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Rod Stewart

                   
Rod Stewart

Stewart performing in Zaragoza, Spain,
5 November 2006.
Background information
Birth name Roderick David Stewart
Also known as "Rod the Mod"
Born (1945-01-10) 10 January 1945 (age 67)
Highgate, North London, England
Genres Rock, pop, blues rock, soul
Occupations Singer-songwriter
Instruments Vocals, guitar, harmonica
Years active 1964–present
Labels Mercury, Warner Bros., RCA,[1] J
Associated acts Shotgun Express, The Steampacket, The Jeff Beck Group, Faces
Website RodStewart.com

Roderick David "Rod" Stewart, CBE (born 10 January 1945)[2] is a British singer-songwriter, born and raised in North London, England, and currently residing in Epping. He is of Scottish and English[3] ancestry.

With his distinctive raspy singing voice, Stewart came to prominence in the late 1960s and early 1970s with The Jeff Beck Group and then Faces. He launched his solo career in 1969 with his debut album An Old Raincoat Won't Ever Let You Down (US: The Rod Stewart Album). His work with The Jeff Beck Group and Faces influenced heavy metal genres.[4][5]

With his career in its fifth decade, Stewart has sold over 100 million records worldwide, making him one of the best selling artists of all time.[6] In the UK, he has had six consecutive number one albums, and his tally of 62 hit singles include 31 that reached the top 10, six of which gained the number one position.[7] He has had 16 top ten singles in the U.S, with four of these reaching number one on the Billboard Hot 100. In 2008, Billboard magazine ranked him the 17th most successful artist on the "The Billboard Hot 100 Top All-Time Artists".[8] He was voted at #33 in Q Magazine's list of the top 100 Greatest Singers of all time,[9] and #59 on Rolling Stone 100 Greatest Singers of all time.[10] As a solo artist, Stewart was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1994, and was inducted a second time, as a member of Faces, in April 2012.[11][12]

Contents

  Early life

Roderick David Stewart was born at 507 Archway Road, Highgate, North London, the youngest of the five children of Robert Stewart and Elsie Gilbart.[13] His father was Scottish and had been a master builder in Leith, Edinburgh, while Elsie was English and had grown up in Upper Holloway in North London.[14] Married in 1928,[14] the couple had two sons and two daughters while living in Scotland, then they moved to Highgate.[13] Stewart came after an eight-year gap following his youngest sibling; he was born at home during World War II, half an hour after a German V-2 missile warhead fell on the local Highgate police station.[13][14]

The family was neither affluent nor poor, and by all accounts Stewart was a spoiled child as the youngest;[13][14] Stewart has called his childhood "fantastically happy".[14] He had an undistinguished record at Highgate Primary School and failed the eleven plus exam.[15] He then attended the William Grimshaw Secondary Modern School in Hornsey.[16] His father retired from the building trade at age 65, then opened a newsagent's shop on the Archway Road when Stewart was in his early teens; the family lived over the shop.[13][14] Stewart's main hobby was railway modelling.[17]

The Stewart family was mostly focused on football;[18] Robert had played on a local amateur side and managed some as well, and one of Stewart's earliest memories were the pictures of Scottish players such as George Young and Gordon Smith that his brothers had on the wall.[19][20] Rod was the most talented footballer in the Stewart family and was a strong supporter of Arsenal F.C..[19][21] Combining natural athleticism with near-reckless aggression, he became captain of the school football team and played for Middlesex Schoolboys as centre-half.[19]

The family were also great fans of the singer Al Jolson and would sing and play his hits.[18][22] Stewart collected his records and saw his films, read books about him, and was influenced by his performing style and attitude towards his audience.[18][20][23] His introduction to rock and roll was hearing Little Richard's 1956 hit "The Girl Can't Help It" and seeing Bill Haley & His Comets in concert.[22] His father bought him a guitar in January 1959; the first song he learned was the folk tune "It Takes a Worried Man to Sing a Worried Song" and the first record he bought was Eddie Cochran's "C'mon Everybody".[17] In 1960, he joined a skiffle group with schoolfriends called the Kool Kats, playing Lonnie Donegan and Chas McDevitt hits.[17][24]

Stewart left school at age 15[25] and worked briefly as a silk screen printer.[26] Spurred on by his father, his ambition was to become a professional footballer.[21][25] In 1961 he joined on as an apprentice with Brentford F.C.,[25][27][28] a Third Division club at the time.[29] However, he disliked the early morning travel to West London and the daily assignment to clean the first team's boots.[25] His playing effectiveness at centre-half was hindered by his slight build — 5 feet 11 inches (1.80 m) but only 9 stone (130 lb; 57 kg) — and he pushed himself so much that he sometimes vomited at the side of the pitch.[25] After up to two months of play in pre-season fixtures,[nb 1] Stewart left the team, to the great disappointment of his father.[25] Stewart later reflected that: "I had the skill but not the enthusiasm."[25] Regarding possible career options, Stewart concluded, "Well, a musician's life is a lot easier and I can also get drunk and make music, and I can't do that and play football. I plumped for music ... They're the only two things I can do actually: play football and sing."[18][25]

  Music career

  1961–63: Early efforts

Stewart worked in the family shop and as a newspaper delivery boy,[30] then as a grave digger at Highgate Cemetery,[31] partly to face a childhood fear of death.[30] He worked in a North Finchley funeral parlour[30] and as a fence erector and sign writer.[26] In 1961 he went to Denmark Street with The Raiders and got a singing audition with well-known record producer Joe Meek, but Meek stopped the session with a rude sound.[32] Stewart began listening to British and American topical folk artists such as Ewan MacColl, Alex Campbell, Woody Guthrie, Ramblin' Jack Elliot, and especially Derroll Adams and the debut album of Bob Dylan.[32][33] He became attracted to beatnik attitudes and left-wing politics, living for a while in a beatnik houseboat at Shoreham-by-Sea.[32] Stewart was an active supporter of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament at this time, joining the annual Aldermaston Marches from 1961 to 1963 and being arrested on three occasions when he took part in sit-ins at Trafalgar Square and Whitehall for the cause.[26][32] He also used the marches as a way to meet and bed girls.[32][34] In 1962 he had his first serious relationship, with London art student Suzannah Boffey (and a friend of future model and actress Chrissie Shrimpton); he moved to a bed-sit in Muswell Hill to be near her.[35] She became pregnant, but neither Rod nor his family wanted him to enter marriage; the baby girl was given for adoption and Rod's and Suzannah's relationship ended.[35]

In 1962, Stewart began hanging around folk singer Wizz Jones, busking at Leicester Square and other London spots.[36] Stewart took up playing the then-fashionable harmonica.[37] On several trips over the next 18 months Jones and Stewart took their act to Brighton and then to Paris, sleeping under bridges over the River Seine, and then finally to Barcelona.[36] Finally this resulted in Stewart being rounded up and deported from Spain for vagrancy during 1963.[28][36][38]

In early 1962, Stewart joined The Ray Davies Quartet, later known as the successful British band The Kinks, as their lead singer. He had known three of their members at William Grimshaw School[15][33] and at the time, Ray Davies was uncomfortable with the lead vocalist role.[39] He performed with the group on at least one occasion, but was soon dropped due to complaints about his voice from then-drummer John Start's mother as well as musical differences with the band and (as Pete Quaife later recalled) Davies' fear that Stewart would take over.[39][40]

In 1963, Stewart adopted the Mod lifestyle and look, and began fashioning the spiky rooster hairstyle that would become his trademark.[41] (It originated from large amounts of his sisters' hair lacquer, backcombing, and his hands holding it in place to protect it from the winds of the Highgate Underground station.[41][42]) Disillusioned by rock and roll, he saw Otis Redding perform in concert and began listening to Sam Cooke records; he became fascinated by rhythm and blues and soul music.[41]

After returning to London, Stewart joined a rhythm and blues group, the Dimensions, in October 1963 as a harmonica player and part-time vocalist.[27][43] It was his first professional job as a musician, although Stewart was still living at home and working in his brother's painting and picture frame shop.[44][45] A somewhat more established singer from Birmingham, Jimmy Powell, then hired the group a few weeks later, and it became known as Jimmy Powell & the Five Dimensions, with Stewart being relegated to harmonica player.[27][43] The group performed weekly at the famed Studio 51 club on Great Newport Street in London, where The Rolling Stones often headlined;[43] this was Stewart's entrée into the thriving London R & B scene,[46] and his harmonica playing improved in part from watching Mick Jagger on stage.[37] Relations soon broke down between Powell and Stewart over roles within the group[44] and Stewart departed.[nb 2]

  1964–67: Long John Baldry, Steampacket, and "Rod the Mod"

On or around 5 January 1964,[nb 3] Stewart was drunk and waiting on the Twickenham railway station platform, playing "Smokestack Lightnin'" on his harmonica after having seen a rhythm and blues show by Cyril Davies and the All Stars at Eel Pie Island.[27][47][48] All Stars singer Long John Baldry discovered him and invited him to sit in with the group (which passed into his hands and was renamed the Hoochie Coochie Men when Davies died of leukaemia on 7 January); when Baldry discovered Stewart was a singer as well, he offered him a job for £35 a week, after securing the approval of Stewart's mother.[47] Quitting his day job at age nineteen, Stewart gradually overcame his shyness and nerves and became a visible enough part of the act that he was sometimes added to the billing as "Rod the Mod" Stewart,[37][47][49] the nickname coming from his dandyish style of grooming and dress.[33] Baldry touted Stewart's abilities to Melody Maker magazine and the group enjoyed a weekly residence at London's fabled Marquee Club.[49] In June 1964, Stewart made his recording début (without label credit) on "Up Above My Head", the B-side to a Baldry and Hoochie Coochie Men single.[50]

While still with Baldry, Stewart embarked on a simultaneous solo career.[51] He made some demo recordings,[nb 4] was scouted by Decca Records at the Marquee Club and signed to a solo contract in August 1964.[52] He appeared on several regional television shows around the country and recorded his first single in September 1964.[51][52] Turning down Decca's recommended material as too commercial, Stewart insisted that the experienced session musicians he was given, including John Paul Jones, learn a couple of Sonny Boy Williamson songs he had just heard.[53] The resulting single, "Good Morning Little Schoolgirl", was recorded released in October 1964; despite Stewart performing it on the popular television show Ready Steady Go!, it failed to enter the charts.[52] Also in October Stewart left the Hoochie Coochie Men after having a row with Baldry.[52]

Stewart played some dates on his own in late 1964 and early 1965, sometimes backed by the Southampton R & B outfit The Soul Agents.[54] The Hoochie Coochie Men broke up, Baldry and Stewart patched up their differences (and indeed became lifelong friends),[55] and legendary impresario Giorgio Gomelsky put together Steampacket, which featured Baldry, Stewart, Brian Auger, Julie Driscoll, Micky Waller, Vic Briggs, and Rick Brown; their first appearance was in support of The Rolling Stones in July 1965.[56] The group was conceived as a white soul revue, analogous to The Ike & Tina Turner Revue, with multiple vocalists and styles ranging from jazz to R & B to blues.[57] Steampacket toured with the Stones and The Walker Brothers that summer, ending in the London Palladium;[57] seeing the audience react to the Stones gave Stewart his first exposure to crowd hysteria.[58] Stewart, who had been included in the group upon Baldry's insistence, ended up with most of the male vocal parts.[57] Steampacket was unable to enter the studio to record any material due to its members all belonging to different labels and managers,[57][59] although Gomelsky did record one of their Marquee Club rehearsals.[nb 5]

Stewart's "Rod the Mod" image gained wider visibility in November 1965, when he was the subject of a 30-minute Rediffusion, London television documentary titled "An Easter with Rod" that portrayed the Mod scene.[28][60] His parallel solo career attempts continued on EMI's Columbia label with the November 1965 release of "The Day Will Come", a more heavily arranged pop attempt, and the April 1966 release of his take on Sam Cooke's "Shake", with the Brian Auger Trinity.[60] Both failed commercially and neither gained positive notices.[61] Stewart had spent the better part of two years listening mostly to Cooke; he later said, "I didn't sound like anybody at all ... but I knew I sounded a bit like Sam Cooke, so I listened to Sam Cooke."[45] This recording solidified that singer's position as Stewart's idol and most enduring influence; he called it a "crossing of the water."[33][45][57]

Stewart departed from Steampacket in March 1966,[60] with Stewart saying he had been sacked and Auger saying he had quit.[57] Stewart then joined a somewhat similar outfit, Shotgun Express, in May 1966 as co-lead vocalist with Beryl Marsden.[57][60] Amongst the other members were Mick Fleetwood and Peter Green (who would go on to form Fleetwood Mac), and Peter Bardens.[60] Shotgun Express released one unsuccessful single in October 1966, the orchestra-heavy "I Could Feel The Whole World Turn Round", before disbanding.[57][60] Stewart later disparaged Shotgun Express as a poor imitation of Steampacket, and said "I was still getting this terrible feeling of doing other people's music. I think you can only start finding yourself when you write your own material."[60] By now, Stewart had bounced around without achieving much success, with little to distinguish himself among other aspiring London singers other than the emerging rasp in his voice.[46]

  1967–69: Jeff Beck Group

Guitarist Jeff Beck recruited Stewart for his new post-Yardbirds venture,[62] and in February 1967, Stewart joined the Jeff Beck Group as vocalist and sometime songwriter.[63] This would become the big break of his early career.[33] There he first played with Ronnie Wood[57] whom he had first met in a London pub in 1964;[52] the two soon became fast friends.[62] During its first year, the group experienced frequent changes of drummers and conflicts involving manager Mickie Most wanting to reduce Stewart's role; they toured the UK, and released a couple of singles that featured Stewart on their B-sides.[63][64] Stewart's sputtering solo career also continued, with the March 1968 release of non-hit "Little Miss Understood" on Immediate Records.[63] The Jeff Beck Group toured Western Europe in spring 1968, recorded, and were nearly destitute; then assistant manager Peter Grant booked them on a six-week tour of the United States starting in June 1968 with the Fillmore East in New York.[63][65][66] The first-time-in-America Stewart suffered terrible stage fright during the opening show and hid behind the amplifier banks while singing; only a quick shot of brandy brought him out front.[63] Nevertheless, the show and the tour were a big success,[33][66] with Robert Shelton of The New York Times calling the group exciting and praising "the interaction of Mr. Beck's wild and visionary guitar against the hoarse and insistent shouting of Rod Stewart,"[65] and New Musical Express reporting that the group was receiving standing ovations and pulling receipts equal to those of Jimi Hendrix and The Doors.[63]

In August 1968, their first album Truth was released; by October it had risen to number 15 on the US albums chart but failed to chart in the UK.[63] The radical, groundbreaking, landmark album featured Beck's masterly guitar technique and manipulated sounds as Stewart's dramatic vocalising tackled the group's varied repertoire of blues, folk, rock, and proto-heavy metal.[46][64][67] Stewart also co-wrote three of the songs,[67] and credited the record for helping to develop his vocal abilities and the sandpaper quality in his voice.[45] The group toured America again at the end of the year to a very strong reception, then suffered from more personnel upheaval[63][68] (something that would continue throughout Beck's career). In July 1969, Stewart left, following his friend Wood's departure.[45][69] Stewart later recalled: "It was a great band to sing with but I couldn't take all the aggravation and unfriendliness that developed.... In the two and a half years I was with Beck I never once looked him in the eye – I always looked at his shirt or something like that."[63] The group's second album, Beck-Ola, was released in June 1969 in the US and September 1969 in the UK, bracketing the time the group was dissolving; it also made number 15 in the US albums chart and placed to number 39 in the UK albums chart.[33][69][70] During his time with the group, Stewart initially felt overmatched by Beck's presence, and his style was still developing; but later Stewart felt the two developed a strong musical, if not personal, rapport.[63][71] Much of Stewart's sense of phrasing was developed during his time with the Jeff Beck Group.[45] Beck sought to form a new supergroup with Carmine Appice and Tim Bogert (of the similarly just-breaking-up Vanilla Fudge) joining him and Stewart, but Stewart had other plans.[72]

  1969–71: Solo Career establishment

  Stewart performing in Oslo, Norway, 5 November 1976.

Mercury Records A&R man Lou Reizner had seen Stewart perform with Beck, and in October 1968 signed him to a solo contract;[63] but contractual complexities delayed Stewart's recording for him until July 1969.[69][73] Meanwhile, in May 1969, guitarist and singer Steve Marriott left English band The Small Faces.[69] Ron Wood was announced as the replacement guitarist in June and in October 1969 Stewart followed his friend and was announced as their new singer.[69] The two joined existing members Ronnie Lane, Ian McLagan, and Kenney Jones, who soon decided to call the new line-up Faces.

An Old Raincoat Won't Ever Let You Down became Stewart's first solo album in 1969 (it was known as The Rod Stewart Album in the US). It established the template for his solo sound: a heartfelt mixture of folk, rock, and country blues, inclusive of a British working-class sensibility, with both original material ("Cindy's Lament" and the title song) and cover versions (Ewan MacColl's "Dirty Old Town" and Mike d'Abo's "Handbags and Gladrags").

Faces released their debut album First Step in early 1970 with a rock and roll style similar to the Rolling Stones. While the album did better in the UK than in the US, the Faces quickly earned a strong live following. Stewart released his second album, Gasoline Alley that autumn (Elkie Brooks later achieved a hit with a version of the title track in 1983). Rod's approach was similar to his first album, as exemplified by the title track; and mandolin was introduced into the sound. He then launched a solo tour. Stewart sang guest vocals for the Australian group Python Lee Jackson on "In a Broken Dream", recorded in April 1969 but not released until 1970. His payment was a set of seat covers for his car. It was re-released in 1972 to become a worldwide hit.

  1971–74: Every Picture Tells a Story

Stewart's 1971 solo album Every Picture Tells a Story made him a household name when the B-side of his minor hit "Reason to Believe", "Maggie May", (co-written with Martin Quittenton) started receiving radio play. The album and the single hit number one in both the US and the UK simultaneously, a chart first, in September. A loss of innocence tale set off by a striking mandolin part (by Ray Jackson of Lindisfarne), "Maggie May" was also named in The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame's 500 Songs that Shaped Rock and Roll, which is one of three songs by him to appear on that list. The rest of the album was equally strong, with "Mandolin Wind" again showcasing that instrument; "(I Know) I'm Losing You" adding hard-edged soul to the mix; and "Tomorrow Is a Long Time", a cover of a Bob Dylan song. But the ultimate manifestation of the early Stewart solo style was the Stewart-Wood-penned "Every Picture Tells a Story" itself: powered by Mick Waller's drumming, Pete Sears's piano, and Wood's guitar work in a largely acoustic arrangement; it is a fast, rocking, headlong romp relating the picaresque adventures of the singer.

The second Faces album, Long Player, was released in early 1971 and enjoyed greater chart success than First Step. The Faces also got their only US Top 40 hit with "Stay With Me" from their third album A Nod Is as Good as a Wink...To a Blind Horse released in late 1971.[74] This album reached the Top 10 on both sides of the Atlantic on the back of the success of Every Picture Tells A Story.[74][75] Steve Jones from The Sex Pistols regarded The Faces very highly and named them as a main influence on the British punk rock movement.[76]

The Faces toured extensively in 1972 with growing tension in the band over Stewart's solo career enjoying more success than the band's. Stewart released Never a Dull Moment in the same year. Repeating the Every Picture formula for the most part, it reached number two on the US album charts and number one in the UK,[77] and enjoyed further good notices from reviewers. "You Wear It Well" was a hit single that reached number 13 in the US and went to number one in the UK, while "Twisting the Night Away" made explicit Stewart's debt to Sam Cooke. For the body of his early solo work Stewart earned tremendous critical praise. Rolling Stone's 1980 Illustrated History of Rock & Roll includes this in its Stewart entry:[46]

Rarely has a singer had as full and unique a talent as Rod Stewart; rarely has anyone betrayed his talent so completely. Once the most compassionate presence in music, he has become a bilious self-parody — and sells more records than ever [...] a writer who offered profound lyricism and fabulous self-deprecating humour, teller of tall tales and honest heartbreaker, he had an unmatched eye for the tiny details around which lives turn, shatter, and reform [...] and a voice to make those details indelible. [... His solo albums] were defined by two special qualities: warmth, which was redemptive, and modesty, which was liberating. If ever any rocker chose the role of everyman and lived up to it, it was Rod Stewart.

The Faces released their final album Ooh La La, which reached number one in the UK and number 21 in the US in 1973.[74][75] The band toured Australasia, Japan, Europe and the UK in 1974[78] to support the album and the single "Pool Hall Richard".

  Stewart (right) whilst in Faces, with Ronnie Wood (left)

  1974–75: Smiler and Faces tour

In late 1974 Stewart released his Smiler album. In Britain, it reached number one, and the single "Farewell" number seven, but only number 13 on the Billboard pop album charts and the single "Mine for Me" only number 91 on the Billboard pop singles charts. It was his last original album for Mercury Records. After the release of the double album compilation The Best of Rod Stewart he switched to Warner Bros. Records and remained with them throughout the vast majority of his career (Faces were signed to Warners, and Stewart's solo releases in the UK appeared on the Riva label until 1981).

In 1975 the Faces toured the US twice (with Ronnie Wood joining The Rolling Stones' US tour in between)[78] before Stewart announced the Faces' break-up at the end of the year.[79]

  1975–77: Atlantic Crossing and further releases

In 1975, Rod Stewart moved to Los Angeles. He released the Atlantic Crossing album for his new record company, using producer Tom Dowd and a different sound based on the Muscle Shoals Rhythm Section. Atlantic Crossing marked both a return to form and a return to the Top 10 of the Billboard album charts. The first single, a cover of the Sutherland Brothers song "Sailing", was a number one hit in the UK, but it only reached the Top 60 of the US charts. The single returned to the UK Top 10 a year later when used as the theme music for a BBC documentary series about HMS Ark Royal, and having been a hit twice over became, and remains, Stewart's biggest-selling single in the UK. His Holland-Dozier-Holland cover "This Old Heart Of Mine" was also a Top 100 hit in 1976.[74] Additionally in 1976 Stewart covered The Beatles' song "Get Back" for the ephemeral musical documentary All This and World War II.[80]

Later in 1976, Stewart topped the US Billboard Hot 100 for eight weeks and the Australian ARIA chart with the ballad "Tonight's the Night", with an accompanying music video featuring Ekland.[74] It came from the A Night on the Town album, which went to number two on the Billboard album charts and was Stewart's first album to go platinum. By explicitly marking the album as having a "fast side" and a "slow side", Stewart continued the trend started by Atlantic Crossing. "The First Cut Is the Deepest", a cover of a Cat Stevens song, went number one in the UK in 1977, and top 30 in the US.[77][74] "The Killing of Georgie (Part 1 and 2)", about the murder of a gay man, was also a Top 40 hit for Stewart during 1977.[74]

  1977–81: Blondes Have More Fun

Foot Loose & Fancy Free featured Rod's own band, the original Rod Stewart Group that featured Carmine Appice, Phil Chen, Jim Cregan, Billy Peek, Gary Grainger and John Jarvis, from 1977 continued Stewart's run of chart success, again reaching number two. "You're In My Heart" was the hit single, reaching number four in the US.[74] The rocker "Hot Legs" achieved a lot of radio airplay as did the confessional "I Was Only Joking". In appearance, Stewart's look had evolved to include a glam element, including make-up and spandex clothes. Stewart scored another UK number one and US number one single with "Da Ya Think I'm Sexy?", which was a crossover hit reaching number five on the Billboard black charts due to its disco sound.[74] This was the lead single from 1978's Blondes Have More Fun...or do they?, which went to number one on the Billboard album charts and sold 4 million albums. It was to be Stewart's last number one album for 25 years.

A focal point of criticisms about this period was his biggest-selling 1978 disco hit "Da Ya Think I'm Sexy?", which was atypical of his earlier output, and disparaged by critics.[81] In interviews, Stewart, while admitting his accompanying look had become "tarty", has defended the lyrics by pointing out that the song is a third-person narrative slice-of-life portrayal, not unlike those in his earlier work, and that it is not about him. However, the song's refrain was identical to Brazilian Jorge Ben Jor's earlier "Taj Mahal" and a lawsuit ensued. Stewart donated his royalties from the song to UNICEF, and he performed it with his band at the Music for UNICEF Concert at the United Nations General Assembly in 1979.

Rod moved a bit to a more New Wave direction in 1980 by releasing the album Foolish Behaviour. The album produced one hit single, "Passion", which proved particularly popular in South Africa (reaching no. 1 on the Springbok Top 20 Charts and Radio 5 Charts in early 1981). It also reached No. 5 on the US Billboard Charts. Later in 1981, Stewart added further elements of New Wave and synth pop to his sound for the Tonight I'm Yours album. The title song reached #20 in the U.S., while "Young Turks" reached the Top 5 with the album going platinum.[74] In August 1981, MTV was launched in the US with several of Stewart's videos in heavy rotation. On 18 December 1981, Stewart played the Los Angeles Forum, along with Kim Carnes and Tina Turner. This show was broadcast around the world to a television audience of 35 million.

  1982–2001: Body Wishes, and continued success

  Stewart performing in Dublin Ireland, in 1981

Stewart's career then went into a relative slump, and his albums between Tonight I'm Yours (1981) and Out of Order (1988) received harsh criticism from many critics. He was also criticised for breaking the widely observed cultural boycott of apartheid South Africa by performing at the Sun City resort complex in the bantustan of Bophuthatswana as part of his Body Wishes (1983) and Camouflage (1984) tours. He only had four Top 10 singles between 1982 and 1988, "Young Turks" (#5,1982), "Some Guys Have All the Luck" (#10, 1984), "Infatuation" (#6, 1984) and "Love Touch" (#6, 1986), although "Baby Jane" became his sixth and final UK number one in 1983. It reached #14 in the US.[74] The corresponding Camouflage album went gold in the UK, and the single "Infatuation" (which featured his old friend Jeff Beck on the guitar) received considerable play on MTV. The second single "Some Guys Have All The Luck" reached #15 in the UK and #10 in the US.[74] A reunion with Jeff Beck produced a successful take on Curtis Mayfield's "People Get Ready", but an attempt to tour together fell apart after a few dates. He reached UK number two in 1986 with "Every Beat Of My Heart".[75]

In January 1985, he performed at the Rock in Rio festival in Rio de Janeiro before an estimated audience of over 100,000. In 1988, he returned with Out Of Order, produced by Duran Duran's Andy Taylor and by Bernard Edwards of Chic. "Lost in You", "Forever Young", "Crazy About Her", and "My Heart Can't Tell You No" from that album were all top 15 hits on the Billboard Hot 100 and mainstream rock charts, with the latter even reaching the Top Five. "Forever Young" was an unconscious revision of Bob Dylan's song of the same name; the artists reached an agreement about sharing royalties. The song reached #12 in the U.S.[74] In September 1988, Stewart performed "Forever Young" at the 1988 MTV Video Music Awards at the Universal Amphitheatre in Los Angeles.[82]

In January 1989, Stewart set out on the South American leg of the Out of Order Tour playing to sell-out audiences throughout Americas. There were 80,000 people at his show at Corregidora Stadium, Querétaro, México (9 April), and 50,000 at Jalisco Stadium, Guadalajara, Jalisco (12 April). In Buenos Aires, the audience at the River Plate Stadium, which seats 70,000+, was at over 90,000, with several thousand outside the stadium. Firehoses were sprayed on the crowd to avoid heat prostration.

Stewart's version of the Tom Waits song "Downtown Train" went to number three on the Billboard Hot 100 in 1990.[74] This song was taken from a four-CD compilation set called Storyteller - The Complete Anthology: 1964–1990. The Vagabond Heart album continued his comeback with "Rhythm of My Heart" reaching #5 on Billboard, and "The Motown Song" reaching the top 10.[74] Also in 1990 he recorded "It Takes Two" with Tina Turner, which reached number five on the UK charts. In 1991 Stewart contributed guest lead vocals to the song "My Town" by the Canadian band Glass Tiger.

At the 1993 Brit Awards in London, Stewart picked up the prize for Outstanding Contribution to Music.[83] Stewart brought back The Faces on stage for an impromptu reunion.[83] In 1993 Stewart recorded "All For Love" with Sting and Bryan Adams for the soundtrack to the movie The Three Musketeers; the single reached number one in the US and number two in the UK.[75] Also in 1993, Stewart reunited with Ronnie Wood to record an MTV Unplugged special that included "Handbags and Gladrags", "Cut Across Shorty", and four selections from Every Picture Tells A Story. The show also featured an acoustic version of Van Morrison's "Have I Told You Lately", which topped the Billboard adult contemporary chart and #5 on the Billboard Hot 100.[74] A rendition of "Reason to Believe" also garnered considerable airplay. The resulting Unplugged...and Seated album reached number two on the Billboard 200 album charts.[74]

Stewart was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1994, presented by Jeff Beck.[77] On 31 December 1994, Stewart played in front on 4.2 million people on Copacabana beach in Rio, and made it into the Guinness Book of World Records for staging the largest free rock concert attendance in history.[84]

By the early 1990s, Stewart had mostly abandoned creating his own material, saying that he was not a natural songwriter and that the tepid response to his recent efforts was not rewarding.[85] In 1995, Stewart released A Spanner in the Works containing a single written by Tom Petty "Leave Virginia Alone," which reached the Top 10 of the adult contemporary charts. The latter half of the 1990s was not so commercially successful, though the 1996 album If We Fall in Love Tonight managed to ship gold and hit #19 on the Billboard album chart, thanks in large part to an appearance on the Oprah Winfrey show.

When We Were the New Boys, his final album on the Warner Bros. label released in 1998, contained versions of songs by Britpop acts such as Oasis and Primal Scream, and reached number two on the UK album charts. In 2000, Stewart decided to leave Warner Bros. and moved to Atlantic Records, another division of Warner Music Group. In 2001, he released Human, his only album for Atlantic. Human only just reached the Top 50 in 2001 with the single "I Can't Deny It" going Top 40 in the UK and Top 20 in the adult contemporary.

Stewart then signed to Clive Davis' new J Records label. The Story So Far: The Very Best Of Rod Stewart, a greatest hits album compiled from his time at Warner Bros., went to the Top 10 in the UK and reached number one in places like Belgium and France in 2001.

  2002–09: The Great American Songbook releases

By 2002, Stewart had sold over 100 million records during his career.[86] Stewart then concentrated on singing 1930s and 1940s pop standards from the "Great American Songbook", written by songwriters such as Irving Berlin, Cole Porter, and George and Ira Gershwin, with great popular success. These albums have been released on Clive Davis's J Records label and have seen Stewart enjoy album sales equal to the 1970s.

The first album from the songbook series, It Had to Be You: the Great American Songbook, reached number four on the US album chart, number eight in the UK and number ten in Canada when released in late 2002. The track "These Foolish Things" (which is actually a British, not American, song) reached number 13 on the Billboard adult contemporary charts and number two in Taiwan. "They Can't Take That Away From Me" went Top 20 on the world Internet charts and Top 30 on the adult contemporary charts.

The second series album, As Time Goes By: the Great American Songbook 2, reached number two in the US, number four in the UK and number one in Canada. "Bewitched, Bothered and Bewildered", a duet with Cher, went Top 20 on the US adult contemporary charts and Top 5 in Taiwan. "Time After Time" was another Top 30 track on the US adult contemporary charts. A musical called Tonight's The Night, featuring many of Stewart's songs opened, 7 November 2003 at London's Victoria Palace Theatre. It is written and directed by Ben Elton, who previously created a similar production; We Will Rock You, with music by Queen.

In 2004, Stewart reunited with Ronnie Wood for concerts of Faces material. A Rod Stewart and the Faces best of Changing Faces reached the Top 20 of the UK album charts. Five Guys Walk into a Bar..., a Faces box set compilation, went into the shops. Stewart has also mentioned working with Wood on an album to be entitled You Strum, I'll Sing. In late 2004, Stardust: the Great American Songbook 3, the third album in Stewart's songbook series, was released. It was his first US number one album in 25 years, selling over 200,000 albums in its first week. It also debuted at number one in Canada, number three in the UK and Top 10 in Australia. His version of Louis Armstrong's "What a Wonderful World", featuring Stevie Wonder, made the Top 20 of the world adult charts. He also recorded a duet with Dolly Parton for the album - "Baby, It's Cold Outside". Stewart won his first ever Grammy Award for this album.

The year 2005 saw the release of the fourth songbook album, Thanks for the Memory: The Great American Songbook 4; it included duets with Diana Ross and Elton John. Within weeks of its release, the CD made it to number two on the Top 200 list. In late 2006, Stewart made his return to rock music and his new approach to country music with the release of Still the Same... Great Rock Classics of Our Time, a new album featuring rock and southern rock milestones from the last four decades, including a cover of Creedence Clearwater Revival's "Have You Ever Seen the Rain?", which was released as the first single. The album debuted at number one on the Billboard charts with 184,000 copies in its first week. The number one debut was helped by a concert in New York City that was on MSN Music and an appearance on Dancing with the Stars. He performed tracks from his new album Live from the Nokia Theater on 9 October. Control Room broadcast the event Live on MSN and in 117 movie theatres across the country via National CineMedia. In November 2006, Stewart was inducted into the UK Music Hall of Fame.[87]

On 12 December, he performed for the first time at the Royal Variety Performance at the London Coliseum in front of HRH Prince of Wales and The Duchess of Cornwall, singing another Cat Stevens number, "Father and Son", and Glasgow singer/songwriter Frankie Miller's song It's a Heartache, made famous by Bonnie Tyler. On 22 December 2006 Stewart hosted the 8th Annual A Home for the Holidays special on CBS at 8:00 pm (PST). In 2007, Rod's son Sean starred in the A&E television show Sons of Hollywood, in which Rod's role as a parent is a major theme. On 1 July 2007, Rod Stewart performed "Sailing", "Baby Jane" and "Maggie May" at the memorial concert for Princess Diana at Wembley Stadium in London.[88] On 11 June 2008, Stewart announced that the Faces had discussed a reunion for at least one or two concerts.[89]

  2009–present: Songbook

On 20 May 2009, Stewart performed "Maggie May" on the grand finale of American Idol season 8. On 2 July 2009 Stewart performed his only UK date this year at Home Park, Plymouth. On 29 September 2009 a 4-CD, 65-track compilation entitled Rod Stewart Sessions 1971-1998 was released; it is composed of previously-unreleased tracks and outtakes from the bulk of his career. Stewart has also mentioned plans for a compilation of covers of soul classics, the possible release of another edition of the Great American Songbook album and a country covers album.[90]

On 14 November 2009, Stewart recorded a TV program in the UK for ITV that was screened on 5 December 2009. The music in the programme featured tracks from his new album and some old favourites. On 14 Jan 2010, Rhino records released Stewart's "Once in a Blue Moon" a "lost album" originally recorded in 1992, featuring ten cover songs including the Rolling Stones' "Ruby Tuesday", Dylan's "The Groom's Still Waiting at the Altar" and Stevie Nicks' "Stand Back", as well as Tom Waits' "Tom Traubert's Blues." On 19 October 2010, Stewart released another edition of his Great American Songbook series titled "Fly Me to the Moon...The Great American Songbook Volume V" on J Records.

Stewart performed with Stevie Nicks on The Heart & Soul Tour. Starting 20 March 2011 in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, the tour visits arena concerts in North America – with performances in New York, Toronto, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, Chicago, Detroit, Tampa and Montreal confirmed.[91]

Stewart headlined the Sunday show at the 2011 Hard Rock Calling Festival on 26 June at London's Hyde Park.[92] Stewart signed on to a two year residency at the Colosseum at Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, commencing on 24 August.[93][94] Performing his greatest hits, the residency also sees him perform selected tracks from his upcoming, untitled blues album.[94]

On October 7, RCA Music Group announced it was disbanding J Records along with Arista Records and Jive Records. With the shutdown, Stewart (and all other artists previously signed to these three labels) will release his future material on the RCA Records brand.[95]

  Personal life

In May 2000, Stewart was diagnosed with thyroid cancer, for which he underwent surgery in the same month. It had been previously reported he suffered from a benign vocal cord nodule.[96] Besides being a major health scare, the resulting surgery also threatened his famous voice, and he had to re-learn how to sing.[97] Since then he has been active in raising funds for The City of Hope Foundation charity to find cures for all forms of cancer, especially those affecting children.[96]

Stewart plays for his LA Exiles team made up of mostly English expatriates plus a few celebrities, including Billy Duffy of The Cult, in a senior soccer league in Palos Verdes, California,[98] He still kicks footballs into the audience during concerts. He is a well-known supporter of Celtic F.C., which he mentions in his hit "You're in My Heart", and the Scotland national team. Stewart also follows Manchester United as his English side, and he explains his love affair with both Celtic and Man United in Frank Worrall's book Celtic United.[99]

Stewart is a keen model railway enthusiast. His 23 x 124-foot HO scale layout in his Los Angeles home is modelled after the New York Central and the Pennsylvania Railroads during the 1940s. Called the Three Rivers City, the layout was featured in the cover story of the December 2007 and December 2010 issues of Model Railroader Magazine. In the 2007 article Stewart said that he would rather be in a model railroad magazine than a music magazine.[100] He has a second layout at his UK home. That layout is based on Britain's East Coast Main Line. Stewart's home is located in Epping, Essex, on part of the Copped Hall estate [101]

A keen car enthusiast, Stewart owns one of the 400 Ferrari Enzos. In 1982, Stewart was car-jacked on Los Angeles' Sunset Boulevard, while he was parking his $50,000 Porsche.[102] The car was subsequently recovered.

On 11 October 2005, Stewart received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6801 Hollywood Boulevard (star number 2093). On 18 April and 19 April 2006 Stewart was the guest artist and celebrity vocal coach on American Idol, leading the remaining seven finalists in singing entries from the Great American Songbook.

In July 2007, Stewart collected his CBE for "services to music" at Buckingham Palace, commenting; "It's a marvellous occasion. We're the only country in the world to honour the common man."[103] Stewart was estimated to have a fortune of £115 million in the Sunday Times Rich List of 2011, making him one of the 20 richest people in the British music industry.[104]

  Relationships and family

Stewart is known for his liaisons with women (had eight children with five of them):

Length Name Child(ren) Note
1963–1964 Art student
Susannah Boffey[105]
Sarah Streeter (born 1963)[106] Sarah was raised by adoptive parents.[107]
1971–1975 Model
Dee Harrington
1975–1977 Actress
Britt Ekland
First marriage
1979–1984
Alana Hamilton
(ex-wife of actor George Hamilton)
Kimberly Stewart (born 21 August 1979) On 21 August 2011, Kimberly gave birth to her first child, daughter Delilah Genoveva, with Oscar-winning actor Benicio Del Toro.[108][109]
Sean Stewart (born 1 September 1980)
1983–1990 Model
Kelly Emberg
Ruby Stewart (born 17 June 1987)
Second marriage
1990–2006
Model
Rachel Hunter
Renée Stewart (born 1 June 1992) They separated in 1999 and eventually divorced in 2006.
Liam McAlister Stewart (born 5 September 1994)[110]
Third marriage
2007–present
Model
Penny Lancaster-Stewart
Alastair Wallace Stewart (born 27 November 2005 in London) The couple married on 16 June 2007 on board the yacht Lady Ann Magee moored in the Italian port of Portofino.[111]
Aiden Stewart (born 16 February 2011)[112]

In reference to his divorces, Rod Stewart was once quoted as saying, "Instead of getting married again, I'm going to find a woman I don't like and just give her a house."[113]

  Awards and recognition

  Rod Stewart's star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, February 2006

  List of bands

During his career, Rod Stewart has been a member of a number of groups including:

  • Jimmy Powell and the Five Dimensions (1963)
  • The Hoochie Coochie Men (1964–1965)
  • Soul Agents (1965–1966)
  • Shotgun Express (1966)
  • The Jeff Beck Group (1966–1969)
  • Faces (1969–1975)

  Discography

Stewart's album and single sales total have been variously estimated as more than 100 million,[115] or at 200 million,[86] in either case earning him a place on the list of best-selling music artists.

  UK/US number one albums

  UK/US number one singles

  See also

  Notes

  1. ^ The precise extent of Stewart's involvement with Brentford F.C. is unclear. The 2005 Ewbank and Hildred biography states he was there for two months including pre-season fixtures. The 1981 Nelson and Bangs biography gives an undated Stewart quote saying he was there for three weeks, paid £8 per seven-day week, but never played in any form. In the 2004 Rolling Stone interview, Stewart says he went three or four times a week and did play. The 1995 Will Birch Mojo article quotes Brentford Deputy President Eric White as saying, "He trained with us for a week or two, and he may even have kicked a ball around with the juniors, but there is no record of Rod Stewart ever having signed to Brentford. Unfortunately, nobody at the club remembers his time here." All accounts agree that Stewart was not pleased by having to clean the first team's boots.
  2. ^ Contrary to legend, during this time Stewart likely did not play harmonica on Millie Small's 1964 hit "My Boy Lollipop". That was probably Peter Hogman of the Dimensions, although Powell has also claimed credit. See Ewbank and Hildred, p. 33, and the Birch Mojo article. While Powell did record and release a single during this period, Stewart did not appear on it. See Gray, p. 7.
  3. ^ Per the Birch Mojo article. Some sources give the date of the Stewart–Baldry rail station meeting as 7 January, but that may be confusing it with the date of Cyril Davies' death. Other sources give no specific date.
  4. ^ The demo recordings with were later released in 1976, against Stewart's wishes. See Gray p. 10.
  5. ^ These later surfaced in 1971 as part of Gomelsky's Rock Generation releases on BYG Records; the poorly recorded material has been repackaged as Rod Stewart and Steampacket many times since. See Nelson and Bangs, p. 61, and the Allmusic entry for Steampacket.

  References

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  2. ^ The Times 10 January 2009, Retrieved 9 January 2010
  3. ^ "ABOUT SMILER - Frequently Asked Questions". Rodstewartfanclub.com. http://www.rodstewartfanclub.com/about_smiler/faq/index.php. Retrieved 2012-01-02. 
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  5. ^ Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "Faces: Biography". Allmusic. http://www.allmusic.com/artist/p4218. Retrieved 1 May 2009. 
  6. ^ Stewart show backed by public cash BBC News Retrieved 28 March 2011
  7. ^ UK Top 40 Hit Database (Rod Stewart) everyHit.com
  8. ^ "Billboard Hot 100 Chart 50th Anniversary". Billboard. http://www.billboard.com/bbcom/specials/hot100/charts/top100-artists-20.shtml. Retrieved 1 October 2010. 
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  16. ^ Rees, Dafydd; Crampton, Luke (1996). Q Encyclopedia of Rock Stars. Dorling Kindersley. ISBN 0-7513-0393-3. 
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  23. ^ Gray, Rod Stewart: The Visual Documentary, p. 4.
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  33. ^ a b c d e f g Moritz (ed.), Current Year Biography 1979, p. 375.
  34. ^ Nelson and Bangs, Rod Stewart, p. 57.
  35. ^ a b Ewbank and Hildred, Rod Stewart: The New Biography, pp. 17–19.
  36. ^ a b c Ewbank and Hildred, Rod Stewart: The New Biography, pp. 24–28.
  37. ^ a b c Nelson and Bangs, Rod Stewart, p. 58.
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  39. ^ a b Hinman, The Kinks - All Day and All of the Night, p. 9.
  40. ^ "'Laugh? We Nearly Died'". Mojo. March 2006. 
  41. ^ a b c Ewbank and Hildred, Rod Stewart: The New Biography, pp. 21–23.
  42. ^ Wooldridge, Rock 'n' Roll London, p. 109.
  43. ^ a b c Gray, Rod Stewart: The Visual Documentary, p. 7.
  44. ^ a b Ewbank and Hildred, Rod Stewart: The New Biography, pp. 29–32.
  45. ^ a b c d e f Herbst, Peter (1989). The Rolling Stone Interviews: 1967-1980 (reissued ed.). Macmillan Publishing. pp. 118–126. ISBN 0-312-03486-5. 
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  47. ^ a b c Ewbank and Hildred, Rod Stewart: The New Biography, pp. 33–39.
  48. ^ Wooldridge, Rock 'n' Roll London, pp. 65–66.
  49. ^ a b Gray, Rod Stewart: The Visual Documentary, p. 8.
  50. ^ Gray, Rod Stewart: The Visual Documentary, p. 9.
  51. ^ a b Nelson and Bangs, Rod Stewart, p. 59.
  52. ^ a b c d e Gray, Rod Stewart: The Visual Documentary, pp. 10–12.
  53. ^ Tremlett, The Rod Stewart Story, as quoted extensively in Nelson and Bangs, Rod Stewart, pp. 60–61.
  54. ^ Gray, Rod Stewart: The Visual Documentary, p. 13.
  55. ^ Ewbank and Hildred, Rod Stewart: The New Biography, p. 41.
  56. ^ Gray, Rod Stewart: The Visual Documentary, p. 14.
  57. ^ a b c d e f g h i Nelson and Bangs, Rod Stewart, p. 61.
  58. ^ Pidgeon, Rod Stewart and the Changing Faces, as quoted in Nelson and Bangs, Rod Stewart, p. 61.
  59. ^ Unterberger, Richie. "The Steampacket: Biography". Allmusic. http://www.allmusic.com/artist/p20741. Retrieved 13 February 2010. 
  60. ^ a b c d e f g Gray, Rod Stewart: The Visual Documentary, pp. 15–17.
  61. ^ Ewbank and Hildred, Rod Stewart: The New Biography, p. 56.
  62. ^ a b Carson, Jeff Beck, pp. 71–72.
  63. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Gray, Rod Stewart: The Visual Documentary, pp. 18–21.
  64. ^ a b Carson, Jeff Beck, pp. 75, 78, 83–86.
  65. ^ a b Shelton, Robert (15 June 1968). "Jeff Beck Group Cheered in Debut" (fee required). The New York Times: p. 38. http://select.nytimes.com/mem/archive/pdf?res=F40711FD38541B7B93C7A8178DD85F4C8685F9. 
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  67. ^ a b Eder, Bruce. "Truth: Review". Allmusic. http://www.allmusic.com/album/r1564. Retrieved 14 February 2010. 
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  76. ^ The Sex Pistols’ Steve Jones: 'I lost everything, hit bottom, and had to work my way back up.'
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  91. ^ "Rod Stewart & Stevie Nicks Announce The Heart & Soul 2011 North American Tour". http://iknowjack.radio.com/2011/01/13/rod-stewart-stevie-nicks-announce-the-heart-soul-2011-north-american-tour/. 
  92. ^ Hard Rock Calling Glamour. Retrieved 23 August 2011
  93. ^ Rod Stewart Announces Two-Year Las Vegas Residency Rolling Stone. Retrieved 23 August 2011
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  95. ^ RCA's New Executive Team Named Under CEO Peter Edge Amid Layoffs (Update) Billboard. Retrieved 4 December 2011
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  98. ^ http://www.palosverdesrealty.net/462020.html%7C Palos Verdes Football ground
  99. ^ Worrall, Frank (2008). "Celtic United". Mainstream Publishing, 2008
  100. ^ Reynolds, Nigel (24 October 2007). "Rod Stewart is a model railway enthusiast". The Daily Telegraph (London). http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/music/3668740/Rod-Stewart-is-a-model-railway-enthusiast.html. Retrieved 22 May 2010. 
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  103. ^ a b Stewart rocks up to collect CBE BBC. Retrieved 8 December 2011
  104. ^ "The top 50 richest people in music". http://www.thisismoney.co.uk/celebrity/article.html?in_article_id=532417&in_page_id=181. 
  105. ^ Gannon,Louise. "Rod Stewart: I burst into tears when Penny said she was pregnant", Daily Mirror, 1 November 2010.
  106. ^ "Rod Stewart and Daughter Reunite After 47 Years" Liquida Nov 2010.
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  108. ^ Garvey, Marianne (19 September 2011). "Benicio Del Toro & Kim Stewart Newborn's Future Secured". E! News. http://www.eonline.com/news/kimberly_stewart_benicio_del_toros_baby/264719. Retrieved 19 September 2011. 
  109. ^ "Kimberly Stewart Gives Birth to Baby Girl!". Us Weekly. 21 August 2011. http://www.usmagazine.com/momsbabies/news/kimberly-stewart-gives-birth-to-baby-girl-2011218. Retrieved 21 August 2011. 
  110. ^ Anderson, Craig (5 October 2011). "Young players key for Scottish ice hockey". BBC Sport (BBC). http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/ice_hockey/15186524.stm. Retrieved 5 October 2011. 
  111. ^ Rod and Pen wed on his yacht
  112. ^ It's a Boy for Rod Stewart People. Retrieved 23 August 2011.
  113. ^ Smithies, Grant (28 October 2007). "Rod Stewart". Sunday Star Times. Archived from the original on 12 May 2012. http://www.stuff.co.nz/sunday-star-times/features/profiles/43421/Rod-Stewart. Retrieved 24 June 2008. 
  114. ^ Brown Names Stewart 'best White Soul Singer'
  115. ^ "Stewart show backed by public cash". BBC News. 11 April 2002. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/northern_ireland/1922965.stm. 

  Bibliography

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Tips: browse the semantic fields (see From ideas to words) in two languages to learn more.

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