definition of Wikipedia
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|Accountant · Accounting period · Accrual · Bookkeeping · Cash and accrual basis · Cash flow forecasting · Chart of accounts · Convergence · Journal · Special journals · Constant item purchasing power accounting · Cost of goods sold · Credit terms · Debits and credits · Double-entry system · Mark-to-market accounting · FIFO and LIFO · GAAP / IFRS · General ledger · Goodwill · Historical cost · Matching principle · Revenue recognition · Trial balance|
|Fields of accounting|
|Cost · Financial · Forensic · Fund · Management · Tax (U.S.)|
|Balance Sheet · Cash flow statement · Income statement · Statement of retained earnings · Notes · Management discussion and analysis · XBRL|
|Auditor's report · Control self-assessment · Financial audit · GAAS / ISA · Internal audit · Sarbanes–Oxley Act|
|CIA · CA · CPA · CCA · CGA · CMA · CAT · CIIA · IIA · CTP|
In accounting, retained earnings refers to the portion of net income which is retained by the corporation rather than distributed to its owners as dividends. Similarly, if the corporation takes a loss, then that loss is retained and called variously retained losses, accumulated losses or accumulated deficit. Retained earnings and losses are cumulative from year to year with losses offsetting earnings.
Retained earnings are reported in the shareholders' equity section of the balance sheet. Companies with net accumulated losses may refer to negative shareholders' equity as a shareholders' deficit. A complete report of the retained earnings or retained losses is presented in the Statement of Retained Earnings or Statement of Retained Losses.
When total assets are greater than total liabilities, stockholders have a positive equity (positive book value). Conversely, when total liabilities are greater than total assets, stockholders have a negative stockholders' equity (negative book value) — also sometimes called stockholders' deficit. A stockholders' deficit does not mean that stockholders owe money to the corporation as they own only its net assets and are not accountable for its liabilities, though it is one of the definitions of insolvency. It means that the value of the assets of the company must rise above its liabilities before the stockholders hold positive equity value in the company!
Net Earnings - Dividends Paid = Retained Earnings
The decision of whether a firm should retain net income or have it paid out as dividends depends on several factors including, but not limited to the:
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Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.
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