» 
Arabic Bulgarian Chinese Croatian Czech Danish Dutch English Estonian Finnish French German Greek Hebrew Hindi Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Italian Japanese Korean Latvian Lithuanian Malagasy Norwegian Persian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swedish Thai Turkish Vietnamese
Arabic Bulgarian Chinese Croatian Czech Danish Dutch English Estonian Finnish French German Greek Hebrew Hindi Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Italian Japanese Korean Latvian Lithuanian Malagasy Norwegian Persian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swedish Thai Turkish Vietnamese

definition - Preterite-present_verb

definition of Wikipedia

   Advertizing ▼

Wikipedia

Preterite-present verb

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search
Following the convention in historical linguistics, this article marks unattested reconstructed words with an asterisk.

The so-called preterite-present verbs are a small group of anomalous verbs in the Germanic languages in which the present tense shows the form of the strong preterite.

Contents

Source

The reflex of the Proto-Indo-European perfect aspect in Germanic, is generally a past tense (the Germanic strong preterite). The perfect of Indo-European originally signified a current state of being rather than any particular tense; in the sense that the preterite-present verbs are non-past and still largely signify current states (temporalized as present tense), they constitute a partial retention of the originally non-past perfect of Indo-European. For example, Proto-Indo-European *woida originally meant "I see, I am a witness", a meaning which developed in Greek oida and Vedic veda, as well as in Gothic wait to the meaning "I know". The original semantic notion of "seeing" is preserved in Latin vīdī 'I saw' (probably an old root aorist). Compare Polish widzieć (to see) and wiedzieć (to know).

Preterite-presents in Proto-Germanic

The known verbs in Proto-Germanic (PGmc):

InfinitiveMeaningClassPresentPreterite
*witana"know"Iwaitwissa
*lisana"know"Ilaislissa
*aigana"have", "own"Iaigaihta
*dugana"be useful"IIdaugduhta
*unnana"grant"IIIannunþa
*kunnana"know (how to)", later "can"IIIkannkunþa
*þurbana"need"IIIþarbþurfta
*dursana"dare"IIIdarsdursta
*skulana"must", later "shall"IVskalskulda
*munana"think"IVmanmunda
*gamunana"remember"IVgamangamunda
*binugana"behoove"Vbinagbinuhta
*ganugana"be enough"Vganagganuhta
*magana"can", later "may"VImagmahta
*ōgana"fear"VIōgōhta
*mōtana"may", later "must"VImōtmōsta
*gamōtana"have room"VIgamōtgamōsta

Forms

Ablaut

The present tense has the form of a vocalic (strong) preterite, with vowel-alternation between singular and plural. A new weak preterite is formed with a dental suffix. The root shape of the preterite (in zero-grade) serves as the basis for the infinitive and past passive participle, thus Gothic inf. witan and past participle witans; this contrasts with all other Germanic verb types in which the basis for those forms is the present stem.

GothicOld EnglishGermanDutchOld NorseIcelandicDanishSwedish
infinitivewitanwitanwissenwetenvitavitavideveta
present 1st & 3rd sgwaitwātweißweetveitveitvedvet
present 3rd plwitunwitonwissenwetenvituvitaved(veta)*
preterite 1st & 3rd sgwissawissewusstewistvissa/vissivissividstevisste
present participlewitandswitendewissendwetendvitandivitandividendevetande
past participlewitansgewitengewusstgewetenvitat**vitað**vidstvetat**
*(Plural forms have been lost in modern central Swedish, but are retained in some dialects.)

**(Actually, not the past participle but the supine.)

Personal endings

For the most part, the personal endings of the strong preterite are used for the present tense. In fact, in West Germanic the endings of the present tense of preterite-present verbs represent the original IE perfect endings better than that subgroup's strong preterite verbs do: the expected PGmc strong preterite 2 sg. form ending in -t was retained rather than replaced by the endings -e or -i elsewhere adopted for strong preterites in West Germanic.

The endings of the preterite (except for *kunnana) are the same as the endings of the first weak class.

Subsequent developments

In modern English, preterite-present verbs are identifiable by the absence of an -s suffix on the 3rd person singular present tense form. Compare. for instance, he can with he sings (pret. he sang); the present paradigm of can is thus parallel with the past tense of a strong verb. In modern German there is also an ablaut shift between singular ich kann (I can) and plural wir können (we can). In the older stages of the Germanic languages (Old English, Middle High German) the past tense of strong verbs also showed different ablaut grades in singular and plural.

Many of the preterite-present verbs function as modal verbs (auxiliaries which are followed by a bare infinitive, without "to") and indeed most of the traditional modal verbs are preterite-presents. Examples are English must and shall/should, German dürfen (may), sollen (ought), mögen (like), and müssen (must). The early history of will (German wollen) is more complicated, as it goes back to an Indo-European optative, but the result in the modern languages is likewise a preterite-present paradigm.


 

All translations of Preterite-present_verb


sensagent's content

  • definitions
  • synonyms
  • antonyms
  • encyclopedia

Dictionary and translator for handheld

⇨ New : sensagent is now available on your handheld

   Advertising ▼

sensagent's office

Shortkey or widget. Free.

Windows Shortkey: sensagent. Free.

Vista Widget : sensagent. Free.

Webmaster Solution

Alexandria

A windows (pop-into) of information (full-content of Sensagent) triggered by double-clicking any word on your webpage. Give contextual explanation and translation from your sites !

Try here  or   get the code

SensagentBox

With a SensagentBox, visitors to your site can access reliable information on over 5 million pages provided by Sensagent.com. Choose the design that fits your site.

Business solution

Improve your site content

Add new content to your site from Sensagent by XML.

Crawl products or adds

Get XML access to reach the best products.

Index images and define metadata

Get XML access to fix the meaning of your metadata.


Please, email us to describe your idea.

WordGame

The English word games are:
○   Anagrams
○   Wildcard, crossword
○   Lettris
○   Boggle.

Lettris

Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.

boggle

Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !

English dictionary
Main references

Most English definitions are provided by WordNet .
English thesaurus is mainly derived from The Integral Dictionary (TID).
English Encyclopedia is licensed by Wikipedia (GNU).

Copyrights

The wordgames anagrams, crossword, Lettris and Boggle are provided by Memodata.
The web service Alexandria is granted from Memodata for the Ebay search.
The SensagentBox are offered by sensAgent.

Translation

Change the target language to find translations.
Tips: browse the semantic fields (see From ideas to words) in two languages to learn more.

last searches on the dictionary :

2968 online visitors

computed in 0.031s

   Advertising ▼

I would like to report:
section :
a spelling or a grammatical mistake
an offensive content(racist, pornographic, injurious, etc.)
a copyright violation
an error
a missing statement
other
please precise:

Advertize

Partnership

Company informations

My account

login

registration

   Advertising ▼