» 
Arabic Bulgarian Chinese Croatian Czech Danish Dutch English Estonian Finnish French German Greek Hebrew Hindi Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Italian Japanese Korean Latvian Lithuanian Malagasy Norwegian Persian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swedish Thai Turkish Vietnamese
Arabic Bulgarian Chinese Croatian Czech Danish Dutch English Estonian Finnish French German Greek Hebrew Hindi Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Italian Japanese Korean Latvian Lithuanian Malagasy Norwegian Persian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swedish Thai Turkish Vietnamese

definition - Robert_Ardrey

definition of Wikipedia

   Advertizing ▼

Wikipedia

Robert Ardrey

                   

Robert Ardrey (b. October 16, 1908, Chicago, Illinois—d. January 14, 1980, South Africa) was an American playwright and screenwriter who returned to his academic training in anthropology and the behavioral sciences in the 1950s.[1][2]

African Genesis (1961) and The Territorial Imperative, two of Robert Ardrey's most widely read works, as well as Desmond Morris' The Naked Ape (1967), were key elements in the public discourse of the 1960s which challenged earlier anthropological assumptions. Ardrey's ideas notably influenced Arthur C. Clarke and Stanley Kubrick in the development of 2001: A Space Odyssey,[3][4][5][6] as well as Sam Peckinpah, to whom Strother Martin gave copies of two of Ardrey's books.[7][8][9][10][11]

Contents

  Paleoanthropology

As a science writer for the informed non-specialist reader in paleoanthropology, which encompasses anthropology, ethology, paleontology and human evolution, Robert Ardrey was among the proponents of the hunting hypothesis and the killer ape theory.

Ardrey postulated that precursors of Australopithecus survived millions of years of drought in the Miocene and Pliocene epochs, as the savannah spread and the forests shrank, by adapting the hunting ways of carnivorous species. Changes in survival techniques and social organisation gradually differentiated pre-humans from other primates. Concomitant changes in diet potentiated unique developments in the human brain.

The killer ape theory posits that aggression, a vital factor in hunting prey for food, was a fundamental characteristic which distinguished prehuman ancestors from other primates.

These themes have also been investigated in academia by, among others:

  Researchers

Some of the scientists whose research particularly informed Robert Ardrey's scientific investigations, and with several of whom Ardrey consulted at length while developing his four major works in Africa from the 1940s through the 1970s, include:

  Books

Fiction
  • World's Beginning (1944) (Cited in Everett F. Bleiler's The Checklist of Fantastic Literature, 1948.)
  • The Brotherhood of Fear (1952)
Nonfiction

  Plays

  Screenplays

  Honours

  Personal

Robert Ardrey was the son of Robert Leslie Ardrey, an editor and publisher, and the former Marie Haswell.[2] He graduated Phi Beta Kappa from the University of Chicago, where his mentor was Thornton Wilder. Ardrey was married to Helen Johnson, whom he met at the University, from 1938 until they divorced in 1960. They had two sons, Ross and Daniel. Ardrey married the South African stage actress Berdine Grunewald, who later illustrated his books, in 1960.

The Howard Gotlieb Archival Research Center in the Mugar Memorial Library at Boston University currently houses the Robert Ardrey Collection. [15]

  References

  1. ^ "Finding Aid for the Robert Ardrey Papers, 1935-1960". Online Archive of California. http://content.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/tf5w1006sq/?&query=%22Robert%20Ardrey%22&brand=oac. 
  2. ^ a b c Bruce Eder. "Robert Ardrey". Allmovie (The New York Times). http://movies2.nytimes.com/gst/movies/filmography.html?p_id=173054&mod=bio. "Equally comfortable dealing with literary editors such as Bennett Cerf or moguls like Darryl F. Zanuck, he also retained his credibility in the intellectual realm by authoring texts on anthropology, history, and sociology that remain widely respected decades after their publication. The widening dates between Ardrey's film projects came as a result of his increasing literary activity, as he began generating screenplays and novels on his own in the early '50s and subsequently returned to his academic training in anthropology and the behavioral sciences. From the end of the 1950s, he kept his oar in both fields, film and academia, and occupied a virtually unique position in the Hollywood pecking order because of his dual career. In 1962, he took on the daunting task of turning the World War I-era novel The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse into relevant entertainment for the early '60s, authoring the screenplay for Vincente Minnelli's gargantuan 1962 all-star release." 
  3. ^ Arthur C. Clarke (New American Library, 1972). "2001 Diary (excerpts)". The Lost Worlds of 2001. Kubrick Site. http://www.visual-memory.co.uk/amk/doc/0073.html. 
  4. ^ Stanley Kubrick (February 27, 1972). "Letter to the editor". The New York Times. Kubrick Site. http://www.visual-memory.co.uk/amk/doc/0037.html. 
  5. ^ Richard D. Erlich et al. (1997-2005). "Strange Odyssey: From Dart to Ardrey to Kubrick and Clarke". English studies/Film theory course, Science fiction and Film. Miami University. http://www.users.muohio.edu/erlichrd/350/odyssey.php. 
  6. ^ Daniel Richter (2002). "Moonwatcher's Memoir: A Diary of 2001, a Space Odyssey". New York: Carroll & Graf. ASIN 078671073X. ISBN 978-0-7867-1073-7. http://www.fantasticfiction.co.uk/c/arthur-c-clarke/moonwatchers-memoir.htm. "…the longest flash forward in the history of movies: three million years, from bone club to artificial satellite, in a twenty-fourth of a second. (From the Foreword by Arthur C. Clarke.)" 
  7. ^ "Peckinpah: Primitive Horror". Time. December 20, 1971. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,879005,00.html. 
  8. ^ David Weddle. If They Move . . . Kill 'Em!: The Life and TImes of Sam Peckinpah (p. 396). 1994 first edition: Grove Press, ISBN 0-8021-3776-8, ASIN 0802137768.
  9. ^ Paul Cremean (23 May 2006). "Peckinpah's West vs. Mann's Metropolis". Grover Watrous' Golden Egg. http://cremmers.blogspot.com/2006/05/peckinpahs-west-vs-manns-metropolis.html. "Drawing heavily from the work of Robert Ardrey, controversial sociologist and author of ‘African Genesis’ and ‘The Territorial Imperative,’ Peckinpah ascribed to the belief that man is by nature territorial, brutal and elementally animal." 
  10. ^ Garner Simmons. Peckinpah: A Portrait in Montage (p. 128). 1982 first edition: University of Texas Press, ISBN 0-292-76493-6, ASIN 0292764936. 2004 paperback edition: Limelight, ISBN 978-0-87910-273-9, ASIN 087910273X.
  11. ^ Marshall Fine. Bloody Sam: The Life and Films of Sam Peckinpah. 1991 first edition: Dutton Books, ISBN 1-55611-236-X, ISBN 978-1-55611-236-2. 2006 paperback edition: Miramax Books, ISBN 1-4013-5972-8, ISBN 978-1-4013-5972-0.
  12. ^ "Robert Ardrey (10/16/1908 - 1/14/1980) Other Credits". AMC (TV network) website. http://www.amctv.com/person/detail?CID=8167-1-GMT. 
  13. ^ The Schumann Story (1950) at the Internet Movie Database
  14. ^ "Robert Ardrey Filmography". DVDEmpire.com. http://www.dvdempire.com/Exec/v4_list_cast.asp?userid=&cast_id=60379. "Most Worked With: 1. Peter Ustinov 2. Pandro S. Berman 3. Raoul Walsh 4. Van Heflin 5. Angela Lansbury 6. Christopher Kent 7. Frank Allenby 8. Gene Kelly 9. George Sidney 10. Gladys Cooper" 
  15. ^ "Ardrey, Robert". Howard Gotlieb Archival Research Center (HGARC), Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University. http://www.bu.edu/phpbin/archives-cc/app/details.php?id=7338&return=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.bu.edu%2Fphpbin%2Farchives-cc%2Fapp%2Fbrowse.php%3Fletter%3DA%26sort_column%3Dcomposite_name%26sort_direction%3DASC%26per_page%3D10%26offset%3D20%26set_page%3Dnext. "Also included in the collection is Ardrey’s last manuscript, The Education of Robert Ardrey: An Autobiography (ca. 1980), edited and prefaced by Ardrey’s son, Daniel Ardrey." 

  External links

General
Plays and screenplays
Paleoanthropology
   
               

 

All translations of Robert_Ardrey


sensagent's content

  • definitions
  • synonyms
  • antonyms
  • encyclopedia

Dictionary and translator for handheld

⇨ New : sensagent is now available on your handheld

   Advertising ▼

sensagent's office

Shortkey or widget. Free.

Windows Shortkey: sensagent. Free.

Vista Widget : sensagent. Free.

Webmaster Solution

Alexandria

A windows (pop-into) of information (full-content of Sensagent) triggered by double-clicking any word on your webpage. Give contextual explanation and translation from your sites !

Try here  or   get the code

SensagentBox

With a SensagentBox, visitors to your site can access reliable information on over 5 million pages provided by Sensagent.com. Choose the design that fits your site.

Business solution

Improve your site content

Add new content to your site from Sensagent by XML.

Crawl products or adds

Get XML access to reach the best products.

Index images and define metadata

Get XML access to fix the meaning of your metadata.


Please, email us to describe your idea.

WordGame

The English word games are:
○   Anagrams
○   Wildcard, crossword
○   Lettris
○   Boggle.

Lettris

Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.

boggle

Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !

English dictionary
Main references

Most English definitions are provided by WordNet .
English thesaurus is mainly derived from The Integral Dictionary (TID).
English Encyclopedia is licensed by Wikipedia (GNU).

Copyrights

The wordgames anagrams, crossword, Lettris and Boggle are provided by Memodata.
The web service Alexandria is granted from Memodata for the Ebay search.
The SensagentBox are offered by sensAgent.

Translation

Change the target language to find translations.
Tips: browse the semantic fields (see From ideas to words) in two languages to learn more.

last searches on the dictionary :

4673 online visitors

computed in 0.078s

I would like to report:
section :
a spelling or a grammatical mistake
an offensive content(racist, pornographic, injurious, etc.)
a copyright violation
an error
a missing statement
other
please precise:

Advertize

Partnership

Company informations

My account

login

registration

   Advertising ▼