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Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.
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|This article does not cite any references or sources. (December 2009)|
Russian: Красная гвардия
|Participant in the Russian Revolution of 1917 and Russian Civil War|
Red flags were used by guards in several modifications and variations
(became core units of the Red Army)
|Leaders||RSDLP(b) and Soviets|
|Headquarters||every major city|
|Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and Russian Republic|
|Part of||Red Army (since 1918)[when?]|
|Allies||several communist states|
|Opponents|| Russian Provisional Government
Pro-independence movements in Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
Red Guards (Russian: Красная гвардия) were paramilitary volunteer formations consisting mainly of factory workers and partially of soldiers and sailors for "protection of the Soviet power". Red Guards were a transitional military force of the falling apart the Imperial Russian Army. Most of them were formed in the time frame of the Russian Revolution of 1917 and some of the units were reorganized into the Red Army in 1918. The Red Guards formations were organized across most of the former Russian Empire, including territories outside of the contemporary Russian Federation such as Finland, Estonia, Ukraine, others.
Composing the majority of the urban population, they were the main strike force of several radically oriented socialist political factions. Red Guard units were created in March 1917 at industrial enterprises by Factory and Plant Committees and by some communist-inclined party cells (Bolsheviks, Left Socialist Revolutionaries, others). The Red Guards formations inherited from the workers strike forces of the Russian Revolution of 1905.
A number of other militarized formations created during the February Revolution, such as "people's militia" (народная милиция), created by the Russian Provisional Government, "squads of self-defence" (отряды самообороны), "committees of public security" (комитеты общественной безопасности), "workers' squads" (рабочие дружины) were gradually unified into the Red Guards.
On March 26, 1917 the Bureau of the Central Committee of the RSDRP(b) published a resolution "About the Provisional Government" since then the term, Red Guards, received the widest usage. The biggest centralized Red Guards formations were created in Petrograd and Moscow. Soon thereafter series attempts took place to legalize those formations. On April 14, 1917 the Moscow Committee of the RSDRP(b) officially adopted a resolution for creation of its Red Guard. On April 17 in Petrograd the council of workers' squads representatives created a commission for formation of workers' guards and on April 29 in the Pravda newspaper has appeared a draft of its statute.. The Vyborg raion (district) council of Petrograd on April 28 declared to transform the squads of workers' and factory militia into the Red Guard squads. On May 17 the Samara council of workers' representatives (deputies) at its session established a commission in creation of Red Guard squads. A big role in creation of the Red Guard squads played the Factory committees.. Before the April of 1917 seventeen Russian cities have created Red Guard squads which by the June increased in numbers to 24.
Red Guards were the base for the forming of the Red Army. Therefore the term is often used as just another English name for the Red Army in reference to the times of the Russian Revolution and Russian Civil War.
In Petrograd, the head of the Red Guards (30,000 personnel) was Konstantin Yurenev. At the moment of the October Revolution, the Russian Red Guards had 200,000 personnel. After the revolution, the Red Guards performed some of the function of the regular army between the time the new Soviet government began demobilizing the old Russian military and the time the Red Army was created in January 1918.
During the revolution, training of the Red Guards was arranged by the Military Organization of the RSDLP.
Enlistment was voluntary, but required recommendations from Soviets, Bolshevik party units or other public organizations. The military training of workers was often performed without disengagement from the work at plants. There were both infantry and mounted regiments. At different places the organization was nonuniform in terms of subordination, head count, degree of military training. This state was often called "half-partisan". While successful at local conflicts (e.g., with ataman Alexander Dutov in Orenburg guberniya), this loose organization was inefficient when combating larger, organized forces of the White Army. Therefore when the creation of the Red Army was decreed, Red Guards had become the Army Reserve and the base for the formation of regular military detachments.
Eduard Martynovich Dune, Notes of a Red Guard Translated by D. Koenker, S. A. Smith (1993) U. Illinois Press ISBN 978-0-252-06277-3
Rex A. Wade, Red guards and workers' militias in the Russian Revolution (1984) Stanford U. Press ISBN 0-8047-1167-4