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Religion in the Philippines

Nuvola Philippines flag.svg
Life in the Philippines
Higher education
Martial arts

Religion in the Philippines is marked by a wide range of strongly-held spiritual beliefs. Religion holds a central place in the life of the majority of Filipinos, including Catholics, Aglipayans, Protestants, Muslims, Buddhists, animists, and Hindus.[1] It is central not as an abstract belief system, but rather as a host of experiences —rituals and adjurations that provide continuity in life, communal cohesion and moral purpose for existence. Religious associations are part of the system of vital kinship ties, patron-client bonds and other relationships outside the nuclear family.[2]

Religion in the Philippines[3]
Religion Percent
Roman Catholic
Iglesia ni Cristo
Other Christian
Other Religions
2000 census

Christianity and Islam have been superimposed on ancient traditions and acculturated. The unique religious blends that have resulted, when combined with the strong personal faith of Filipinos, have given rise to numerous and diverse revivalist movements. Generally characterised by anti-modern bias, supernaturalism, and authoritarianism in the person of a charismatic messianic figure, these movements have attracted thousands of Filipino people, especially in areas like Mindanao, which have been subjected to extreme pressure of change over a short period of time. Many have been swept up in these movements, out of a renewed sense of fraternity and community. Like the highly visible examples of flagellation and reenacted crucifixion in the Philippines, these movements may seem to have little in common with organised Christianity or Islam. In the intensely personalistic Philippine religious context, however, these are less aberrations and more of extreme examples of religion's retaining its central role in society.[2]


  Ancient indigenous beliefs

Animism, is the term used to describe the indigenous spiritual traditions practiced in the Philippines during pre-colonial times. Today, a handful of the indigenous tribes continue to practice it. The traditions are a collection of beliefs and cultural mores anchored more or less in the idea that the world is inhabited by spirits and supernatural entities, both good and bad, and that respect be accorded to them through nature worship. These spirits all around nature are known as "diwatas", showing cultural relationship with Hinduism (Devatas).

  Wooden images of ancestral spirits (anito) in a museum in Bontoc, Philippines

Some worship specific deities, such as the Tagalog supreme deity, Bathala, and his children Adlaw, Mayari, and Tala, or the Visayan deity Kan-Laon; while others practice Ancestor worship (anitos). Variations of animistic practices occur in different ethnic groups. Magic, chants and prayers are often key features. Its practitioners were highly respected[4] (and some feared) in the community, as they were healers, midwives (hilot), shamans, witches and warlocks (mangkukulam), priests/priestesses (babaylan/katalonan), tribal historians and wizened elders that provided the spiritual and traditional life of the community. In the Visayan regions, shamanistic and animistic beliefs in witchcraft (barang) and mythical creatures like aswang (vampires), duwende (dwarves), and bakonawa (a gigantic sea serpent), may exist in some indigenous peoples alongside more mainstream Christian and Islamic faiths.

In general, the spiritual and economic leadership in many pre-colonial Filipino ethnic groups was provided by women, as opposed to the political and military leadership according to men.[citation needed] Spanish occupiers during the 16th century arrived in the Philippines noting about warrior priestesses leading tribal spiritual affairs. Many were condemned as pagan heretics. Although suppressed, these matriarchal tendencies run deep in Filipino society and can still be seen in the strong leadership roles modern Filipino women are assuming in business, politics, academia, the arts and in religious institutions.

Folk religion remains a deep source of comfort, belief and cultural pride among many Filipinos.[citation needed] Nominally animists constitute about one percent of the population. But animism's influence pervade daily life and practice of the colonial religions that took root in the Philippines. Elements of folk belief melded with Christian and Islamic practices to give a unique perspective on these religions.


  Bahá'í Faith

The Bahá'í Faith in the Philippines started in 1921 with the first Bahá'í first visiting the Philippines that year,[5] and by 1944 a Bahá'í Local Spiritual Assembly was established.[6] In the early 1960s, during a period of accelerated growth, the community grew from 200 in 1960 to 1000 by 1962 and 2000 by 1963. In 1964 the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the Philippines was elected and by 1980 there were 64,000 Bahá'ís and 45 local assemblies.[7] The Bahá'ís have been active in multi/inter-faith developments. The 2005 World Christian Encyclopedia estimates the Bahá'í population of the Philippines at about 247,500.[8]


  Dominant religion by province, Christianity (blue) and Islam (green).

Christianity arrived in the Philippines with the landing of Ferdinand Magellan in 1521. In the late 16th century, soldiers and missionaries firmly planted the seeds of conversion when they officially claimed the archipelago for Spain and named it after their king. Missionary activity during the country's long colonial rule by Spain and the United States transformed the Philippines into the first and then one of the two predominantly Christian nations in East Asia, with approximately 90% of the population belonging to the Christian faith,[3] the other Christian nation being East Timor.[9]

  Catholic Church

Roman Catholicism is the predominant religion and the largest Christian denomination, with estimates of approximately 80% of the population belonging to this faith in the Philippines.[3] The country has a significant Spanish Catholic tradition, and Spanish style Catholicism is highly embedded in the culture, which was acquired from priests or friars (prayle in Filipino). This is shown in traditions such as Misa de Gallo, Black Nazarene procession, Santo Niño Festivals (Santo Niño de Cebu, Ati-Atihan and others) and Aguinaldo procession, where large crowds gather, honouring their patron saint or saints. Processions and fiestas are conducted during feast days of the patron saints of various barrios or barangays.

Every year on November 1, Filipino families celebrate the Day of the Dead, on which they spend much of the day and evening visiting their ancestral graves, showing respect and honor to their departed relatives by feasting and offering prayers. On November 1 Filipino families celebrate All Saint's Day, where they honor the saints of the Catholic Church. November 2 is All Soul's Day.

Christmas in the Philippines is a celebration spanning just more than the day itself. Christmas season starts in September. Many traditions and customs are associated with this grand feast, along with New Year. Holy Week is also an important time for the country's Catholics. To help spread the gospel, the Roman Catholic Church established the Catholic Media Network with its main TV station TV Maria as a tool for evangelization. Other large Roman Catholic television channels like Eternal Word Television Network and Familyland are also available and watched in the Philippines.

  Filipino Catholic Church

  The Birhen ng Balintawak (Our Lady of Balintawak) of the Iglesia Filipina Independiente

Philippine Independent Church more commonly known as the Iglesia Filipina Independiente, is a Christian denomination of the Catholic tradition in the form of a national church. Its separation from the Roman Catholic Church was proclaimed by the members of the first federation of labor unions in the country, the Union Obrera Democratica in 1902. Isabelo de los Reyes was one of the initiators of the separation of the church and suggested that Gregorio Aglipay be the head of the church. It is also known as the Aglipayan Church, after its first Supreme Bishop, Gregorio Aglipay.

It is the second largest Christian denomination in the Philippines, after the Roman Catholic Church, which has parishes and churches around the Philippines and parishes around the United States, Canada Europe, mostly in the United Kingdom, Sweden, Ireland and England and in Asia mostly in Northeast & Middle East. The total membership counts vary from more than 6 million members. It is in full communion with the Philippine Episcopal Church, the rest of the Anglican Communion, and the Union of Utrecht.

  Apostolic Catholic Church

The Apostolic Catholic Church (ACC) is a catholic denomination founded in the 1980s in Hermosa, Bataan. It formally separated in the Roman Catholic Church in 1992 when Patriarch Dr. John Florentine Teruel registered it as a Protestant and Independent Catholic denomination. Today, it has more than 5 million members worldwide. The largest international congregations are in Japan, USA and Canada.

  Orthodox Church

Orthodoxy has been continuously present in the Philippines for more than 200 years.[10] It is represented by two groups, by the Exarchate of the Philippines (a jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople governed by the Orthodox Metropolitanate of Hong Kong and Southeast Asia), and by the Antiochian Orthodox Christian Mission in the Philippines (a jurisdiction of the Antiochian Orthodox Church governed by the Antiochian Orthodox Archdiocese of Australia, New Zealand, and All Oceania). Today, there are about 560 Orthodox in the Philippines.[11]


Protestantism arrived in the Philippines with the coming of the Americans at the turn of the 20th century. In 1898, Spain lost the Philippines to the United States. After a bitter fight for independence against its new occupiers, Filipinos surrendered and were again colonized. The arrival of Protestant American missionaries soon followed. Protestant church organizations established in the Philippines during the 20th century include the following:

  The central temple of Iglesia ni Cristo, a Christian denomination indigenous to the Philippines

  Iglesia ni Cristo (Church of Christ)

Iglesia ni Cristo is an indigenous religious organization that originated from the Philippines.[12][13][14][15][16] The church was founded by Felix Manalo when he officially registered the church with the Philippine Government with him as executive minister on July 27, 1914 and because of this, most publications refer to him as the founder of the church. Felix Manalo claims that he is restoring the church of Christ that was lost for 2,000 years. The Iglesia ni Cristo is widely regarded as very influential due to their ability to deliver votes through block voting during elections. Their membership is not released in public but is estimated over 3 million.

  Other Christians

  • The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) in the Philippines was founded during the Spanish-American War in 1898. Two men from Utah who were members of the United States artillery battery, and who were also set apart as missionaries by the Church before they left the United States, preached while stationed in the Philippines. Missionary work work picked up after World War II, and in 1961 the Church was officially registered in the Philippines.[17] In 1969, the Church had spread to eight major islands and had the highest number of baptisms of any area in the Church. A temple was built in 1984 which located in Quezon City and another in Cebu City, completed in 2010. The Manila Missionary Training Center was established in 1983. Membership in 1984 was 76,000 and 237,000 in 1990.[citation needed] Membership was 630,000 in April 2012.[citation needed]
  • Jehovah's Witnesses in the Philippines was founded in 1912, when the then president of Watchtower Bible and Tract Society, Charles T. Russell, gave a talk at the Manila Grand Opera House.[18] In 1993, a Supreme Court case involving the Witnesses resulted in reversing a Supreme Court decision of 1959 and in upholding "the right of children of Jehovah’s Witnesses to refrain from saluting the flag, reciting the pledge of allegiance, and singing the national anthem."[19][20] As of 2011, there were 176, 001 members (known to them as publishers) of Jehovah’s Witnesses in the Philippines that make up 3, 091 congregations throughout the archipelago. Their annual observance of Memorial of Christ's death, attracted an attendance of 541, 214 in this country in 2011.[21]
  • Members Church of God International is a nontrinitarian religious organization colloquially known through its television program, Ang Dating Daan (English for the "The Old Path"). This group is an offshoot of Nicholas Perez's Iglesia ng Diyos kay Kristo Hesus Haligi at Suhay ng Katotohanan (Church of God in Christ Jesus, Pillar and Support of the Truth). The church does not claim to be part of the restorationist movement but shows characteristics of such. They accept the divinity of Christ but reject the doctrine of Trinity. They also reject various doctrines fundamental for mainstream Christianity and more notably, the Roman Catholic Church. Number of members unknown.
  • The Most Holy Church of God in Christ Jesus is a Philippine religious organization established in May, 1922 by Teofilo D. Ora.[22][23] This church is also known in the country through its radio program Ang Kabanalbanalan which airs on several radio stations nationwide. This sect also emerged from Nicolas Perez's religious group.
  • Seventh-day Adventist Church was founded by Ellen G. White, which is best known for its teaching that Saturday, the seventh day of the week, is the Sabbath, and that the second advent of Jesus Christ is imminent. As of 2007, there were 88,706 Adventist churches in the Philippines, with a membership of 571,653 and an annual membership growth rate of 5.6%.[24]
  • United Pentecostal Church International (Oneness) originated from the USA as an offshoot of the Pentecostal movements in the 1920s. The church is a proponent of the belief of modalism to describe God. They deny the Triune personhood of God.
  • Churches of Christ (Churches of Christ 33 AD/ the Stone-Campbellites) a restorationist movement that distinctly believes in a set of steps/ways to attain salvation. Among of which is the requisite to be baptized in water.
  • Universal Church of the Kingdom of God (UCKG Help Center) was founded by Edir Macedo in 1977 in Brazil. They claim that the Kingdom of God is down here and that it can offer a solution to every possible problem, depression, unemployment, family and financial problems.


  The Abu Bakar Mosque in Marawi City is the largest mosque in Lanao del Sur.

Islam reached the Philippines in the 14th century with the arrival of Malay and Javanese merchants and Muslim merchants from Malaysia and Indonesia, although the spreading of Islam in the Philippines is due to the commercial contacts between the Persian Gulf and Southeast Asia. It was the merchants of the Gulf – Arabs, Persians, Sindhis, Azeris and even Pashtuns – who brought Islam to Southeast Asia, including the Philippines.[25] There are about 5 to 10 million Muslims in the Philippines, approximately 5-10% of the total population.[26][27] Muslims make up about 20 percent of the population of the island of Mindanao,[28][29] approximately 5 million of the 25 million people on Mindanao.


Even since the 1590s some Jews fleeing from The Inquisition were recorded to have come to the Philippines. As of 2005, Filipino Jews number at the very most 500 people. As of 2011, Metro Manila boasts the largest Jewish community in the Philippines, which consists of roughly 100 families.[30]

The country's only synagogue, Beth Yaacov, is located in Makati.[30] There are, of course, other Jews elsewhere in the country,[30] but these are obviously fewer and almost all transients,[31] either diplomats or business envoys, and their existence is almost totally unknown in mainstream society. There are a few Israelis in Manila recruiting caregivers for Israel, some work in call centers, businessmen and a few other executives. A number are converts to Judaism.

  Dharmic religions


Today Hinduism is largely confined to the Indian Filipinos and the expatriate Indian community. Theravada and Vajrayana Buddhism, which are very close to Hinduism, are practiced by Tibetans, Sri Lankan, Burmese and Thai nationals. There are Hindu temples in Manila, as well as in the provinces. There are temples also for Sikhism, sometimes located near Hindu temples. The two Paco temples are well known, comprising a Hindu temple and a Sikh temple.

Hinduism and Vajrayana Buddhism has existed in the Philippines for centuries. A great deal of Philippine mythology is derived from Hindu mythology. Hinduism arrived when the Hindu religion and culture arrived from India by southern Indians to Southeast Asia from the 4th centuries to the 14th century. The Srivijaya Empire and Majapahit Empire on what is now Malaysia and Indonesia, introduced Hinduism and Buddhism to the islands.[32] Statues of Hindu-Buddhist gods have been found in the Philippines.[33]


Many Filipino customs have strong Buddhist influences. Buddhism in the Philippines is growing fast, mainly because of increasing immigration to the country. Buddhism is largely confined to the Filipino Chinese, Chinese, Japanese, Indian, Korean, Thai, and Vietnamese communities though local adherents are on the rise. There are temples in Manila, Davao, and Cebu, and other places. Several schools of Buddhism are present in the Philippines – Mahayana, Vajrayana, Theravada, as well as groups such as Soka Gakkai International.[34]

  Atheism and agnosticism

Phil Zuckerman estimated in 2007 that slightly less than 1% of the population of the Philippines were atheist,[35][36] while the Dentsu Communication Institute Inc., Research Centre for Japan said in 2006 that about 11% of the population are irreligious.[37]

Discussions on atheism are active in academic institutions such as the University of the Philippines. One of the well known atheist organizations in UP is UPAC (University of the Philippines Atheist Circle).

The advent of the Internet revolution in the 1990s was a landmark in Philippine atheism. A lot of Filipino atheist went "out" and started posting their atheism on their personal blogs. There were also groups that came out, such as "Radioactive atheist", a Yahoo atheist group created by Joebert Cuevas, Aleksi Gumela and Jose Juan "John" Paraiso in November 2002. Today there are a lot of atheist blogs and forums created by Filipinos. One of the first is Pinoy Atheist. Jose Juan “John” Paraiso created it on Feb 2005.

On February 2009, Filipino Freethinkers[38] was formed. The group, composed mostly of atheists, agnostics, and humanists, has daily discussions through its online channels, with a combined membership of more than 200 members spread across their mailing list, forum, and social networking group. Aside from weekly meetings, they have held two open forums, with a combined attendance of over 100 members.

Since March 20, 2011, the Philippine Atheists and Agnostics Society is holding its OUT Campaigns in Rizal Park and Quezon Memorial Circle. Also it held two feeding programs "Good without Religion" in Bacoor, Cavite.[39] The society also is a member affiliate and associate of various international atheist organizations such as the Atheist Alliance International, Institute for Science and Human Values, and the International Humanist and Ethical Union, as one among secular organizations that promotes free thought and scientific development in the Philippines.

  Religion and Politics

The 1987 Constitution of the Philippines declares: The separation of Church and State shall be inviolable. (Article II, Section 6), and, No law shall be made respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof. The free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship, without discrimination or preference, shall forever be allowed. No religious test shall be required for the exercise of civil or political rights. (Article III, Section 5). Joaquin Bernas, a Filipino Jesuit specializing in constitutional law, acknowledges that there were complex issues that were brought to court and numerous attempts to use the separation of Church and State against the Roman Catholic Church, but he defends the statement, saying that the fact that he [Marcos] tried to do it does not deny the validity of the separation of church and state[not in citation given].[40]

On April 28, 2004, the Philippines Supreme Court reversed the ruling of a lower court ordering five religious leaders to refrain from endorsing a candidate for elective office.[41][42] Manila Judge Conception Alarcon-Vergara ruled that the "head of a religious organization who influences or threatens to punish members could be held liable for coercion and violation of citizen's right to vote freely". The lawsuit filed by Social Justice Society party stated that "the Church’s active participation in partisan politics, using the awesome voting strength of its faithful flock, will enable it to elect men to public office who will in turn be forever beholden to its leaders, enabling them to control the government". They claimed that this violates the Philippine constitution's separation of Church and State clause. The named respondents were Roman Catholic Archbishop of Manila Jaime Cardinal Sin, El Shaddai Movement Leader Mike Velarde, Iglesia ni Cristo executive minister Eraño Manalo, Jesus Is Lord Church leader Eddie Villanueva and Members Church of God International leader Eliseo Soriano. Manalo's Iglesia ni Cristo practices bloc voting. Cardinal Sin was instrumental in rallying support for the assumption to power of Corazon Aquino and Gloria Arroyo. Velarde supported Fidel Ramos, Joseph Estrada and Gloria Arroyo while Villanueva endorsed Fidel Ramos and Jose De Venecia. The papal nuncio agreed with the decision of the lower court[43] while the other respondents challenged the decision.[44][45]

  See also


  1. ^ The Indian in the Filipino – INQUIRER.net, Philippine News for Filipinos. Globalnation.inquirer.net. Retrieved on 2012-03-27.
  2. ^ a b Ronald E. Dolan, ed. (1991). "Religion". Philippines: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress. http://countrystudies.us/philippines/45.htm. Retrieved 2009-01-08. 
  3. ^ a b c Philippines, CIA Factbook/
  4. ^ Indian Origins of Filipino Customs. Vedic Empire. Retrieved on 2012-03-27.
  5. ^ Hassall, Graham; Austria, Orwin (January 2000). "Mirza Hossein R. Touty: First Bahá'í known to have lived in the Philippines". Essays in Biography. Asia Pacific Bahá'í Studies. http://bahai-library.com/hassall_austria_hossein_touty. Retrieved 2008-06-01. 
  6. ^ Effendi, Shoghi (1944). God Passes By. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. ISBN 0-87743-020-9. http://reference.bahai.org/en/t/se/GPB/. 
  7. ^ Universal House of Justice (198). In Memorium. XVIII. Bahá'í World Centre. Table of Contents and pp.513, 652–9. ISBN 0-85398-234-1. http://bahai-library.com/books/bw18/636-665.html. 
  8. ^ "Most Baha'i Nations (2005)". QuickLists > Compare Nations > Religions >. The Association of Religion Data Archives. 2005. http://www.thearda.com/QuickLists/QuickList_40c.asp. Retrieved 2009-07-04. 
  9. ^ Timor-Leste, CIA Factbook/
  10. ^ "Orthodox Christians in Philippines". Orthodox Church in the Philippines. http://www.orthodox.org.ph/content/view/583/1/. Retrieved 2007-08-02. 
  11. ^ Article Provided By Rev. Philemon Castro. "The Orthodox Church In The Philippines". Dimitris Papadias, Professor at the Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Hong Kong. http://www.cs.ust.hk/faculty/dimitris/metro/Phil_history.html. Retrieved 2007-08-02. 
  12. ^ "Iglesia ni Kristo". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/282267/Iglesia-ni-Kristo. Retrieved 2008-11-05. 
  13. ^ Sanders, Albert J., "An Appraisal of the Iglesia ni Cristo," in Studies in Philippine Church History, ed. Anderson, Gerald H. (Cornell University Press, 1969)
  14. ^ Bevans, Stephen B.; Schroeder, Roger G.. Constants in Context: A Theology of Mission for Today (American Society of Missiology Series). Orbis Books. p. 269. ISBN 1-57075-517-5. 
  15. ^ Carnes, Tony; Yang, Fenggang (2004). Asian American religions: the making and remaking of borders and boundaries. New York: New York University Press. p. 352. ISBN 978-0-8147-1630-4. 
  16. ^ Kwiatkowski, Lynn M.. Struggling With Development: The Politics Of Hunger And Gender In The Philippines. Westview Press. p. 286. ISBN 978-0-8133-3784-5. 
  17. ^ "New Temple Announcement Answers Members’ Prayers". News of the Church. Liahona. September 2006. http://lds.org/ldsorg/v/index.jsp?vgnextoid=f318118dd536c010VgnVCM1000004d82620aRCRD&locale=0&sourceId=f6416860ec8ad010VgnVCM1000004d82620a____&hideNav=1. Retrieved 2008-11-23. 
  18. ^ 2003 Yearbook of Jehovah’s Witnesses, p.154
  19. ^ Awake! January 8, 1994, p.22
  20. ^ G.R. No. 95770 March 1, 1993. Chanrobles.com. Retrieved on 2012-03-27.
  21. ^ Jehovah's Witnesses 2011 Worldwide Report. Watchtower.org. Retrieved on 2012-03-27.
  22. ^ "List of websites of other Religions in the Philippines". PinoySites.org. http://www.pinoysites.org/phil1197.htm. Retrieved 2007-08-07. 
  23. ^ "Christian Flags". flagspot.net. http://flagspot.net/flags/rel-mhcg.html. Retrieved 2007-08-07. 
  24. ^ Philippines, Adventist Atlas.
  25. ^ M.R. Izady. "The Gulf's Ethnic Diversity: An Evolutionary History. in G. Sick and L. Potter, eds., Security in the Persian Gulf Origins, Obstacles, and the Search for Consensus,(NYC: Palgrave, 2002)
  26. ^ http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/irf/2004/35425.htm
  27. ^ http://www.army.mil.ph/OG5_articles/understanding.htm
  28. ^ http://www.pdf.ph/downloads/MindaPDFfinal%283-17-08%29.pdf
  29. ^ http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/irf/2004/35425.htm
  30. ^ a b c Philippines Jewish Community. Jewishtimesasia.org. Retrieved on 2012-03-27.
  31. ^ Schlossberger, E. Cauliflower and Ketchup.
  32. ^ "History of Buddhism". Buddhism in the Philippines. http://sanghapinoy.bravehost.com/history.htm. Retrieved 2008-03-16. 
  33. ^ Thakur, Upendra (1986). Some Aspects of Asia and Culture. Abhinav Publications. 
  34. ^ "History; Philippines". Sangha Pinoy. http://sanghapinoy.bravehost.com/directory.htm/. Retrieved 2008-05-13. [dead link]
  35. ^ Zuckerman, Phil (2008). Society Without God: What the Least Religious Nations Can Tell Us About Contentment. NYU Press. ISBN 978-0-8147-9714-3. http://books.google.com/?id=mwmJ4FwuF2YC. 
  36. ^ Zuckerman, Phil (2007). "Atheism : Contemporary Numbers and patterns". In Martin, Michael. The Cambridge companion to atheism. Cambridge University Press. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-521-84270-9. http://books.google.com/books?id=tAeFipOVx4MC&pg=PA47. 
  37. ^ Dentsu Communication Institute Inc., Research Centre for Japan (2006)(Japanese)
  38. ^ "Filipino Freethinkers Official Website". http://filipinofreethinkers.org. Retrieved 2009-08-20. 
  39. ^ Catholic Philippines gains its first atheist society. Freethinker.co.uk. Retrieved on 2012-03-27.
  40. ^ Bernas 1995, p. 86[citation needed]
  41. ^ Philippine Daily Inquirer. News.google.com (2004-05-01). Retrieved on 2012-03-27.
  42. ^ Velarde vs Social Justice Society : 159357 : April 28, 2004 : J. Panganiban : En Banc : Decision. Sc.judiciary.gov.ph. Retrieved on 2012-03-27.
  43. ^ No role for Church in politics. Manila Standard. June 22, 2003
  44. ^ Philip C. Tubeza Iglesia appeals court ruling infringing on group's belief. Philippine Daily Inquirer. July 20, 2003
  45. ^ SC ruling sought on sect's vote. Philippine Daily Inquirer. April 1, 2004


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