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Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.
Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !
Change the target language to find translations.
Tips: browse the semantic fields (see From ideas to words) in two languages to learn more.
||This article needs additional citations for verification. (December 2009)|
Regietheater (German for director's theater or producer's theater) is a term that refers to the modern (mainly post-World War II) practice of allowing a director (or producer) freedom in devising the way a given opera (or play) is staged so that the creator's original, specific intentions or stage directions (where supplied) can be changed, together with major elements of geographical location, chronological situation, casting and plot. Typically such changes may be made to point a particular political point or modern parallels which may be remote from traditional interpretations.
Symptoms of Regietheater may include:
||This section may contain original research. (April 2012)|
It can be argued that Regietheater began with the work of Wieland Wagner (1917–1966), who in the years after WWII responded to the profound problematisation of his grandfather, Richard Wagner's, work that resulted from its earlier appropriation by the Nazis by designing and producing minimalist and heavily symbolic stagings of Wagner operas in Bayreuth and elsewhere. Guided by the theories of Adolphe Appia, Wieland Wagner's productions allegedly sought to emphasise the epic and universal aspects of the Wagner dramas, and were justified as being attempts to explore the texts from the viewpoint of (often Jungian) depth psychology. In practice this would mean, for example, that the opening act of Die Walküre (the second work of the Ring cycle), specifically described as set in Hunding's forest hut, was presented on a stage shaped as a large, sloping disc: no hut was either seen or implied, and the composer's many detailed instructions relating to the actions of Wehwalt, Sieglinde and Hunding within the hut were disregarded because it was said that the details of the scoring meant that they were already illustrated musically.
In 1976 the Patrice Chéreau production of the centenary Bayreuth Ring that sought to make manifest an anti-capitalist and Marxian sub-text recognized to be present in the work given the time of its original creation: following this conception, Wagner's mischievous Rhinemaiden became three ragged whores plying their trade near a hydro-electric dam, the gods are a late-19th century industrialist family, and Siegfried used an industrial steam-hammer to forge his sword.
The rise of deconstructionism gave a new lease of life to Regietheater in Europe and elsewhere. Prominent American deconstructionists include Peter Sellars and David Alden. Other directors often associated with Regietheater include Walter Felsenstein, Christopher Alden, Calixto Bieito, Harry Kupfer, David Pountney, and Claus Guth, who have applied such principles to a wide range of operas from the classical and romantic periods.
Supporters of Regietheater will insist that works from earlier centuries not only permit but even demand to be re-invented in ways that not only fit the contemporary Zeitgeist but even strive to connect them with situations and locations of which the original composers and librettists could not have conceived, thus setting the story into a context the contemporary audience can relate to.
The appointment of "celebrity" directors (often from film or other theater branches) in recent years who never learnt the specific requirements of opera direction (some of which even flaunting their inability to read music) and hide their ineptitude to psychologically direct singers behind unreflected Regietheater clichés (often involving gratuitous shock elements) has led to a general misapprehension of the Regietheater term by both theaters and critics.
It is therefore no surprise that opponents will accuse such producers of shallowness, crudity, sensationalism, lack of real creativity, insensitivity to the richness of the original setting, neglect of the role played by the music, and of pandering to the appetites of ephemeral journalism. More and more, however, critics distinguish between "proper" application of Regietheater principles, and the gratuitous use of misunderstood Regietheater stereotypes.