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Reading, Pennsylvania

                   
Reading
—  City  —
View of Downtown Reading
Reading’s location in Berks County
Reading is located in Pennsylvania
Reading
Location in Pennsylvania
Coordinates: 40°20′30″N 75°55′35″W / 40.34167°N 75.92639°W / 40.34167; -75.92639Coordinates: 40°20′30″N 75°55′35″W / 40.34167°N 75.92639°W / 40.34167; -75.92639
Country United States
State Pennsylvania
County Berks
Founded 1748
Government
 • Mayor Vaughn Spencer (D)
Area
 • City 10.1 sq mi (26.2 km2)
 • Land 9.8 sq mi (25.4 km2)
 • Water 0.2 sq mi (0.5 km2)
Elevation 305 ft (93 m)
Population (2010)
 • City 88,082
 • Density 8,700/sq mi (3,400/km2)
 • Metro 411,442
Time zone EST (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
ZIP Codes 19601-19612, 19640
Area code(s) 610, 484
Website Official website

Reading (play /ˈrɛdɪŋ/ RED-ing) is a city in southeastern Pennsylvania, USA, and seat of Berks County.[1] Reading is the principal city of the Greater Reading Area and had a population of 88,082 as of the 2010 census, making it the fifth most populated city in the state, after Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Allentown and Erie,[2] and the sixth most-populous municipality.[3][4] According to the 2010 census, Reading has the highest share of citizens living in poverty in the nation. [5]

Overlooking the city on Mount Penn is Reading's symbol, a Japanese-style pagoda visible from almost everywhere in town and referred to locally as "The Pagoda". Built in 1908 as a hotel and restaurant, it remains a popular tourist attraction.

Another fixture to Reading's skyline is the William Penn Memorial Fire Tower; one mile from the Pagoda on Skyline Drive. Built in 1939 for fire department and forestry observation, the tower is 120 feet tall, and 950 feet elevation above the intersection of fifth and Penn Streets. From the top of the tower is a 60 mile panoramic view.

Duryea Drive, which ascends Mount Penn in a series of switchbacks, was a testing place for early automobiles and was named for Charles Duryea. The Blue Mountain Region Sports Car Club of America hosts the Duryea Hill Climb, the longest in the Pennsylvania Hillclimb Association series, which follows the same route the automaker used to test his cars.[6]

The city lent its name to the now-defunct Reading Railroad, which brought anthracite coal from the Pennsylvania Coal Region to cities along the Schuylkill River. The railroad is one of the four railroad properties in the classic United States version of the Monopoly board game. Reading was one of the first localities where outlet shopping became a tourist industry. It has been known as "The Pretzel City" because of numerous local pretzel bakeries. Currently, Bachman, Dieffenbach, and Unique Pretzel bakeries call Reading, and its surrounding areas, Womelsdorf in the case of Dieffenbach, their home.

Reading is also known for the Reading Phillies, minor league affiliate of the Philadelphia Phillies who play at Reading Metropolitan Stadium. Notable alumni are Larry Bowa, Ryne Sandberg, Mike Schmidt, Ryan Howard, and Jimmy Rollins.

The city has been the residence of numerous professional athletes. Among these native to Reading are Brooklyn Dodgers outfielder Carl Furillo, Baltimore Colts running back Lenny Moore, and Philadelphia 76ers forward Donyell Marshall.

Until the mid 1990's, Reading was the home of Joe's Restaurant - A humbly named eatery owned by Joe Czarnecki; Whose passion for fine wine and mushroom delicacies created a definitive cook book, "Joe's Book of Mushroom Cookery" and transformed the family business into a world renown institution of fine dining. It was in 1996, after Joe's passing, the family moved the restaurant to the Palmer House in Dayton, Oregon.

The open-wheel racing portion of Penske Racing had been based in Reading, Pennsylvania since 1973 with the cars, during the F1 and CART era, being constructed in Poole, Dorset, England as well as being the base for the F1 team. On October 31, 2005, Penske Racing announced after the 2006 IRL season, they would consolidate IRL and NASCAR operations at the team's Mooresville, North Carolina facility; with the flooding in Pennsylvania in 2006, the team's operations were moved to Mooresville earlier than expected.[7] Penske Truck Leasing is still based in Reading[8]

The book and movie Rabbit, Run and the other three novels of the Rabbit series by John Updike were set in fictionalized versions of Reading and nearby Shillington, called Brewer and Olinger respectively. Updike was born in Reading and lived in nearby Shillington until he was thirteen.

Six institutions of higher education serve the Reading area. The city's cultural institutions include the Reading Symphony Orchestra and its education project the Reading Symphony Youth Orchestra, the GoggleWorks Art Gallery, the Reading Public Museum and the Historical Society of Berks County.

Reading is the birthplace of graphic artist Jim Steranko, poet Wallace Stevens, Guitar Virtuoso Richie Kotzen and George Baer Hiester. John Philip Sousa, the March King, died in Reading's Abraham Lincoln Hotel in 1932. Keith Haring,[9] NFL quarterbacks Chad Henne, Kerry Collins, wide receiver Steve Kreider and country singer Taylor Swift are not from the City of Reading, but surrounding towns in Berks County.

Filmmakers Gary Adelstein, Costa Mantis, and Jerry Orr's created Reading 1974: Portrait of a City, relying heavily on montage, is a cultural time capsule.

Contents

  History

  Downtown Reading, with Berks County courthouse on the left.

In 1743, Richard and Thomas Penn (sons of William Penn the founder of Pennsylvania, and grandsons of Sir William Penn for whom Pennsylvania is named) planned the town of Reading with Conrad Weiser. Taking its name from the town of Reading in England in honor of their home, it was established in 1748. Upon the creation of Berks County in 1752 the town became the county seat.

During the French and Indian War, Reading was a military base for a chain of forts along the Blue Mountain. Meanwhile the region was being settled by emigrants from southern and western Germany. The Pennsylvanian German dialect was spoken in Reading well into the 1950s and later.

By the time of the American Revolution, the area's iron industry had a total production which exceeded England's, an output that would help supply George Washington's troops with cannons, rifles, and ammunition in the Revolutionary War. During the early period of the conflict, Reading was a depot again for military supply. Hessian prisoners from the Battle of Trenton were also detained here.

The Philadelphia and Reading Railroad (P&R) was incorporated in 1833. During the Long Depression following the Panic of 1873, a statewide railroad strike in 1877 over delayed wages led to a violent protest and clash with the National Guard in which six Reading men were killed.[10] After over a century of prosperity, the Reading Company was forced to file for bankruptcy protection in 1971. The bankruptcy was a result of dwindling coal shipping revenues and strict government regulations that denied railroads the ability to set competitive prices, required high taxes, and forced the railroads to continue to operate money-losing passenger service lines. On April 1, 1976, the Reading Company sold its current railroad interests to the newly formed Consolidated Railroad Corporation (Conrail).

  Reading's Pagoda seen from Skyline Drive

Early in the 20th century, the city participated in the burgeoning automobile and motorcycle industry, hosting the pioneer brass era companies, Daniels, Duryea and Reading-Standard.[11]

In 1914, one the anchors of the Battleship Maine was delivered from the Washington Navy Yard to City Park, off of Perkiomen Avenue. The anchor was dedicated during a ceremony presided over by Franklin D. Roosevelt, who was then assistant secretary of the navy.

Reading was home to several movie and theater palaces in the early 20th Century. The Astor, Embassy, Loew's Colonial, and Rajah Shrine Theater were grand monuments of architecture and entertainment. Today, after depression, recession, and urban renewal, the Rajah is the only to remain. The Astor Theater was demolished in 1998 to make way for The Sovereign Center. Certain steps were taken to retain mementos of the Astor; Including its ornate Art Deco chandelier and gates. These are on display and in use inside the arena corridors, allowing insight into the ambiance of the former movie house. In 2000, the Rajah was purchased from the Shriners. After a much needed restoration, it was renamed the Sovereign Performing Arts Center.

Reading experienced continuous growth until the 1930s, when its population reached nearly 120,000. From the 1940s to the 1970s, however, the city saw a sharp downturn in prosperity, largely owing to the decline of the heavy industry and railroads, on which Reading had been built, and a general flight to the suburbs.

One of the city's grandest landmarks, Stokesay Castle, was built by George Baer Hiester in 1932 as a gift for his bride, Anne. Unfortunately, Anne did not care for the replica 13th century English Manor House and rarely stayed there. Designed by architect Frederick Augustus Muhlenberg, the property was sold in 1956, and converted to a restaurant in the 1970s. In recent years Stokesay and its pub have become renown for fine wine and dining; Partly due to chef Andrea Heinly, of Hell's Kitchen fame.

In 1972, Hurricane Agnes caused extensive flooding in the city, not the last time the lower precincts of Reading were inundated by the Schuylkill River as a similar, though not as devastating, flood occurred during June 2006.

The Reading Glove and Mitten Manufacturing Company founded in 1899, just outside Reading city limits, in West Reading and Wyomissing boroughs changed its name to Vanity Fair in 1911 and is now the major clothing manufacturer VF Corp. In the early 1970s, the original factories were developed to create the VF Outlet Village, the first outlet mall in the United States. The mall is so successful that it draws hundreds of thousands of tourists to Reading every year.

The Mid-Atlantic Air Museum is a membership-supported museum and restoration facility located at Carl A. Spaatz Field. The museum actively displays and restores historic and rare war aircraft and civilian airliners. Most notable to their collection is a Northrop P-61 Black Widow under active restoration since its recovery from Mount Cyclops, New Guinea in 1989. Beginning in 1990, the museum has hosted “World War II Weekend Air Show”, scheduled to coincide with D-Day. On display are period wartime aircraft (many of which fly throughout the show) vehicles, and weapons.

The 2000 census showed that Reading's population decline had begun to reverse itself. This was attributed to an influx of Hispanic residents from New York, as well as from the extension of suburban sprawl from Philadelphia's northwest suburbs.

Like all metropolitan areas, Reading has its share of obstacles to overcome, namely crime.[12] However, new crime fighting strategies appear to be having an impact, as in 2006 the city dropped in the rankings of dangerous cities, and then again in 2007.

In December 2007, NBC's Today show featured Reading as one of the top four "Up and Coming Neighborhoods" in the United States as showing potential for a real estate boom.[13] The interviewee Barbara Corcoran chose the city by looking for areas of big change, renovations, cleanups of parks, waterfronts, and warehouses. Corcoran also noted Reading's proximity to Philadelphia, New York, and other cities. Unfortunately, the financial crisis of 2008 and subsequent nationwide recession put a damper on such optimism and in November 2011 the PBS Newshour reported that Reading was officially the poorest city in the nation with 49% of inhabitants living below the poverty line.

  Climate

Reading, Pennsylvania
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
3.7
 
37
21
 
 
2.8
 
41
23
 
 
3.6
 
50
31
 
 
3.7
 
62
40
 
 
4.5
 
72
51
 
 
4.4
 
80
60
 
 
4.1
 
85
65
 
 
3.6
 
83
62
 
 
4.4
 
76
55
 
 
3.3
 
65
42
 
 
3.5
 
54
35
 
 
3.3
 
42
26
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Source: Weather.com

The climate in and around Reading is variable, but relatively mild overall. The Reading area is generally considered to be on the northern edge of the humid subtropical climate zone, as areas just to the north are in the humid continental climate zone. Summers are very warm and humid, with average July highs around 85 °F. Extended periods of heat and high humidity do occur. On average, there are about 15–20 days per year where the temperature exceeds 90 °F. Autumn tends to be quite pleasant, as the heat and humidity of summer move out and clearer skies and lower humidity and temperatures move in. The first killing frost generally occurs in mid to late October.

Winters can occasionally be harsh, but the harsh periods are rarely long-lived. A respectable snowstorm will occur from time to time, but the harsher winter conditions experienced to the north and west don't often visit Greater Reading. It is not unusual for temperatures to fall to 0 °F at least once per winter. Average January high is around 37, average January low is around 20 °F. The all-time record low (not including wind chill) was −21 °F during a widespread cold wave in January 1994. Annual snowfall is variable, but averages around 32 inches. There may be 60 or more inches (152 cm) of snow in a winter (which is rare), as in 1993–94, 1995–96, 2002–03, and 2009–2010, but then the following winter may feature very little snowfall. Spring is variable, it may snow one day in March and then a few days later temperatures may be in the 70s. The last killing frost usually is in later April, but freezing temperatures have occurred into May. Total precipitation for the entire year is around 44 inches (112 cm).

Climate data for Reading, Pennsylvania
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 71
(22)
77
(25)
88
(31)
97
(36)
96
(36)
97
(36)
102
(39)
102
(39)
100
(38)
92
(33)
82
(28)
77
(25)
102
(39)
Average high °F (°C) 38
(3)
42
(6)
51
(11)
63
(17)
73
(23)
82
(28)
86
(30)
84
(29)
77
(25)
66
(19)
54
(12)
43
(6)
63
(17)
Daily mean °F (°C) 30
(−1)
33
(1)
42
(6)
52
(11)
62
(17)
72
(22)
76
(24)
74
(23)
67
(19)
55
(13)
45
(7)
35
(2)
54
(12)
Average low °F (°C) 22
(−6)
24
(−4)
32
(0)
41
(5)
51
(11)
61
(16)
65
(18)
64
(18)
56
(13)
44
(7)
36
(2)
27
(−3)
44
(7)
Record low °F (°C) −20
(−29)
−8
(−22)
−2
(−19)
16
(−9)
26
(−3)
39
(4)
46
(8)
42
(6)
30
(−1)
20
(−7)
8
(−13)
−4
(−20)
−20
(−29)
Precipitation inches (mm) 2.92
(74.2)
2.93
(74.4)
3.56
(90.4)
3.69
(93.7)
4.03
(102.4)
4.50
(114.3)
4.67
(118.6)
3.80
(96.5)
4.42
(112.3)
3.78
(96)
3.44
(87.4)
3.58
(90.9)
45.32
(1,151.1)
Source: The Weather Channel [14]

  Geography

Reading is located at 40°20′30″N 75°55′35″W / 40.34167°N 75.92639°W / 40.34167; -75.92639 (40.341692, -75.926301)[15] in southeastern Pennsylvania, roughly 65 miles (105 km) northwest of Philadelphia. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 10.1 square miles (26 km2). 9.8 square miles (25 km2) of it is land and 0.2 square miles (0.52 km2) of it (2.39%) is water. The total area is 2.39% water. The city is largely bounded on the west by the Schuylkill River, on the east by Mount Penn, and on the south by Neversink Mountain. The Reading Prong, the mountain formation stretching north into New Jersey, has come to be associated with naturally-occurring radon gas; however, homes in Reading are not particularly affected. The surrounding county is home to a number of family-owned farms.[citation needed]

  Economy

In 2012, the New York Times called Reading, "the nation's poorest city."[16]

According to the Reading Eagle,[17] the largest employers in the area are

# Employer # of Employees
1 The Reading Hospital and Medical Center 6,877
2 East Penn Manufacturing Co. 5,800
3 Reading School District 2,583
4 Berks County 2,494
5 Carpenter Technology Corporation 2,040
6 State of Pennsylvania 1,800
7 Wal-Mart 1,786
8 St. Joseph Medical Center 1,525
9 Redner's Markets 1,411
10 Boscov's 1,400

  Transportation

  Bus

  BARTA bus in downtown Reading.

Public transit in Reading and its surrounding communities has been provided since 1973 by BARTA, the Berks Area Regional Transportation Authority. BARTA operates a fleet of 57 buses serving 21 routes, mostly originating at the BARTA Transportation Center in Downtown Reading.

  Roadways

A number of federal and state highways allow entry to and egress from Reading. U.S. Route 222 Business is designated as Lancaster Avenue, Bingaman Street, South 4th Street, and 5th Street. U.S. Route 422 Business is designated as Penn Street, Washington Street (westbound), Franklin Street (eastbound), and Perkiomen Avenue. U.S. Route 422, the major east-west artery, circles the western edge of the city and is known locally as The West Shore Bypass. PA Route 12 is known as the Warren Street Bypass, as it bypasses the city to the north. PA Route 10 is known as Morgantown Road. From the 1960s to the late 1990s, The West Shore and Warren Street Bypasses were known locally as the 'Road to Nowhere'.

  Airlines

Reading and the surrounding area is serviced by the Reading Regional Airport, a general aviation airfield. Scheduled commercial airline service to Reading ended in 2004, though Reading is a short drive from Harrisburg International Airport, Lehigh Valley International Airport, and Philadelphia International Airport.

  Rail

Passenger trains ran between Pottsville, Reading, Pottstown and Philadelphia until July 27, 1981, when transit operator SEPTA curtailed commuter service to electrified lines. Since then, there have been repeated calls for the resumption of the sorely needed services.

In the late 1990s and up to 2003, SEPTA, in cooperation with Reading-based BARTA funded a study called the Schuylkill Valley Metro which included plans to extend both sides of SEPTA's R6 passenger line to Pottstown, Reading, and Wyomissing, Pennsylvania. The project suffered a major setback when it was rejected by the Federal Transit Administration New Starts program, which cited doubts about the ridership projections and financing assumptions used by the study. With the recent surge in gasoline prices and ever-increasing traffic, the planning commissions of Montgomery County and Berks County have teamed to study the feasibility of a simple diesel shuttle train between the Norristown/Manayunk Line and Pottstown/Reading.[18]

  Neighborhoods

  • Center City/Downtown Reading
  • East Reading
  • Southeast Reading
  • Northeast Reading
  • Northwest Reading
  • South of Penn
  • Centre Park
  • Oakbrook/Wyomissing Park
  • Millmont
  • Hampden Heights
  • Glenside
  • Northmont

  Demographics

Historical populations
Census Pop.
1790 2,225
1800 2,386 7.2%
1810 3,462 45.1%
1820 4,332 25.1%
1830 5,856 35.2%
1840 8,410 43.6%
1850 15,743 87.2%
1860 23,162 47.1%
1870 33,930 46.5%
1880 43,278 27.6%
1890 58,661 35.5%
1900 78,961 34.6%
1910 96,071 21.7%
1920 107,784 12.2%
1930 111,171 3.1%
1940 110,568 −0.5%
1950 109,320 −1.1%
1960 98,061 −10.3%
1970 87,643 −10.6%
1980 78,686 −10.2%
1990 78,380 −0.4%
2000 81,207 3.6%
2010 88,082 8.5%

As of the census[19] of 2010, there were 88,082 people, 29,979 households, and 19,257 families residing in the city. The population density was 8,988.0 persons per square mile (3,467.8/km²). There were 34,208 housing units at an average density of 3,490.6 houses per square mile (1,346.8/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 48.4% White, 13.2% African American, 0.9% Native American, 1.20% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 30.1% from other races, and 6.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 58.2% of the population.

There were 29,979 households out of which 36.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 29.8% were married couples living together, 26.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 35.8% were non-families. 42% of all households were made up of individuals and 21.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.85 and the average family size was 3.52.

In the city the population was spread out with 31.0% under the age of 18, 13.1% from 18 to 24, 26.4% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, and 9.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 28.9 years. For every 100 females there were 93.3 males. For every 100 women age 18 and over, there were 88.5 men.

The median income for a household in the city was $26,698, and the median income for a family was $31,067. Males had a median income of $28,114 versus $21,993 for females. The per capita income for the city was $13,086. 26.1% of the population and 22.3% of families were below the poverty line. 36.5% of those under the age of 18 and 15.6% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.

  Estimates

As of the American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates,[20] Reading had a population of 80,997. The racial makeup of the city was 48.8% White, 14.0% African American, 0.2% Native American, 1.4% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 31.1% from other races, and 4.5% from two or more races. 56.3% were Hispanic or Latino of any race, with 33.5% being of Puerto Rican descent. 33.0% of all people were living below the poverty line, including 42.0% of those under 18.

According to the US Census Bureau,[21] 32.9% of all residents live below the poverty level, including 45.7% of those under 18. Reading's unemployment rate in May 2010 was 14.7%, while Berks County's unemployment rate was 9.9%.[22]

  Fire Department

The city of Reading is protected by the 100 firefighters and EMT/Paramedics of the Reading Fire and EMS Department(RFD). The RFD operates out of seven fire stations (including an EMS Station), located throughout the city. It operates a fleet of 5 engines, 3 ladders, 1 rescue, 2 brush units, 1 collapse unit, 2 deputy chiefs, and 3 front-line ambulances. The department responds to about22,000 emergency calls annually.

As of April 1, 2011, Engine's 13 and 14 were disbanded due to budget cuts. Engine 13 was quartered with Engine 1 and Engine 14 was quartered with Engine 5. Also, Engine 7 was re-organized from Engine 11. Department staffing is 2 firefighters per apparatus.[23]

Engine Company Ladder Company Special Unit Command Unit Address
Engine 1 N. 8th St. & Court St.
Tower 1 Rescue 1 Platoon Chiefs Plum St. & Franklin St.
Engine 3 Ladder 1 Brush 3 Deputy Chiefs N. 3rd St. & Court St.
Engine 5 101 Lancaster Ave.
Engine 9 Ladder 3 N. 9th St. & Marion St.
Engine 7 Brush 2, Collapse 1, Ambulance 6 W. Spring St. & McKnight St.
Medic 1, Medic 2, Medic 3 Walnut St. & Reed St.

  Response Guidelines

  • Automatic Fire Alarm(AFA) Assignment:
    • 1 Engine
    • 1 Ladder
    • 1 Chief
  • 1st/Box Alarm Assignment:
    • 4 Engines(1 for R.I.T.)
    • 2 Ladders
    • Rescue
    • 1 Ambulance
    • 2 Chiefs
  • 2nd/General Alarm Assignment:
    • 1 Engine
    • 1 Ladder
    • Call-Back/Reserve Units
    • Mutual Aid Response
  • Motor Vehicle Accident(MVA)/Hazardous Materials(Haz-Mat.)/Carbon Monoxide(CO) Incident/Rescue Assignment:
    • 1 Engine
    • 1 Ladder
    • Rescue
    • 1 Ambulance
    • 1 Chief

  Education

  Reading High School

The Reading School District provides elementary and middle schools for the city's children. Numerous Catholic parochial schools are also available. It is possible to get a complete education, from kindergarten through college, on 13th Street.

Press reports have indicated that in 2012, about eight percent of Reading's residents had a college degree, compared to a national average of 28%.[24]

Five institutions of higher learning are located in Reading:

Three high schools serve the city:

  Sports

Club League Venue Established Championships
Reading Phillies EL, Baseball FirstEnergy Stadium 1967 4
Reading Buccaneers DCA, Drum & Bugle Corps 1957 10
Reading Royals ECHL, Ice hockey Sovereign Center 2001 0
Reading Express IFL, Indoor football Sovereign Center 2006 1
Reading United A.C. USL, Soccer Shirk Stadium 1996

Reading played host to a stop on the PGA Tour, the Reading Open, in the late 1940s and early 1950s. The mechanical ice cream scoop was invented in Reading by William Clewell in 1878. The 5th Ave Bar and York Peppermint Patty were invented in Reading. The first Amish community in the country was established in Greater Reading, Berks County.[25]

  Notable people

  References

  1. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. http://www.naco.org/Counties/Pages/FindACounty.aspx. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  2. ^ "Table 4: Annual Estimates of the Population for Incorporated Places in Pennsylvania, Listed Alphabetically: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2007". http://www.census.gov/popest/cities/tables/SUB-EST2007-04-42.csv. Retrieved 2011-08-29. 
  3. ^ "2009 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ADPTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=16000US4263624&-qr_name=ACS_2009_1YR_G00_DP5&-context=adp&-ds_name=&-tree_id=309&-_lang=en&-redoLog=false&-format=. Retrieved 2009-08-27. 
  4. ^ "Census Shows Reading, Berks growth spurt". http://readingeagle.com/article.aspx?id=293371. Retrieved 2011-03-13. 
  5. ^ "Reading, PA tops poverty list, census shows". http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/27/us/reading-pa-tops-list-poverty-list-census-shows.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all. Retrieved 2012-6-13. 
  6. ^ http://www.pahillclimb.org/Courses/Reading.htm
  7. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Penske_Racing
  8. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Penske_Truck_Leasing
  9. ^ "Keith Haring’s pop art celebrated in today’s Google Doodle". National Post. May 4, 2012. http://news.nationalpost.com/2012/05/04/keith-haring-google-doodle/. Retrieved May 4, 2012 
  10. ^ Zinn, Howard. A People's History of the United States 1492-Present (New York: HarperPerennial, 1995), p. 243.
  11. ^ Clymer, Floyd. Treasury of Early American Automobiles, 1877-1925 (New York: Bonanza Books, 1950), p.158.
  12. ^ City Crime Rankings by Population Group
  13. ^ Interview with Barbara Corcoran on NBC's Today show. Online. December 2007. Retrieved 27 September 2009.
  14. ^ "Climate Statistics for Reading, Pennsylvania". http://www.weather.com/weather/wxclimatology/monthly/graph/USPA1348. Retrieved March 10, 2012. 
  15. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. http://www.census.gov/geo/www/gazetteer/gazette.html. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  16. ^ The Beleaguered Middle Class, New York Times, 13 June 2012
  17. ^ "Top 25 Berks employers in 2010". http://readingeagle.com/article.aspx?id=277950. Retrieved February 18, 2011. 
  18. ^ r6extension.com
  19. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  20. ^ http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ADPTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=16000US4263624&-qr_name=ACS_2009_1YR_G00_DP5&-context=adp&-ds_name=&-tree_id=309&-_lang=en&-redoLog=false&-format=
  21. ^ "ACS Demographic and Housing Estimates 2006-2008". http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ADPTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=16000US4263624&-qr_name=ACS_2008_3YR_G00_DP3YR5&-ds_name=ACS_2008_3YR_G00_&-_lang=en&-redoLog=false&-_sse=on. Retrieved 2009-11-08. 
  22. ^ http://www.bctv.org/special_reports/economy/article_85c144ee-82fe-11df-b95b-001cc4c03286.html
  23. ^ http://www.readingpafire.com/news.html?view=1&id=38406
  24. ^ The Beleaguered Middle Class, New York Times, 13 June 2012
  25. ^ http://www.readingberkspa.com/content.asp?page=funfacts
  26. ^ a b c Reichler, Joseph L., ed. (1979) [1969]. The Baseball Encyclopedia (4th edition ed.). New York: Macmillan Publishing. ISBN 0-02-578970-8. 
  27. ^ Mr. Stephen D. Mull Nominated as New United States Ambassador to Lithuania: Biography

The Reading Phillies is Double AA Minor League Affiliate with the Phiadelphia Phillies.

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