1.a butt set on end to contain water especially to store rainwater
2.a container that is used to put or keep things in
3.tank used for collecting and storing a liquid (as water or oil)
4.lake used to store water for community use
5.anything (a person or animal or plant or substance) in which an infectious agent normally lives and multiplies"an infectious agent depends on a reservoir for its survival"
6.a large or extra supply of something"a reservoir of talent"
7.a large (usually metallic) vessel for holding gases or liquids
ReservoirRes"er*voir` (rĕz"ẽr*vwôr`; 277), n. [F. réservoir, fr. LL. reservatorium. See Reservatory.]
1. A place where anything is kept in store; especially, a place where water is collected and kept for use when wanted, as to supply a fountain, a canal, or a city by means of aqueducts, or to drive a mill wheel, or the like.
2. (Bot.) A small intercellular space, often containing resin, essential oil, or some other secreted matter.
3. (Med.) a large quantity of infectious microorganisms resident in animals other than man, potentially capable of being transmitted to humans.
3. (Med.) a large quantity of infectious microorganisms or parasites resident in animals other than man, potentially capable of being transmitted to humans; especially, such organisms in animals where they do little or no harm to the host.
4. a large supply or stock of anything which may be rapidly put to use; a reserve.
Receiving reservoir (Water Works), a principal reservoir into which an aqueduct or rising main delivers water, and from which a distributing reservoir draws its supply.
definition of Wikipedia
Agden Reservoir • Alwen Reservoir • Amaravathi Reservoir • Amistad Reservoir • Anglezarke Reservoir • Ardingly Reservoir • Arlington Mill Reservoir • Ashokan Reservoir • Audenshaw reservoir • Aurora Reservoir • Ayers Island Reservoir • Baldwin Hills Reservoir • Balimela Reservoir • Barby Storage Reservoir • Barossa Reservoir • Batak Reservoir • Bear Creek Reservoir • Bellamy Reservoir • Belmeken Reservoir • Belvide Reservoir • Bittell Reservoir • Blackwater Reservoir • Blithfield Reservoir • Blue Mesa Reservoir • Bratsk Reservoir • Brent Reservoir • Brokopondo Reservoir • Burnhope Reservoir • Cedar Creek Reservoir • Cerros Colorados reservoir • Cheddar Reservoir • Chew Magna Reservoir • Chew Reservoir (Greater Manchester) • Choke Canyon Reservoir • Clear Lake Reservoir • Clywedog reservoir • Comerford Reservoir • Courtright Reservoir • Cray Reservoir • Crescent Hill Reservoir • Cutler Reservoir • Dale Hollow Reservoir • Dalecarlia Reservoir • Damflask Reservoir • Deer Creek Dam and Reservoir • Deering Reservoir • Derwent Reservoir • Derwent Reservoir (Derbyshire) • Devilbend Reservoir • Dillon Reservoir • Dnieper Reservoir • Dniprodzerzhynsk Reservoir • Don Pedro Reservoir • Dospat Reservoir • Drift Reservoir • Dubossary HPS reservoir • Dushantsi Reservoir • East Branch Reservoir • Eccup reservoir • El Capitan Reservoir • Errwood Reservoir • Eyebrook Reservoir • Farmoor Reservoir • Fernilee Reservoir • Fontenelle Reservoir • Fort Canning Reservoir • Foster Reservoir • Frankley Reservoir • Furnas Reservoir • Gailey Reservoir • Georgetown Reservoir • Gibson Reservoir • Goshen Reservoir • Green tree reservoir • Gryffe Reservoir • Happy Valley Reservoir • Hell Hole Reservoir • High Island Reservoir • Hok Tau Reservoir • Howden Reservoir • Iskar Reservoir • Jubilee Reservoir • Jublilee Reservoir • Ka Loko Reservoir • Kakhovka Reservoir • Kaniv Reservoir • Kardzhali Reservoir • Kaunas Reservoir • Kiev Reservoir • Kowloon Byewash Reservoir • Kowloon Reception Reservoir • Kranji Reservoir • Kremenchuk Reservoir • Kuybyshev Reservoir • Ladybower Reservoir • Lifford Reservoir • Lower Bittell Reservoir • Lower Seletar Reservoir • Lusk Reservoir • Mammoth Pool Reservoir • McGee Bend Reservoir • McIndoes Reservoir • McMillan Reservoir • McPhee Reservoir • Megget Reservoir • Merrill Creek Reservoir • Miramar Reservoir • Mona Reservoir • Moore Reservoir • Morris Reservoir • Mount Bold Reservoir • Neversink Reservoir • New Bullards Bar Reservoir • New Spicer Meadow Reservoir • Norton Reservoir • Novosibirsk Reservoir • Pasarel Reservoir • Pechiparai Reservoir • Pechipparai Reservoir • Pepacton Reservoir • Perry Barr Reservoir • Petroleum reservoir • Pitsford Reservoir • Poechos Reservoir • Pok Fu Lam Reservoir • Pokfulam Reservoir • Pontook Reservoir • Prettyboy Reservoir • Pulau Tekong Reservoir • Quemahoning Reservoir • Red Bluff Reservoir • Reservoir (disambiguation) • Reservoir Dogs • Reservoir Dogs (video game) • Reservoir High School • Reservoir Hill, Baltimore • Reservoir Songs • Reservoir capacitor • Reservoir petrophysics • Reservoir war • Ridgway Reservoir • Rockport Reservoir • Rondout Reservoir • Round Valley Reservoir • Roundhill Reservoir • Rybinsk Reservoir • Salinas Reservoir • Salt Springs Reservoir • Sam Rayburn Reservoir • San Luis Reservoir • Sarsang reservoir • Schoharie Reservoir • Seven Oaks Reservoir • Shek Lei Pui Reservoir • Shek Pik Reservoir • Shellmouth Reservoir • Shing Mun (Jubilee) Reservoir • Shing Mun Reservoir • Silvan Reservoir • Six Mile Run Reservoir Site • Smallwood Reservoir • South Para Reservoir • Stanley Reservoir • Stevens Creek Reservoir • Stony River Reservoir • Strawberry Reservoir • Tai Tam Byewash Reservoir • Tai Tam Intermediate Reservoir • Tai Tam Reservoir • Tai Tam Reservoir Group • Talla Reservoir • Taylor Park Reservoir • Tengeh Reservoir • Thippagondanahalli Reservoir • Titicus Reservoir • Tooma Reservoir • Truman Reservoir • Tryweryn Reservoir • Tsimlyansk Reservoir • Tsonevo Reservoir • Tuckertown Reservoir • Tunnel and Reservoir Plan • Twitchell Reservoir • Union Valley Reservoir • Upper Bittell Reservoir • Upper Seletar Reservoir • Usk Reservoir • Vacha Reservoir • Wachusett Reservoir • Weare Reservoir • Westcott Reservoir • Whale Rock Reservoir • Wheatland Reservoir • Whiteface Reservoir, Minnesota • Wistlandpound Reservoir • Woodland Reservoir • Wychall Reservoir • Ypres Reservoir Commonwealth War Graves Commission Cemetery • Zegrze Reservoir
objet que l'on peut remplir (fr)[ClasseParExt.]
chose qui contient qqch (fr)[ClasseParExt...]
moteur thermique (fr)[Thème]
véhicule automobile (fr)[DomainDescrip.]
chose en creux, courbe, concave (fr)[ClasseParExt.]
reservoir, storage tank, tank[Hyper.]
fund, stock, store, supply[Hyper.]
reservoir, storage tank, tank[Dérivé]
A reservoir (etymology: from French réservoir a "storehouse" ), artificial lake or impoundment from a dam is used to store water. Reservoirs may be created in river valleys by the construction of a dam or may be built by excavation in the ground or by conventional construction techniques such as brickwork or cast concrete.
A dam constructed in a valley relies on the natural topography to provide most of the basin of the reservoir. Dams are typically located at a narrow part of a valley downstream of a natural basin. The valley sides act as natural walls with the dam located at the narrowest practical point to provide strength and the lowest practical cost of construction. In many reservoir construction projects people have to be moved and re-housed, historical artifacts moved or rare environments relocated. Examples include the temples of Abu Simbel ( which were moved before the construction of the Aswan Dam to create Lake Nasser from the Nile in Egypt ) and the re-location of the village of Capel Celyn during the construction of Llyn Celyn.
In hilly regions reservoirs are often constructed by enlarging existing lakes. Sometimes in such reservoirs the new top water level exceeds the watershed height on one or more of the feeder streams such as at Llyn Clywedog in Mid Wales. In such cases additional side dams are required to contain the reservoir.
Where the topography is poorly suited to a single large reservoir, a number of smaller reservoirs may be constructed in a chain such as in the River Taff valley where the three reservoirs Llwyn-on Reservoir, Cantref Reservoir and Beacons Reservoir form a chain up the valley.
Where water is taken from a river of variable quality or quantity, bank-side reservoirs may be constructed to store the water pumped or siphoned from the river. Such reservoirs are usually built partly by excavation and partly by the construction of a complete encircling bund or embankment which may exceed 6 km in circumference. Both the floor of the reservoir and the bund must have an impermeable lining or core, often made of puddled clay. The water stored in such reservoirs may have a residence time of several months during which time normal biological processes are able to substantially reduce many contaminants and almost eliminate any turbidity. The use of bank-side reservoirs also allows a water abstraction to be closed down for extended period at times when the river is unacceptably polluted or when flow conditions are very low due to drought. The London water supply system is one example of the use of bank-side storage for all the water taken from the River Thames and River Lee with many large reservoirs such as Queen Mary Reservoir visible along the approach to London Heathrow Airport.
Service reservoirs store fully treated potable water close to the point of distribution. Many service reservoirs are constructed as water towers, often as elevated structures on concrete pillars where the landscape is relatively flat. Other service reservoirs are entirely underground, especially in more hilly or mountainous country. In the United Kingdom, Thames Water has many underground reservoirs built in the 1800s by the Victorians, most of which are lined with brick. A good example is the Honor Oak Reservoir, constructed between 1901 and 1909. When it was completed it was the largest brick built underground reservoir in the world and is still one of the largest in Europe. The reservoir now forms part of the Southern extension of the Thames Water Ring Main. The top of the reservoir has been grassed over and is now the Aquarias Golf Club.
Service reservoirs perform several functions including ensuring sufficient head of water in the water distribution system and providing hydraulic capacitance in the system to even out peak demand from consumers enabling the treatment plant to run at optimum efficiency. Large service reservoirs can also be managed to so that energy costs in pumping are reduced by concentrating refilling activity at times of day when power costs are low.
Dry climate and water scarcity in India led to early development of water management techniques, including the building of a reservoir at Girnar in 3000 BC. Artificial lakes dating to the 5th century BC have been found in ancient Greece. An artificial lake in present-day Madhya Pradesh province of India, constructed in the 11th century, covered 650 square metres (7,000 sq ft).
In Sri Lanka large reservoirs have been created by ancient Sinhalese kings in order to save the water for irrigation. The famous Sri Lankan king Parākramabāhu I of Sri Lanka stated " do not let a drop of water seep into the ocean without benefiting mankind ". He created the reservoir named Parakrama Samudra(sea of King Parakrama), which has astonished archaeologists.[original research?]
Many dammed river reservoirs and most bank-side reservoirs are used to provide the raw water feed to a water treatment plant which delivers drinking water through water mains. The reservoir does not simply hold water until it is needed; it can also be the first part of the water treatment process. The time the water is held for before it is released is known as the retention time. This is a design feature that allows particles and silts to settle out, as well as time for natural biological treatment using algae, bacteria and zooplankton that naturally live within the water. However natural limnological processes in temperate climate lakes produces temperature stratification in the water body which tends to partition some elements such as manganese and phosphorus into deep, cold anoxic water during the summer months. In the autumn and winter the lake becomes fully mixed again. During drought conditions, it is sometimes necessary to draw down the cold bottom water and the elevated levels of manganese in particular can cause problems in water treatment plants.
A reservoir generating hydroelectricity includes turbines connected to the retained water body by large-diameter pipes. These generating sets may be at the base of the dam or some distance away. Some reservoirs generating hydroelectricity use pumped re-charge in which a high-level reservoir is filled with water using high-performance electric pumps at times when electricity demand is low and then uses this stored water to generate electricity by releasing the stored water into a low-level reservoir when electricity demand is high. Such systems are called pump-storage schemes.
Reservoirs can be used in a number of ways to control how water flows through downstream waterways.
Reservoirs can be used to balance the flow in highly managed systems, taking in water during high flows and releasing it again during low flows. In order for this to work without pumping requires careful control of water levels using adjustable sluices. Accurate weather forecasts are essential so that dam operators can plan drawdowns prior to a high rainfall or snowmelt event. Dam operators blamed a faulty weather forecast on the 2010–2011 Queensland floods. Examples of highly managed Reservoirs are Burrendong Dam in Australia and Llyn Tegid in North Wales. Llyn Tegid is a natural lake whose level was raised by a low dam and into which the River Dee flows or discharges depending upon flow conditions at the time as part of the River Dee regulation system. This mode of operation is a form of hydraulic capacitance in the river system.
The water bodies provided by many reservoirs often allow some recreational uses such as fishing, boating, and other activities. Special rules may apply for the safety of the public and to protect the quality of the water and the ecology of the surrounding area. Many reservoirs now support and encourage less informal and less structured recreation such as natural history, bird watching, landscape painting, walking and hiking and often provide information boards and interpretation material to encourage responsible use.
Water falling as rain upstream of the reservoir together with any groundwater emerging as springs is stored in the reservoir. Any excess water can be spilled via a specifically designed spillway. Stored water may be piped by gravity for use as drinking water, to generate hydro-electricity or to maintain river flows to support downstream uses. Occasionally reservoirs can be managed to retain high rain-fall events to prevent or reduce downstream flooding. Some reservoirs support several uses and the operating rules may be complex.
Most modern reservoirs have a specially designed draw-off tower that can discharge water from the reservoir at different levels both to access water as the reservoir draws down but also to allow water of a specific quality to be discharged into the downstream river as compensation water.
The operators of many upland or in-river reservoirs have obligations to release water into the downstream river to maintain river quality, support fisheries, maintain downstream industrial uses. maintain recreational use or for a range of other requirements. Such releases are known as compensation water.
The terminology for reservoirs varies from country to country. In most of the world reservoir areas are expressed in km2 whilst in the USA acres are commonly used. For volume either m3 or km3 are widely used with acre feet used in the USA.
The capacity, volume or storage of a reservoir is usually divided into distinguishable areas. Dead or inactive storage refers to water in a reservoir that cannot be drained by gravity through a dam's outlet works, spillway or power plant intake and can only be pumped out. Dead storage allows sediments to settle which improves water quality and also creates hydraulic head along with an area for fish during low levels. Active or live storage is the portion of the reservoir that can be utilized for flood control, power production, navigation and downstream releases. In addition, a reservoir's flood control capacity is the amount of water it can regulate during flooding. The surcharge capacity is the capacity of the reservoir above the spillway crest that cannot be regulated.
In the UK top water level describes the reservoir full state whist fully drawn down describes the minimum retained volume.
There is a wide variety of software for modelling reservoirs, from the specialist Dam Safety Program Management Tools (DSPMT) to the relatively simple WAFLEX, to integrated models like the Water Evaluation And Planning system (WEAP) that place reservoir operations in the context of system-wide demands and supplies.
Whilst much of the effort is directed at the dam and its associated structures as the weakest part of the overall structure, the aim of such controls is to prevent an uncontrolled release of water from the reservoir. Reservoir failures can generate huge increases in flow down a river valley with the potential to wash away towns and villages and cause considerable loss of life such as the devastation following the failure of containment at Llyn Eigiau which killed 17 people.(see also List of dam failures)
A notable case of reservoirs being used as an instrument of War involved the British Royal Air Force Dambusters raid on Germany in World War II (codenamed "Operation Chastise" ), in which three German reservoir dams were selected to be breached in order to impact on German infrastructure and manufacturing and power capabilities deriving from the Ruhr and Eder rivers. The economic and social impact was derived from the enormous volumes of previously stored water that swept down the valleys wreaking destruction. This raid later became the basis for several films.
All reservoirs will have a monetary cost/benefit assessment made before construction to see if the project is worth proceeding with. However, such analysis can often omit the environmental impacts of dams and the reservoirs that they contain. Some impacts such as the greenhouse gas production associated with concrete manufacture are relatively easy to estimate. Other impact on the natural environment and social and cultural effects can be more difficult to assess and to weigh in the balance but identification and quantification of these issues are now commonly required in major construction projects in the developed world 
Depending upon the circumstances, a reservoir built for hydro-electricity generation can either reduce or increase the net production of greenhouse gases. An increase can occur if plant material in the flooded areas decays in an anaerobic environment releasing (methane and carbon dioxide). This apparently counterintuitive position arises because much carbon is released as methane which is approximately 8 times more potent as a greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide 
A study for the National Institute for Research in the Amazon found that Hydroelectric reservoirs release a large pulse of carbon dioxide from above-water decay of trees left standing in the reservoirs, especially during the first decade after closing. This elevates the global warming impact of the dams to levels much higher than would occur by generating the same power from fossil fuels. According to the World Commission on Dams report (Dams And Development), when the reservoir is relatively large and no prior clearing of forest in the flooded area was undertaken, greenhouse gas emissions from the reservoir could be higher than those of a conventional oil-fired thermal generation plant. For instance, In 1990, the impoundment behind the Balbina Dam in Brazil (inaugurated in 1987) had over 20 times the impact on global warming than would generating the same power from fossil fuels, due to the large area flooded per unit of electricity generated.
A decrease can occur if the dam is used in place of traditional power generation, since electricity produced from hydroelectric generation does not give rise to any flue gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion (including sulfur dioxide, nitric oxide and carbon monoxide from coal). The Tucurui dam in Brazil (closed in 1984) had only 0.4 times the impact on global warming than would generating the same power from fossil fuels.
Dams can produce a block for migrating fish, trapping them in one area, producing food and a habitat for various water-birds. They can also flood various ecosystems on land and may cause extinctions.
Dams can severely reduce the amount of water reaching countries downstream of them, causing water stress between the countries, e.g. the Sudan and Egypt, which damages farming businesses in the downstream countries, and reduces drinking water.
Farms and villages, e.g. Ashopton can be flooded by the creation of reservoirs, ruining many livelihoods. For this very reason, worldwide 80 million people (figure is as of 2009, from the Edexcel GCSE Geography textbook) have had to be forcibly relocated due to dam construction.
The limnology of reservoirs has many similarities to that of lakes of equivalent size. There are however significant differences. Many reservoirs experience considerable variations in level producing significant areas that are intermittently underwater or dried out. This greatly limits the productivity or the water margins and limits the number of species able to survive in these conditions.
Upland reservoirs tend to have a much shorter residence time than natural lakes and this can lead to more rapid cycling of nutrients through the water body so that they are more quickly lost to the system. This may be seen as a mismatch between water chemistry and water biology with a tendency for the biological component to be more oligotrophic than the chemistry would suggest.
Conversely, lowland reservoirs drawing water from nutrient rich rivers, may show exaggerated eutrophic characteristics because the residence time in the reservoir is much greater than in the river and the biological systems have a much greater opportunity to utilise the available nutrients.
Deep reservoirs with multiple level draw off towers can discharge deep cold water into the downstream river greatly reducing the size of any hypolimnion. This in turn can reduce the concentrations of phosphorus released during any annual mixing event and may therefore reduce productivity.
The filling (impounding) of reservoirs has often been attributed to reservoir-triggered seismicity (RTS) as seismic events have occurred near large dams or within their reservoirs in the past. These events may have been triggered by the filling or operation of the reservoir and are on a small scale when compared to the amount of reservoirs worldwide. Of over 100 recorded events, early examples include the 60 m (197 ft) tall Marathon Dam in Greece (1929), the 221 m (725 ft) tall Hoover Dam in the U.S. (1935). Most events involve large dams and small amounts of seismicity. The only four recorded events above a 6.0-magnitude (Mw) are the 103 m (338 ft) tall Koyna Dam in India which registered a Mw of 6.3 along with the 120 m (394 ft) Kremasta Dam in Greece which registered a 6.3-Mw as well. Following those two, the next largest were the 122 m (400 ft) high Kariba Dam in Zambia at 6.25-Mw and the 105 m (344 ft) Xinfengjiang Dam in China at 6.1-Mw. Disputes occur over when RTS has occurred due to a lack of hydrogeological knowledge at the time of the event. It is accepted though that the infiltration of water into pores and the weight of the reservoir do contribute to RTS patterns. For RTS to occur, there must be a seismic structure near the dam or its reservoir and the seismic structure must be close to failure. Additionally, water must be able to infiltrate the deep rock stratum as the weight of a 100 m (328 ft) deep reservoir will have little impact when compared the deadweight of rock on a crustal stress field which may be located at a depth of 10 km (6 mi) or more.
Reservoirs may change the local micro-climate increasing humidity and reducing extremes of temperature. Such effects are claimed by some South Australian winerys as increasing the quality of the wine production.
The following are the world's ten largest reservoirs by surface area:
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Reservoirs|
Dictionary and translator for handheld
New : sensagent is now available on your handheld
A windows (pop-into) of information (full-content of Sensagent) triggered by double-clicking any word on your webpage. Give contextual explanation and translation from your sites !
With a SensagentBox, visitors to your site can access reliable information on over 5 million pages provided by Sensagent.com. Choose the design that fits your site.
Improve your site content
Add new content to your site from Sensagent by XML.
Crawl products or adds
Get XML access to reach the best products.
Index images and define metadata
Get XML access to fix the meaning of your metadata.
Please, email us to describe your idea.
Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.
Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !
Change the target language to find translations.
Tips: browse the semantic fields (see From ideas to words) in two languages to learn more.