definition of Wikipedia
|Type||GmbH (Private company)|
|Founded||15 November 1886 (adopted current name in 1937)|
|Key people||Franz Fehrenbach (Chairman)|
|Products||Automotive parts, Power tools, Security systems, Home appliance,|
|Revenue||€51.4 billion (2011)|
Robert Bosch GmbH (help·info) (commonly known as Bosch) is a German multinational engineering and electronics company headquartered in Gerlingen, near Stuttgart. It is the world's largest supplier of automotive components. The company was founded by Robert Bosch in Stuttgart in 1886.
Bosch's core products are automotive components (including brakes, controls, electrical drives, electronics, fuel systems, generators, starter motors and steering systems), industrial products (including drives and controls, packaging technology and solar panels) and consumer goods and building products (including household appliances, power tools, security systems and thermotechnology).
Bosch has more than 350 subsidiaries across over 60 countries and its products are sold in around 150 countries. Bosch employs around 303,000 people and had revenues of approximately €51.4 billion in 2011. In 2010 it invested around €3.8 billion in research and development and applied for over 3,800 patents worldwide. In 2009 Bosch was the leader in terms of numbers of patents at the German Patent and Trade Mark Office (GPTO) with 3,213 patents.
Robert Bosch GmbH is privately owned, and 92% of its share capital is held by Robert Bosch Stiftung GmbH, a charitable foundation. The majority of voting rights are held by Robert Bosch Industrietreuhand KG, an industrial trust. The remaining shares are held by the Bosch family and by Robert Bosch GmbH. The Bosch logo represents a simple magneto armature and casing, one of the company's first products.
Bosch comprises more than 350 subsidiary companies. In addition to automotive components, which generate around 60% of its revenues, Bosch produces industrial machinery and hand tools. Its Bosch Rexroth subsidiary produces hydraulic, electric, and pneumatic machinery for applications ranging from automotive to mining.
Bosch owns 50% of Purolator Filters in a joint venture with Mann+Hummel. Bosch also owns 50% of the home appliance manufacturer Bosch-Siemens Hausgeräte. The vehicle audio equipment company Blaupunkt was a subsidiary of Bosch until March 2009.
Although most of the company's plants and employees are located in Germany (112,300 employees), Bosch is a truly worldwide company. In North America, Robert Bosch LLC (a wholly owned Bosch subsidiary) has corporate headquarters in Farmington Hills, MI; with factories and distribution facilities in Mt. Prospect, IL; Hoffman Estates, IL; Broadview, IL; Kentwood, MI; Waltham, MA; Clarksville, TN; Anderson, SC; Charleston, SC; South Bend, IN (to close 2011); and 11 other cities. The Research Technology Center is located in Palo Alto, CA near Stanford University. There are also two corporate sites in Brazil and ten in Mexico where a central purchasing office for all divisions of Bosch Group is located in Broadview, IL. In North America, Bosch employs about 24,750 people in 80 locations, generating $8.8 billion in sales in 2006.
There are other wholly owned Bosch subsidiaries in:
and other countries. Bosch employs over 281,717 people in more than 50 countries, supplying a complex distribution network of new products and parts.
About 60% of Bosch's worldwide annual sales are produced in automotive technology. Bosch invented the first practical magneto, an early ignition electrical source, which provided the spark to ignite the fuel in most of the earliest internal combustion engines. Bosch's corporate logo to this date depicts the armature from a magneto. Bosch was an early manufacturer of Anti-lock Braking System (ABS), and as time passed, Bosch became a leader in such specialized fields as traction control systems (TCS), the Electronic Stability Program (ESP), body electronics (such as central locking, doors, windows and seats), and oxygen sensors, injectors and fuel pumps. Even in such humble technological areas as spark plugs, wiper blades, engine cooling fans and other aftermarket parts, Bosch has over $1 billion in annual sales.
In June 2008 Bosch formed SB LiMotive, a 50:50 joint company with Samsung SDI. The company held ground breaking ceremony for a 28.000 m2 lithium-ion battery cell manufacturing plant in September 2009 and it is scheduled to start production for hybrid vehicles in 2011 and for electric vehicles in 2012 The plant will generate a 1.000 jobs in Ulsan, Korea in addition to the 500 employees in Korea, Germany and the USA.
Bosch's subsidiary Bosch Rexroth is a supplier of industrial technology. Through this division, Bosch supplies technologies for driving, controlling, and moving machines. These technologies serve Bosch's two core markets–factory automation and mobile hydraulics.
Bosch's packaging technology division plans, designs, manufactures and installs packaging lines for manufacturers of pharmaceutical, confectionery, food, and similar products. Bosch is one of the largest supplier of packaging technology.
Bosch caters to the areas of consumer goods and building technology with its power tool, thermotechnology, and security systems, as well as with its household appliances business within the BSH Bosch and Siemens Hausgeräte GmbH joint venture. In the US, power tools are provided by the Robert Bosch Tool Corporation based in Mt. Prospect, Illinois.
With its brands Bosch, Hawera, Skil, Dremel, RotoZip, Freud, Vermont American, and many more, Bosch is one of the largest manufacturer of portable power tools worldwide. Bosch manufactures power tools for the building trade, industry, and do-it-yourselfers (DIY-ers). In or around 1956, Dr. Hans Erich Slany worked with Bosch to design one of the first plastic power tools. Prior to this time, power tools were metal castings that often conducted electrical sparks or current into the user as well as being very heavy. Today, possibly contributing to the sales success of Bosch, the power tools designed by TEAMS Design have been winning awards worldwide for many years. Most recently, the 12" Dual-Bevel Glide Miter Saw won an EID Silver Award. The product range also includes accessories such as drill bits and saw blades, under its Vermont American brand, as well as gardening and water gardening products under its Gilmour, LR Nelson, and Sunterra brands.
Bosch is the largest European manufacturer of thermotechnology (heating units, etc.) with its subsidiary BBT Thermotechnik GmbH. It had revenues of €2.8 billion in 2006. Its brands include Bosch, Buderus, Junkers, Dakon, e.l.m leblanc S.A., Florida Heat Pump (FHP), Geminox, IVT, Nefit, Sieger, Vulcano and Worcester.
BSH Bosch and Siemens Hausgeräte GmbH, in which Bosch and Siemens AG each hold a 50% share, is one of the world's top three companies in the household appliances industry. In Germany and Western Europe, BSH is the market leader. Its portfolio includes the principal brand names Bosch and Siemens, Gaggenau, Neff, Thermador, Constructa, Viva, and ufesa brands, and further six regional brands. Bosch household appliances for the North American market are mainly manufactured at its factory near New Bern, NC. Its competitors include Viking Range, Fulgor, Sub-Zero Refrigerator, Wolf Appliance (a division of Sub-Zero Refrigerator), Fagor, Dacor, and Miele. The distribution of manufacturing workforce in household appliances is:
with 39,000 employees overall.
In 2001, Bosch bought Detection Systems and Radionics, Inc., to build their business in the North American security and life safety products manufacturing/supply business. Through the Detection Systems acquisition, Bosch also obtained additional sales channels in Latin America, Asia-Pacific (including Australia), and Europe.
Robert Bosch GmbH, including its wholly owned subsidiaries such as Robert Bosch LLC in North America, is unusual in that it is an extremely large, privately owned corporation that is almost entirely (92%) owned by a charitable foundation. Thus, while most of the profits are invested back into the corporation to build for the future and sustain growth, nearly all of the profits distributed to shareholders are devoted to humanitarian causes.
As shown in the diagram (above), the Robert Bosch Stiftung (Robert Bosch Foundation) holds 92% of the shares (Beteiligung) of Robert Bosch GmbH, but no voting rights (Stimmrecht). The Robert Bosch Industrietreuhand KG (Robert Bosch Industrial Trust KG), with old members of the company management, agents of the Bosch family, and other eminent people from the industry (such as Jürgen Hambrecht, CEO of BASF), have 93% of the votes (Stimmen), but no shares (0.01%). The remaining 8% of shares and 7% of voting-rights are held by the descendants of the company founder Robert Bosch (Familie Bosch).
For example, in 2004, the net profit was US$2.1 billion, but only US$78 million was distributed as dividends to shareholders. Of that figure, US$72 million was distributed to the charitable foundation, and the other US$6 million to Bosch family stockholders. The remaining 96% of the profits were invested back into the company. In its core automotive technology business, Bosch invests 9% of its revenue on research and development, nearly double the industry average of 4.7%.
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