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definition - Punjabi_language

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Punjabi language

                   
Punjabi
پنجابی, ਪੰਜਾਬੀ
Panjābī
Punjabi gurmukhi shahmukhi devanagari.png
The word "Punjabi" in Gurmukhi, Shahmukhi and Devanagari
Spoken in Pakistan, India. Overseas: UK,Canada,USA, Australia, New Zealand, Dubai and more.
Region Western Punjab, Eastern Punjab
Native speakers 104 million  (2000–2008)[1]
Language family
Writing system Gurmukhi in India and among the Indian Punjabi diaspora
Shahmukhi in Pakistan and among the Pakistani Punjabi diaspora[3]
Official status
Official language in  India (Indian state of Punjab, secondary officially recognised language in the state of Haryana and West Bengal)
Regulated by No official regulation
Language codes
ISO 639-1 pa
ISO 639-2 pan
ISO 639-3 Either:
pan – Eastern Panjabi
pnb – Western Panjabi
Indic script
This page contains Indic text. Without rendering support you may see irregular vowel positioning and a lack of conjuncts. More...

Punjabi (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ/پنجابی) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by inhabitants of the historical Punjab region (north western India and eastern Pakistan). In Pakistan, Punjabi is the most widely spoken language. Punjabi can be subdivided into two varieties, Eastern Punjabi in both India and Pakistan, and Western Punjabi solely in Pakistan. There are some 104 million (2008) native speakers of the Punjabi language; an estimated 76 million in Pakistan (2008) and 28 million in India (2001), and millions in the UK, Canada and Persian Gulf countries,[1] making it the 10th most widely spoken language in the world.

The Punjabi language has many different dialects, spoken in the different sub-regions of greater Punjab. The Majhi dialect is Punjabi's prestige dialect and shared by both countries. This dialect is considered as textbook Punjabi and is spoken in the historical region of Majha,[4] centralizing in Lahore and Amritsar.

Along with Lahnda and Western Pahari languages, Punjabi is unusual among modern Indo-European languages because it is a tonal language.[5][6][7][8] For Sikhs, the Punjabi language stands as the official language in which all ceremonies take place. 21 February is celebrated as "Mother Tongue Punjabi" Day in Punjabi diaspora.

Contents

  History

  Indo-Aryan languages, grouping according to SIL Ethnologue, Punjabi is among the languages of the central zone:
  Central zone
  Northern zone
  Northwestern zone
  Eastern zone
  Southern zone
  Insular (Southern)

Punjabi is an Indo-Aryan language like many other modern languages of South Asia. It is a descendant of the Shauraseni language, which was the chief language of medieval northern India.[9][10][11]

Punjabi emerged as an independent language in the 11th century.[citation needed] The first traces of Punjabi can be found in the works of the Nath yogis Gorakshanath and Charpatnath in the 9th and 10th century. The linguist George Abraham Grierson in his multivolume Linguistic Survey of India (1904–1928) used the word "Punjabi" to refer to several languages spoken in the Punjab region: the term "Western Punjabi" (ISO 639-3 pnb) covered dialects (now designated separate languages) spoken to the west of Montgomery and Gujranwala districts, while "Eastern Punjabi" referred to what is now simply called Punjabi (ISO 639-3 pan)[12] After Saraiki, Potwari and Hindko (earlier categorized as "Western Punjabi") started to be counted as separate languages, the percentage of Pakistanis recorded as Punjabi speakers was reduced from 59% to 44%. Although not an official language, Punjabi is still the predominant language of Pakistan.

Contemporary Punjabi is not the predominant language of the Sikh scriptures (which though in Gurmukhi script are written in several languages).[13] Many portions of Guru Granth Sahib use Punjabi dialects, but the book is interspersed with several other languages including Brajbhasha, Khariboli, Sanskrit and Persian.[14] Guru Gobind Singh, the last Guru of the Sikhs composed Chandi di Var in Punjabi, although most of his works are composed in other languages like Braj bhasha and Persian.

After the partition of India, the Punjab region was divided between Pakistan and India. Although the Punjabi people formed the 2nd biggest linguistic group in Pakistan after Bengali, Urdu continued as the national language of Pakistan, and Punjabi still did not get any official status, as it got in India. The rationale to make Urdu as the sole official language was so that citizens of the newly created state of Pakistan begin to see themselves as Pakistani rather than Pashtoon, Muhajir, Sindhi, Kashmiri, Baloch or Punjabi. The Pakistani establishment wanted to create a new identity projected through the prism of one language and culture for people with different ethnicities, which would strengthen it's unity.

In the 1960s, the Shiromani Akali Dal proposed "Punjabi Suba", a state for Punjabi speakers in India. Paul R. Brass, the Professor Emeritus of Political Science and South Asian Studies at the University of Washington, opines that the Sikh leader Fateh Singh tactically stressed the linguistic basis of the demand, while downplaying the religious basis for the demand—a state where the distinct Sikh identity could be preserved.[13] The movement for a Punjabi Suba led to trifurcation of Indian Punjab into three states: Punjab (India), Haryana and Himachal Pradesh.

  Modern Punjabi

Majhi (Standard Punjabi) is the written standard for Punjabi in both parts of Punjab. The Punjabi language as spoken in India is an amalgamation of Sanskrit vocabulary and distinctly Punjabi vocabulary. In Pakistan the overall vocabulary of Persian and Arabic origin are stronger. A close affinity exists with Punjabi and Hindi, Urdu, Sindhi and other languages dominant in India and lands which belonged to British India prior to Partition of 1947. In addition, recent modernization and industrialization has witnessed an English influence in both parts of Punjab, as Punjab has undergone scientific and technological development. "Modern Punjabi" uses the Gurmukhī script in the Indian Punjab, which was specifically developed for the Punjabi language. Pakistani Punjabis, however, use the older Shahmukhī script, which is a modified Persian-Nasta’liq script. These two scripts are considered the official scripts of the Punjabi language. In India, Punjabi is one of the 22 languages with official status in India. It is the first official language of Punjab (India). In Pakistan, even though Punjabi has no official status, it is the most spoken language and is the provincial language of Punjab (Pakistan), the second largest and the most populous province of Pakistan.

The critical point in categorizing Punjabi is that many dialects traditionally considered as Punjabi are also claimed by Saraiki. For instance, in many books Multani and Derawali are considered as dialects of Punjabi because the regions where these dialects are spoken are part of Punjab as there is no Saraiki-speaking independent province. In Pakistan, in every census before 1981/1998, there was no column for Saraiki language and the exact figures of the Punjabi speaking population, excluding the dialects of Saraiki and Pothohari[disambiguation needed ] are not confirmed. Some people claim that actually the number of speakers of Saraiki are greater than those of the standard Punjabi dialects. Modern Punjabi consists of several dialects and is rich in their use in Punjab. The famous Punjabi poets in modern times are:

  Geographic distribution

  Pakistan

  Administrative Divisions of Punjab Pakistan.

Punjabi is the most spoken language of Pakistan. Punjabi is spoken as first language by over 44.15% of Pakistanis (this figure includes those dialects of Punjabi which are also considered as Saraiki). Punjabis comprise the largest ethnic group in the country. Punjabis are dominant in key institutions such as business, agriculture, industry, government, army, navy, air force, and police which is why about 70% of Pakistanis can understand or speak Punjabi.

The Punjabi speakers in Pakistan are composed of various social groups, castes and economic groups. Muslim Rajputs, Jat, Tarkhans, Dogars, Gujjars, Gakhars, Khatri or Punjabi Shaikhs, Kambohs, and Arains, comprise the main tribes in the north, while Awans, Gardezis, Syeds and Quraishis are found in the south (Saraiki speaking area). There are Pashtun tribes like the Niazis and the lodhis, which are very much integrated into Punjabi village life. People in major urban areas have diverse origins, with many post-Islamic settlers tracing their origin to Afghanistan, Persia, Turkey, Arabia, Indus Valley civilization (Harappa and Mohenjo Daro) and Central Asia.

Census History of Punjabi Speakers in Pakistan
Year Population of Pakistan Percentage Punjabi Speakers
1951 33,740,167 57.08% 22,632,905
1961 42,880,378 56.39% 28,468,282
1972 65,309,340 56.11% 43,176,004
1981 84,253,644 48.17% 40,584,980
1998 132,352,279 44.15% 58,433,431

Source: [15] In the National Census of Pakistan (1981) Saraiki, Pahari-Potohari and Hindko (Before categorized as "Western Punjabi") got the status of separate languages, which explains the decrease of the number of Punjabi speakers.

Provinces of Pakistan by Punjabi speakers (2008)
Rank Division Punjabi speakers Percentage
Pakistan 76,335,300 44.15%
1 Punjab 70,671,704 75.23%
2 Sindh 3,592,261 6.99%
3 Islamabad Capital Territory 1,343,625 71.66%
4 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 396,085 0.97%
5 Balochistan 318,745 2.52%
6 Federally Administered Tribal Areas 12,880 0.23%

  India

  Districts of Indian Punjab along with their headquarters

Punjabi is spoken as a native language by over 2.85% of Indians. Punjabi is the official language of the Indian state of Punjab.

The Punjabis found in India are composed of various ethnic groups, tribal groups, social groups (caste) and economic groups. Some major sub-groups of Punjabis in India include Ahirs, Arora, Bania, Bhatia, Brahmin, Chamar, Gujjar, Kalals/Ahluwalias, Kambojs, Khatris, Lobanas, Jats, Rajputs, Saini, Sood and Tarkhan. Most of these groups can be further sub-divided into clans and family groups.

Most of the muslims of East Punjab (in today's states of Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Delhi and Chandigarh) left for West Punjab in 1947. However, a small community still exists today, mainly in Malerkotla, the only Muslim princely state among the seven that formed the erstwhile Patiala and East Punjab States Union (PEPSU). The other six (mostly Sikh) states were: Patiala, Nabha, Jind, Faridkot, Kapurthala and Kalsia.

Census History of Punjabi Speakers In India
Year Population of India Punjabi Speakers in India Percentage
1971 548,159,652 14,108,443 2.57%
1981 665,287,849 19,611,199 2.95%
1991 838,583,988 23,378,744 2.79%
2001 1,028,610,328 29,102,477 2.83%
2011 1,210,193,422 33,038,280 2.73%

  The Punjabi diaspora

  Southall Station (United Kingdom) sign in Gurmukhī alphabets of Punjabi language.

Punjabi is also spoken as a minority language in several other countries where Punjabis have emigrated in large numbers, such as the United States, Australia, the United Kingdom (where it is the second most commonly used language[16]) and Canada, where in recent times Punjabi has grown fast and has now become the fourth most spoken language.[17]

  List in order of native speakers

  Countries by number of Punjabi speakers
Rank Country First language
1  Pakistan 76,335,300[18]
2  India 29,109,672[19]
3  United Kingdom 800,000[citation needed]
4  Canada 367,505[20]
5  United Arab Emirates 200,000[citation needed]
6  United States 200,000[citation needed]
7  Saudi Arabia 100,000[citation needed]
8  Hong Kong 100,000[citation needed]
9  Malaysia 185,000[citation needed]
10  South Africa 30,000[citation needed]
11  Burma 120,000[citation needed]
12  France 90,000[citation needed]
13  Greece 80,000[citation needed]
14  Thailand 75,000[citation needed]
15  Japan 75,000[citation needed]
16  Mauritius 70,000[citation needed]
17  Singapore 70,000[citation needed]
18  Oman 68,000[citation needed]
19  Libya 65,000[citation needed]
20  Bahrain 60,000[citation needed]
21  Kenya 55,000[citation needed]
22  Australia 50,000[citation needed]
23  Tanzania 45,000[citation needed]
24  Kuwait 40,000[citation needed]
25  Germany 35,000[citation needed]
26  Norway 25,000
27  Denmark 15,000
28  Albania 12,000

  Dialects: linguistic classification

  Dialects of Punjabi

In Indo-Aryan dialectology generally, the presence of transitional dialects creates problems in assigning some dialects to one or another "language".[21][22] However, over the last century there has usually been little disagreement when it comes to defining the core region of the Punjabi language. In modern India, the states are largely designed to encompass the territories of major languages with an established written standard. Thus Indian Punjab is the Punjabi language state (in fact, the neighboring state of Haryana, which was part of Punjab state in 1947, was split off from it because it is a Hindi speaking region).[citation needed] Some of its major urban centers are Ludhiana, Amritsar, Chandigarh, Jalandhar, and Patiala. In Pakistan, the Punjabi speaking territory spans the east-central districts of Punjab Province. Lahore, Rawalpindi, Faislabad, Gujranwala, Sargodha, Sialkot, Jhang, Sargodha, Sahiwal, Bahawalnagar, Multan, JhelumChakwal, Mianwali and Gujrat. Lahore the historic capital of Punjab is the largest Punjabi speaking city in the world. Lahore has 86% native Punjabis of total population of the city. and Islamabad the Capital of Pakistan has 71% Native Punjabis of total population.

  Major Punjabi dialects

Majhi
The Majhi dialect is Punjabi's prestige dialect and spoken in the heart of Punjab where most of the Punjabi population lives.[citation needed] The Majhi dialect, the dialect of the historical region of Majha,[4] which spans the Lahore, Faisalabad, Sheikhupura, Kasur, Okara, Gujranwala, Wazirabad, Sialkot, Narowal, Gujrat and to some extant in Jhelum District of Pakistani Punjab and Amritsar, Tarn Taran Sahib, and Gurdaspur Districts of the Indian State of Punjab.
Shahpuri
The Shahpuri dialect is mainly spoken in Pakistani Punjab. It is named due to the town of Shahpur, currently in Sargodha district. This dialect has been spoken by the people of District Sargodha including Dera Chanpeer Shah, Khushab and northern parts of district Jhang,parts of Chiniot, Mianwali, Attock, Faisalabad (formerly Lyallpur, Ismail Khan, Dera Ghazi Khan, Bahawalnagar, Chakwal, Mandi Bahauddin districts.
Dhani
The people of Pothohar speak Pothohari dialect. However, the people of Chakwal or the Dhanni area in particular do not speak Pothohari and are ethnologically not regarded as Potoharis. They speak a distinctive Chakwali or Dhanni dialect of Punjabi, which is closer to Shahpuri, a dialect spoken in the Shahpur-Salt Range area and also has a slight element of Saraiki and Pothohari.
Jhangochi
Jhangochi dialect is spoken in Pakistani Punjab.Jaangli,Jhangvi,Rachnavi,Changvi and Chenavri are alternate names of this dialect.It is the oldest and most idiosyncratic dialect of the Punjabi. It is spoken throughout a widespread area, starting from Khanewal and Jhang at both ends of Ravi and Chenab to Gujranwala district. It then runs down to Bahawalnagar and Chishtian areas, on the banks of river Sutlej. This entire area has almost the same traditions, customs and culture. The Jhangochi dialect of Punjabi has several aspects that set it apart from other Punjabi variants. This area has a great culture and heritage, especially literary heritage, as it is credited with the creation of the famous epic romance stories of Heer Ranjha and Mirza Sahiba. It is spoken in the Bar areas of Punjab, i.e., areas whose names are often suffixed with 'Bar', for example Sandal Bar, Kirana Bar, Neeli Bar, Ganji Bar and also from Khanewal to Jhang includes Faisalabad and Chiniot.
Potwari
This dialect is spoken in north-western Pakistan. mainly The area where Pothowari is spoken extends in the north from Muzaffarabad to as far south as Jhelum, Gujar Khan and Rawalpindi. [phr] 49,440 (2000 WCD). Murree Hills north of Rawalpindi, and east to Bhimber. Poonchi is east of Rawalakot. Potwari is in the plains around Rawalpindi. Alternate names: Potwari, Pothohari, Potohari, Chibhali, Dhundi-Kairali. Dialects: Pahari (Dhundi-Kairali), Potohari , Chibhali, Punchhi (Poonchi), Jhelumi, Mirpuri. Pahari literally translates as 'mountain' referring to a string of divergent dialects, some of which may be separate languages. Lexical similarity 76% to 83% among varieties called 'Pahari', 'Potwari', and some called 'Hindko' in Mansehra, Muzaffarabad, and Jammu. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari.
Hindko
Classified under Lahnda languages by many linguists but has a strong influence by Punjabi dialects as well. Hindko dialect is spoken in north west Pakistani Punjab and North-West Frontier Province mainly this dialect is spoken in districts of Peshawar, Attock, Nowshehra, , Some parts of Chakwal, Rawalpindi, Hazara Pakistan regions, Mansehra, Balakot, Abbottabad and Murree and the lower half of Neelum Districtmirpur District saraialamgir and Muzafarabad.
Malwi
Malwi spoken in the eastern part of Indian Punjab. Main areas are Ludhiana, Moga, Sangrur, Barnala, Faridkot, Patiala, Fatehgarh Sahib, Mansa, Muktsar, Ambala, Bathinda, Ganganagar, Malerkotla, Ropar, Ferozepur. Malwa is the southern and central part of present day Indian Punjab. It also includes the Punjabi speaking northern areas of Haryana, viz. Ambala, Hissar, Sirsa, Kurukshetra etc. Not to be confused with the Malvi language, which shares its name.
Doabi
Doabi spoken in Indian Punjab. The word "Do Aabi" means "the land between two rivers" and this dialects is spoken between the rivers of Beas and Sutlej. It includes Jalandhar, Nawanshahr, Kapurthala and Hoshiarpur districts.
Pwadhi
Powadh or Puadh or Powadha is a region of Punjab and parts of Haryana between the Satluj and Ghaggar rivers. The part lying south, south-east and east of Rupnagar adjacent to Ambala District (Haryana) is Powadhi. The Powadh extends from that part of the Rupnagar District which lies near Satluj up to the Ghaggar river in the east, which separates the states of Punjab and Haryana. Parts of Fatehgarh Sahib district, and parts of Patiala districts like Rajpura are also part of Powadh. The language is spoken over a large area in present Punjab as well as Haryana. In Punjab, Kharar, Kurali, Ropar, Nurpurbedi, Morinda, Pail, Rajpura, and Samrala are the areas where the Puadhi language is spoken and the area itself is claimed as including from Pinjore, Kalka to Bangar area in Hisar district which includes even Nabha and Patiala in it.
Dogri
Although Dogri is generally considered a separate language having its own vocabulary, some sources consider it a dialect of Punjabi. It is spoken by about 3.5 million peoples in the Jammu region of India.
Saraiki or Multani
Saraiki dialect is mostly spoken in Southern regions of Pakistani Punjab. The word Seraiki did not exist before the parition of India and it was after the creation of Pakistan that some anti Punjab elements led to the movement of calling Multani a separate language rather than a dialect of Punjabi.
Punjabi University classification

Punjabi University, Patiala, State of Punjab, India takes a very liberal definition of Punjabi, the University has issued the following list of dialects of Punjabi:[23]

  The "Lahnda" construct

The name "Punjab" means "five waters" in Persian (panj ab) and refers to five major eastern tributaries of the Indus River. The historical Punjab region, now divided between Pakistan and India, is defined physiographically by the Indus River and these five tributaries. One of the five, the Beas River, is a tributary of another, the Sutlej River, and lies entirely in present day India, well within the eastern half of historical Punjab.

The British linguist George Abraham Grierson came to the conclusion that a group of dialects known collectively as "western Punjabi" spoken north and west of the Punjab heartland, in the Indus valley itself and on the lower reaches of the other four tributaries (excluding the Beas River), in fact constituted a language distinct from Punjabi. He christened this group of dialects "Lahindā" in a volume of the Language Survey of India (LSI) published in 1919.[12] (The ending has on its own given rise to a bit of terminological confusion because, since "Lahnda" is a noun, not an adjective, some linguists of India have preferred to use the adjective "Lahndi" for the sake of consistency with the way of naming the other Indo-Aryan dialects and languages.) He grouped as "southern Lahnda" the dialects that are now recognized as Saraiki. Grierson tentatively identified the boundary between Punjabi and "Lahnda" as a north-south line running from the Gujranwala District to the former Montgomery District (near the town on Sahiwal). This line lies well west of Lahore.[24]

Later dialectologists have criticized details of the Lahnda/Lahndi construct or even denied its validity entirely. For most workers in this field, however, the Lahnda controversy has had little relevance to classification of the dialects of the metropolis of Lahore and of other localities along the Pakistan-India border. In the aftermath of the Partition of 1947, some investigators supposed that the Punjabi speakers in new Pakistan might give up their native dialects and adopt one or another "Lahnda" dialect; but this did not occur.[24]

  Classification by Ethnologue

Because of the stature of Ethnologue as a widely accepted authority on the identification and classification of dialects and languages, their divergent views of the geographical distribution and dialectal naming of the Punjabi language merit mention. They designate what tradition calls "Punjabi" as "Eastern Punjabi" and they have implicitly adopted the belief (contradicted by other specialists[25]) that the language border between "Western Punjabi" and "Eastern Punjabi" has shifted since 1947 to coincide with the international border.[26]

  Examples

English Majhi, Standard Punjabi Potohari Dogri Pahari Multani Doabi
What are you doing? (Masculine) Kī karde-pae o? Ke peya kare-nanh? Ke karde o? Kā karne ū? Ke karende-vade o? Ki karda ā?
What are you doing? (Feminine) Kī kardi-paī ae? Ke paī kare-nīnh? Ke karni ae? Ka karani ae? Ke karendi-vadi ein? Ki kardi ā?
How are you? Ki hāl ae? Ke āl’ae? Ke āl’a? Ke hāl ae? Kīven hāl tuhāde? Ki hāl ā?
Do you speak Punjabi? Punjābi bol-lende o? Punjābi bolne o? Punjābi bolde o? Punjābi bolne o? Punjābi bol-leinde ve? Punjābi bol-lena?
Where are you from? Kidron ayo ? / Kithede o ? Kudhrne aiyo? Kudhrto o? Kuthe ne o? Kidon de o? Kithon ā?
Pleased to meet you. Tuānu milke bahut khushi hoyi. Tusan mile te bū-khushi oe. Tusannu milye bahut khusi oī. Tussane mili te khushi hoī. Tuaku milke baūn khushi thīe. Tuhanu milke bahut khushi hoyi.
What's your name? Tuada nān kī ae? Tusan nān ke wā? Tusanda nān ke e? Tharrake nānh e? Tuhada nān ke e? Tera nām kī e?
My name is .... Mera nān .... ae. Mara nān ... ae. Mera nān ... e. Mhara nanh ...ae. Mainda nān ... ae. Mera nām ... ā.
What is your village's name? Tuade grān’da nā kī ae? Tusane grān’nā ke ā? Tusan da grān’ke ā? Tusane grayenhna ke nānh ā? Tuhade pind da ke nā ae? Tere pind da kī nām ā?
Yes Hānji / Ahoji. Aho Ah Ahan Hānji Hānji
No Naī / Naji Nai Naī
Would you like (to eat) some sweets? Mithāī lavoge? Mithaī khāso? Kish mithāī khāni e? Mithāī khaso? Tussan mithāī ghinso? Mitha khaunge tusi?
I love you. Men tenū pyār kardā-ān (masculine)/ Men tenū pyār kardī-ān (feminine). Mai tuki pyar karna (masculine)/karni (feminine). Mai tugi pyar karna/karni. Main tuki pyar karna yan(musculine)/karni yan (feminine). main teku pyaar karda/kardi haan. Mai tuhanu pyar karda/kardi haan.
We went to the Cinema. Asīn cinema gayesā. Assā cinema gayesā. As cinema gayehe. As cinema gyeasyan. Aasan cinema gayehum. Asīn cinema gyesi / Appa cinema gyesi.
Where should I go? Menū kithe jana chaīda’ae? Me kudhar jā? Migi kuthe jāvnāh? Me kur ghachan / jullan ? Meku kitthe vanjnachaida e? Mai kithe javan?

  Phonology

Vowels
Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close
Close-mid ɪ ʊ
Mid ə
Open-mid ɛː ɔː
Open

The long vowels (the vowels with [ː]) also have nasalized versions.

Consonants
Bilabial Labio-
dental
Dental/
Alveolar
Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ɳ ɲ ŋ
Plosive and
Affricate
voiceless p ʈ t͡ʃ k
voiceless aspirated t̪ʰ ʈʰ t͡ʃʰ
voiced b ɖ d͡ʒ ɡ
Fricative (f) s (z) (ʃ) ɦ
Flap ɾ ɽ
Approximant ʋ l ɭ j
Tone

Punjabi has three phonemically distinct tones that developed from the lost murmured (or "voiced aspirate") series of consonants. Phonetically the tones are rising or rising-falling contours and they can span over one syllable or two, but phonemically they can be distinguished as high, mid, and low.

A historical murmured consonant (voiced aspirate consonant) in word initial position became tenuis and left a low tone on the two syllables following it: ghoṛā [kòːɽɑ̀ː] "horse". A stem final murmured consonant became voiced and left a high tone on the two syllables preceding it: māgh [mɑ́ːɡ] "October". A stem medial murmured consonant which appeared after a short vowel and before a long vowel became voiced and left a low tone on the two syllables following it: maghāuṇā [məɡɑ̀ːʊ̀ɳɑ̀ː] "to have something lit". Other syllables and words have mid tone.[27]

  Grammar

The grammar of the Punjabi language is the study of the word order, case marking, verb conjugation, and other morphological and syntactic structures of the Punjabi language. This main article discusses the grammar of Modern Standard Punjabi as defined by the sources cited therein.

  Writing system

There are several different scripts used for writing the Punjabi language, depending on the region and the dialect spoken, as well as the religion of the speaker. In the Punjab province of Pakistan, the script used is Shahmukhi and differs from the standard Nastaʿlīq script as it has four additional letters.[28] The eastern part of the Punjab region, located in India, is divided into three states. In the state of Punjab, the Gurmukhī script is generally used for writing Punjabi. Punjabi Hindus, who are mainly concentrated in the neighbouring Indian states such as Haryana and Himachal Pradesh, as well as the national capital territory of Delhi, sometimes use the Devanāgarī script to write Punjabi.[28]

While Punjabi GCSE and A Level qualifications are available to students in the United Kingdom; their written exam is in Gurmukhi only.[29]

  Punjabi in modern culture

Punjabi is becoming more acceptable among Punjabis in modern media and communications. Punjabi has always been an integral part of Indian Bollywood cinema. In recent years a trend of Bollywood songs written totally in Punjabi can be observed. Punjabi pop and folk songs are very popular both in India and Pakistan at the national level. A number of television dramas based on Punjabi characters are telecast by different channels. The number of students opting for Punjabi literature has increased in Pakistani Punjab. Punjabi cinema in India has also seen a revival and more and more Punjabi movies are being produced. In India, number of student opting for Punjabi Literature as optional subject in IAS examinations has increased along with success rate of the students. Punjabi music is very popular in modern times.[30].

  Sample text

  Example 1

This sample text was taken from the Punjabi Wikipedia article on Amritsar; translated to English[translation needed] and transliterated to Latin.

Gurmukhi: ਅੰਮ੍ਰਿਤਸਰ, ਮਤਲਬ "ਅੰਮ੍ਰਿਤ ਦਾ ਸਰੋਵਰ", ਪੰਜਾਬ, ਭਾਰਤ ਦਾ ਸਰਹੱਦੀ ਸ਼ਹਿਰ ਹੈ। ਇਹ ਸਥਾਨ ਸਿੱਖ ਧਰਮ ਦ ਧਾਰਮਿਕ ਅਤੇ ਸਭਿਆਚਾਰਕ ਕੇਂਦ‍ਰ ਹੈ| ਇਹ ਦੀ ਆਬਾਦੀ ਕਰੀਬ ੨੦੦੦੦੦੦ ਸ਼ਹਿਰੀ ਅਤੇ ੩੦੦੦੦੦੦ ਦੇ ਕਰੀਬ ਅੰਮ੍ਰਿਤਸਰ ਜ਼ਿਲੇ ਵਿੱਚ ੨੦੦੧ ਭਾਰਤੀ ਜਨ-ਸੰਖਿਆ ਗਣਨਾ ਅਨੁਸਾਰ ਹੈ। ਇਸ ਦਾ ਪਰਸ਼ਾਸਕੀ ਮੁੱਖ ਦਫ਼ਤਰ ਅੰਮ੍ਰਿਤਸਰ ਜ਼ਿਲਾ ਹੈ। ਇਹ ਭਾਰਤ ਦੀ ਪੰਜਾਬ ਪਰਦੇਸ਼ ਵਿੱਚ ਉੱਤਰੀ ਭਾਗ ਹੈ, ਜੋ ਕਿ ਲਾਹੌਰ ਤੋਂ 67 ਕਿਲੋਮੀਟਰ ਦੂਰ ਹੈ।

Shahmukhi: امرتسر، مطلب "امرت دا سروور"، پنجاب، بھارت دا سرحدی شہر ہے۔ ایہہ ستھان سکھی د دھارمک اتے سبھیاچارک کیند‍ر ہے| اس دی آبادی قریب 2000000 شہری اتے 3،000،000 دے قریب امرتسر ضلع وچّ 2001 بھارتی جن-سنکھیا گننا انوسار ہے۔ اس دا پرشاسکی مکھ دفتر امرتسر ضلع ہے۔ ایہہ بھارت دی پنجاب پردیش وچّ اتری بھاگ ہے، جو کہ لاہور توں 67 کلومیٹر دور ہے۔

Transliteration: ammritsar, matlab "amrit dā sarōvar", panjāb, pā̀rat dā sarhaddī shahir he. ih sathān sikkh tàram da tā̀rmik atē sàbiācārak kēnda‍r he. ih dī ābādī karīb 2,000,000 shahirī atē 3,000,000 dē karīb ammritsar zilē vicc 2001 pā̀ratī jan-sankhiā gaṇanā anusār he. is dā parshāskī mukkh daftar ammritsar zilā he. ih pā̀rat dī panjāb pardēsh vicc uttarī pā̀g he, jō ki lāhor tō᷈ 67 kilōmīṭar dūr he.

  Example 2

This sample text was taken from the Punjabi Wikipedia article on Lahore; translated to English and transliterated to Latin.

Gurmukhi: ਲਹੌਰ ਪਾਕਿਸਤਾਨ ਪੰਜਾਬ ਦਾ ਦਾਰੁਲ ਹਕੂਮਤ ਐ। ਲੋਕ ਗਿਣਤੀ ਦੇ ਨਾਲ ਕਰਾਚੀ ਤੋਂ ਬਾਅਦ ਲਹੌਰ ਦੂਜਾ ਸਬ ਤੋਂ ਵੱਡਾ ਸ਼ਹਿਰ ਐ। ਲਹੌਰ ਪਾਕਿਸਤਾਨ ਦਾ ਸਿਆਸੀ, ਰਹਤਲੀ ਤੇ ਪੜ੍ਹਾਈ ਦਾ ਗੜ੍ਹ ਐ ਤੇ ਇਸੇ ਲਈ ਇਹਨੂੰ ਪਾਕਿਸਤਾਨ ਦਾ ਦਿਲ ਵੀ ਕਿਹਾ ਜਾਂਦਾ ਏ। ਲਹੌਰ ਦਰਿਆਏ ਰਾਵੀ ਦੇ ਕੰਡੇ ਤੇ ਵਸਦਾ ਏ ਉਹਦੀ ਲੋਕ ਗਿਣਤੀ ਇੱਕ ਕਰੋੜ ਦੇ ਨੇੜੇ ਐ ।

Shahmukhi: لہور پاکستان پنجاب دا دارالحکومت اے۔ لوک گنتی دے نال کراچی توں بعد لہور دوجا سب توں وڈا شہر اے۔ لہور پاکستان دا سیاسی، رہتلی تے پڑھائی دا گڑھ اے تے ایسے لئی اینوں پاکستان دا دل وی کیا جاندا اے۔ لہور دریاۓ راوی دے کنڈے تے وسدا اے اسدی لوک گنتی اک کروڑ دے نیڑے اے ۔

Transliteration: lahor pākistān panjāb dā dārul hakūmat e. lōk giṇtī dē nāḷ karācī tō᷈ bāad lahor dūjā sab tō᷈ vaḍḍā shahir e. lahor pākistān dā siāsī, rahtalī tē paṛā̀ī dā gā́ṛ e tē isē laī ihnū᷈ pākistān dā dil vī kihā jāndā ē. lahor dariāē rāvī dē kanḍē tē vasdā ē uhdī lōk giṇtī ikk karōṛ dē nēṛē e.

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Potohari-Pahari (Northern Lahnda) dictionary by Sharif Shad

  See also

  Notes

  1. ^ a b According to the 2008 Census of Pakistan,statpak.gov.pk 44.15% of the Pakistani population speaks Punjabi natively. This translates to 76,340,000 out of a total population of 172,900,000.[dead link] According to the 2001 Census of India, there are 28 million speakers in India.[1]
  2. ^ Ernst Kausen, 2006. Die Klassifikation der indogermanischen Sprachen (Microsoft Word, 133 KB)
  3. ^ S. N. Sridhar; Yamuna Kachru (2008). Language in South Asia. Cambridge University Press. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-521-78141-1. 
  4. ^ a b "Majhi" is a word used with reference to many other places and dialects in north India; these have nothing to do with the Majhi dialect of Punjabi
  5. ^ Barbara Lust, James Gair. Lexical Anaphors and Pronouns in Selected South Asian Languages. Page 637. Walter de Gruyter, 1999. ISBN 978-3-11-014388-1.
  6. ^ [2]
  7. ^ Phonemic Inventory of Punjabi
  8. ^ Geeti Sen. Crossing Boundaries. Orient Blackswan, 1997. ISBN 978-81-250-1341-9. Page 132. Quote: "Possibly, Punjabi is the only major South Asian language that has this kind of tonal character. There does seem to have been some speculation among scholars about the possible origin of Punjabi's tone-language character but without any final and convincing answer..."
  9. ^ India's culture through the ages by Mohan Lal Vidyarthi. Published by Tapeshwari Sahitya Mandir, 1952. Page 148: "From the apabhramsha of Sauraseni are derived Punjabi, Western Hindi, Rajasthani and Gujerati [sic]..."
  10. ^ National Communication and Language Policy in India By Baldev Raj Nayar. Published by F. A. Praeger, 1969. Page 35. "...Sauraseni Aprabhramsa from which have emerged the modern Western Hindi and Punjabi."
  11. ^ The Sauraseni Pr?krit Language. "This Middle Indic language originated in Mathura, and was the main language used in drama in Northern India in the medieval period. Two of its descendants are Hindi and Punjabi."
  12. ^ a b Shackle 1970:240
  13. ^ a b Brass, Paul R. (2005). Language, Religion and Politics in North India. iUniverse. p. 326. ISBN 978-0-595-34394-2. 
  14. ^ The Adi Granth: Or The Holy Scriptures Of The Sikhs by Ernest Trumpp. 2004. ISBN 81-215-0244-6.
  15. ^ http://www.statpak.gov.pk/depts/pco/index.html
  16. ^ "Punjabi Community". The United Kingdom Parliament.
  17. ^ "Punjabi is 4th most spoken language in Canada". The Times Of India. 14 February 2008. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/Punjabi_is_Canadas_4th_most_top_language/articleshow/2782138.cms. 
  18. ^ Pakistan 1998 census – Population by mother tongue
  19. ^ Indian Census
  20. ^ Population by mother tongue in Canada
  21. ^ Masica 1991:25
  22. ^ Burling 1970:chapter on India
  23. ^ Advanced Centre for Technical Development of Punjabi Language, Literature and Culture
  24. ^ a b Masica 1991:20
  25. ^ e.g., Shackle 1970:240, Panjabi University in India, see below
  26. ^ Ethnologue country pages for Pakistan and India; page for Indo-Aryan languages
  27. ^ Harjeet Singh Gill, "The Gurmukhi Script", p. 397. In Daniels and Bright, The World's Writing Systems. 1996.
  28. ^ a b "Punjabi". University of California, Los Angeles. http://www.lmp.ucla.edu/Profile.aspx?LangID=95&menu=004. Retrieved 2009–10–31. 
  29. ^ http://web.aqa.org.uk/qual/gce/languages/panjabi_materials.php?id=09&prev=09
  30. ^ . 9 march 2011. http://www.sify.com/mobile/movies/balle-balle-punjabi-music-is-flavour-of-bollywood-news-national-ldjjEcbhfef.html. Retrieved 9 march 2011. 

Note 3 Bhatia, Tej K. 2007. Regional languages of South Asia. In: Sridhar and Kachru. Languages in South Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Note 4 Bhatia, Tej K. 2005. Punjabi, Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, 2nd Edition, pp. 291–295. Oxford: Elsevier Ltd

Note 7

Bhatia, Tej K. Punjabi: A Cognitive-Typological Study. [General Editor: Bernard Comrie], London: Routledge. 2010 [paperback] and 1993.

Bhatia, Tej K. 1996. Lexical Anaphors and Pronouns in Punjabi. In: Lexical Anaphors and Pronouns in Selected South Asian Languages, Barbara Lust et al. (eds.), 637-714. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

  References

  Further reading

  • Punjabi Phrasebook on Wikitravel
  • Bhatia, Tej. 1993 and 2010. Punjabi : a cognitive-descriptive grammar. London: Routledge. Series: Descriptive grammars.
  • Gill H.S. [Harjit Singh] and Gleason, H.A. 1969. A reference grammar of Punjabi. Revised edition. Patiala, Punjab, India: Languages Deparmtent, Punjab University.
  • Shackle, C. 1972. Punjabi. London: English Universities Press.
  • Chopra, R. M., Perso-Arabic Words in Panjabi, in: Indo-Iranica Vol.53 (1–4).
  • Chopra, R. M.., The Legacy of The Punjab, 1997, Punjabee Bradree, Calcutta.

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