi 屯溪 / Tunki
- Weihaiwei 威海衛 / Weihaiwei
- Xiangtan 湘潭 / Siangtan
- Xining 西寧 / Sining
- Xinjiang 新絳 / Jiangzhou 絳州 / Kiangchow
- Xinjiang-Urumqi 新疆-烏魯木齊 / Sinkiang
- Xinxiang 新鄉 / Sinsiang
- Yangzhou 揚州 / Yangchow
- Yiduxian 益都縣 / Iduhsien
- Yixian 易縣 / Yihsien
- Yueyang 岳陽 / Yuezhou 岳州 / Yochow
- Zhaotong 昭通 / Chaotung
Elsewhere in Asia
- Bătdâmbâng / Battambang in Cambodia
- Kompong Cham in Cambodia
- Ulaanbaatar in Mongolia
- Quetta in Pakistan
- Yuzhno Sakhalinsk in Russia
- Misurata in Libya
- Western Sahara
- Gambella and Jimma–Bonga in Ethiopia
- Likouala in Congo [Brazzaville]
- Makokou in Gabon
- Falkland Islands including South Georgia
- List of Roman Catholic dioceses (alphabetical)
- List of Roman Catholic dioceses (structured view)
- List of Roman Catholic archdioceses
- List of Roman Catholic military dioceses
- List of Roman Catholic apostolic administrations
- List of Roman Catholic apostolic vicariates
- List of Eastern Catholic exarchates
- List of Roman Catholic territorial prelatures
- List of Roman Catholic missions sui juris
Sources and references
- "Prefect Apostolic". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913. http://sources.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catholic_Encyclopedia_(1913)/Prefect_Apostolic.
- List of Current Apostolic Prefectures by Giga-Catholic Information