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Romani people by country

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The Romani people are divided into a number of distinct populations, the largest being the Roma, located originally, and currently still mostly, in Central and Eastern Europe.

Distribution of the Romani people in Europe (2007 Council of Europe "average estimates", totalling 9.8 million)[1]
* The size of the wheel symbols reflects absolute population size
* The gradient reflects the percent in the country's population: 0%                              10%.
Distribution of the Romanies in Europe based on self-designation.

There is no official or reliable count of the Romani populations worldwide.[2] Many Romanies refuse to register their ethnic identity in official censuses for fear of discrimination[3]

There are an estimated 4 to 9 million Romani people in Europe and Asia Minor (as of 2000s).[4] although some high estimates by Romani organizations give numbers as high as 14 million.[5]Significant Romani populations are found in the Balkan peninsula, in some Central European states, in Spain, France, Russia, and Ukraine. Several more million Romanies may live out of Europe, in particularly in the Middle East and in the Americas.

The Romani people recognize divisions among themselves based in part on territorial, cultural and dialectal differences and self-designation. The main branches are:[6][7][8][9]

  1. Roma, crystallized in Eastern Europe and Central Italy, emigrated also (mostly from the 19th century onwards), in the rest of Europe, but also on the other continents;
  2. Iberian Kale, mostly in Spain (see Romani people in Spain), but also in Portugal, Southern France and Latin America;
  3. Finnish Kale, in Finland, emigrated also in Sweden;
  4. Welsh Kale, in Wales;
  5. Romanichal, in the United Kingdom, emigrated also to the United States and Australia;
  6. Sinti, in German-speaking areas of Central Europe and some neighboring countries;
  7. Manush, in French-speaking areas of Central Europe;
  8. Romanisæl, in Sweden and Norway.

Among Romanies there are further internal differentiations, like Bashaldé; Churari; Luri; Ungaritza; Lovari (Lovara) from Hungary; Machvaya (Machavaya, Machwaya, or Macwaia) from Serbia; Romungro from Hungary and neighbouring carpathian countries; Erlides (also Yerlii or Arli); Xoraxai (Horahane) from Greece/Turkey; Boyash (Lingurari, Ludar, Ludari, Rudari, or Zlătari) from Romanian/Moldovan miners; Ursari from Romanian/Moldovan bear-trainers; Argintari from silversmiths; Aurari from goldsmiths; Florari from florists; and Lăutari from singers.

Contents

Population by country

This is a table of Romani people by country. Note that some countries with a Romani population. The list does not include the Dom people often subsumed under "gypsies".

The official number of Romani people is disputed in many countries, because many Romani individuals often refuse to register their ethnic identity for fear of discrimination,[10] determining parallel unofficial censuses, surveys and estimations in order to reveal the true numbers.

countryregionpopulationsubgroups
AfghanistanAsia13,000[11]Zargari[dubious ]
AlbaniaSouthern Europe, Balkans1,300 (official)
to 80,000–150,000 (estimated)[12][13]
ArgentinaOverseas300,000Kalderash, Boyash, Kale
AustraliaOverseas5,000+[14]Romanichal, Boyash
AustriaCentral Europe20,000–50,000[15][16]Burgenland-Roma, Sinti, Lovari, Arlije from Macedonia, Kalderash from Serbia, Gurbeti from Serbia and Macedonia
AzerbaijanAsia2,000 [17]Garachi[dubious ]
BelarusEastern Europe10,000 (census data)
or 50,000–60,000
(estimated data)[18][19]
BelgiumWestern Europe10,000–15,000[15]Romungro
Bosnia and HerzegovinaSouthern Europe, Balkans60,000 or 80,000
and 400,000 Vlax Roma[20][21][22]
BrazilOverseas678,000–1,000,000Kale, Kalderash, Machvaya, Xoraxane, Boyash
BulgariaSouthern/Eastern Europe, Balkans370,908 (official census)
to 800,000[23]
Yerli, Gurbeti, Kalderash, Boyash, Ursari
CanadaOverseas80,000[24]Kalderash, Romanichal
ChileOverseas15,000–20,000Xoraxane
ColombiaOverseas79,000[25]Kalderash
CroatiaCentral / Southern Europe9,463 (census results)[26]
Estimated: 40,000[27] to 300,000[28]
and 131,000 Sinte (by Ethnologue)[29]
Lovari
Czech RepublicCentral/Eastern Europe12,000
or 220,000[30] to 360,000[31][32]
Romungro; Bohemian Roma
DenmarkNorthern Europe1,500–2,000[15]
EcuadorOverseas2,000Kalderash
FinlandNorthern Europe10,000+ [33][34]Kàlo
FranceWestern Europe500,000 (official estimation)
1,200,000–1,300,000 (unofficial estimation)[35][36]
Manush, Kalderash, Lovari, Sinti
GermanyCentral / Western Europe210,000[37]mostly Sinti, but also Balkan Roma, Vlax Roma
GreeceSouthern Europe, Balkans200,000
or 300,000–500,000 [38][39]
Arlije
HungaryCentral/Eastern Europe205,984[40];
394,000–482,000[41];
450,000–600,000[42];
to
800,000-1,000,000[43][44]
Romungro, Boyash, Lovari
IraqAsia?Qawliya, Kalderash, Xoraxane[citation needed]
IrelandNorthern Europe8,000Romanichal, Kalderash, Lovari, Romungro
ItalySouthern Europe90,000–180,000[15] + 152,000 illegal Roma in 700 camps[45]Sinti, Abruzzesi Roma, Ursari,Kalderash, Xoraxane
KazakhstanAsia/Eastern Europe7,000[citation needed]Sinti[46]
LatviaEastern/Northern Europe8,205 (census 2005) or 13,000–15,000[47]Lofitka Roma (in same Baltic Romani dialect family as Polska Roma and Ruska Roma)
LithuaniaEastern/Northern Europe3,000–4,000[15]
LuxembourgWestern Europe100–150[15]
Republic of MacedoniaSouthern Europe, Balkans53,879 Roma and 3,843 Balkan Egyptians
to 260,000[48]
Yerli, Gurbeti, Cergari, Egyptians
MexicoOverseasKale, Boyash, Machwaya, Lovari, Kalderash[49]
MoldovaEastern Europe12,900 (census) to 20,000–25,000[15] or
150,000[50][51]
Rusurja, Ursari, Kalderash
MontenegroSouthern Europe, Balkans2,601
to 20,000 [27],
additionally 8,000 registered Roma refugees from Kosovo, the entire number of IDP Kosovarian Roma in Montenegro is twice as large.[52]
NetherlandsWestern Europe35,000–40,000[15]
NorwayNorthern Europe6,500 or more[53]Norwegian and Swedish Travellers (Romanoar, Tavringer), Vlax[citation needed]
PeruOverseas8,400[dubious ][54]Kalderash, Calo
PolandCentral/Eastern Europe15,000–60,000[55][56]Polska Roma
PortugalSouthern / Western Europe40,000–100,000[15][57][58]
RomaniaSouthern/Central/Eastern Europe535,250 (census)
700,000–2,500,000 (estimated)[59][60][61]
Kalderash, Ursari, Lovari, Vlax, Romungro
RussiaEastern Europe, Asia182,766 (census 2002)
or
450,000–1,000,000 (estimated)[62][63]
Ruska Roma (descended from Polska Roma, from Poland), Kalderash (from Moldova), Servy (from Ukraine and Balkans), Ursari (from Bulgaria) Lovare, Vlax Roma (from Walachia).[citation needed]
SerbiaSouthern Europe, Balkans108,193
or 400,000–800,000 [27][64]
Ursari, Machvaya, Egyptians
SlovakiaCentral/Eastern Europe92,500 or 550,000[65][66][67][68][69]Romungro
SloveniaCentral / Southern Europe, Balkans3,246–10,000[15][70]
South AfricaOverseas7,900[citation needed]Romanichal
SpainSouthern / Western Europe600,000–650,000 (official estimation)[71]
600,000–800,000 [72]
or 1,500,000[73]
Gitanos, Kalderash, Boyash
SwedenNorthern Europe15,000–20,000[15] or 28,092[74]Swedish Travellers (Tavringer), Vlax (Kalderash, Lovara), Kàlo (Finnish Roma)
SwitzerlandCentral / Western Europe30,000–35,000[15]
TurkeyAsia and Balkans35,000[75] to 2,000,000[76]Bosha, Yerli
UkraineEastern Europe47,587 (census 2001)
or 400,000 (estimated)[77]
Kelderare (Hungarian name for Kotlyary; Zakarpattia), Kotlyary (other Ukrainian regions), Ruska Roma (northern Ukraine), Servy (Serby, southern and central Ukraine, from Serbia), Lovare (central Ukraine), Kelmysh, Crymy (in Crimea), Servica Roma (in Zakarpattia from Slovakia), Ungriko Roma (in Zakarpattia from Hungary)[78][79]
United KingdomWestern Europe44,000–94,000+[80]Romanichal, Welsh Kale
USAOverseas1,000,000 (Romani organizations' estimations)
UruguayOverseas2,000–5,000

Central and Eastern Europe

A significant proportion of the world's Romanies live in Central and Eastern Europe, often in squatter communities with very high unemployment, while only some are fully integrated in the society. However, in some cases—notably the Kalderash clan in Romania, who work as traditional coppersmiths—they have prospered. Some Romani families choose to immigrate to Western Europe now that many of the former Communist countries like the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Romania, Hungary and Bulgaria have entered the European Union and free travel is permitted. During the 1970s and 1980s many Romanies from former Yugoslavia migrated to Western European countries, especially to Austria, Germany and Sweden.

Romania

An 1852 Wallachian poster advertising an auction of Romani slaves.

There is a sizable minority of Romani people in Romania, known as Ţigani or recently as Rromi in Romanian, of 535,140 people or 2.5% of the total population (2001 census). The Romanies are the most socially-disadvantaged minority group in Romania, even though there are a variety of governmental and non-governmental programs for integration and social advancement, including the National Agency for the Roma and Romania's participation in the Decade of Roma Inclusion. In this program are participating Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Macedonia, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, and Spain. As an officially-recognized ethnic minority, the Romani people also have guaranteed representation in Parliament and official recognition of their language in localities where they make up more than 20% of the population.

Greece

Hungary

The number of Romani people in Hungary is disputed. In the 2001 census only 190,000 people called themselves Roma, but sociological estimates give much higher numbers (about 5%-10% of the total population). Since World War II, the number of Roma has increased rapidly, multiplying sevenfold in the last century[citation needed].

Russia

In Russian the Romani people are referred to as tzigani. The largest ethnic group of Romani people in Russia are the Ruska Roma. They are also the largest group in Belarus. They are adherents of the Russian Orthodox faith.

They came to Russia in the 18th century from Poland, and their language includes Polish, German, and Russian words.

The Ruska Roma were nomadic horse traders and singers. They traveled during the summer and stayed in cottages of Russian peasants during the winter. They paid for their lodging with money, or with the work of their horses.

In 1812, when Napoleon I invaded Russia, the Romani diasporas of Moscow and Saint Petersburg gave large sums of money and good horses for the Russian army. Many young Romani men took part in the war as uhlans.

At the end of the 19th century, Rusko Rom Nikolai Shishkin created a Romani theatre troupe. One of its plays was in the Romani language.

During World War II some Ruska Roma entered the army, by call-up and as volunteers. They took part in the war as soldiers, officers, infantrymen, tankmen, artillerymen, aviators, drivers, paramedical workers, and doctors. Some teenagers, old men and adult men were also partisans. Romani actors, singers, musicians, dancers (mostly women) performed for soldiers in the front line and in hospitals. A huge number of Roma, including many of the Ruska Roma, died or were murdered in territories occupied by the enemy, in battles, and in the blockade of Leningrad.

After World War II, music of the Ruska Roma became very popular. Romen Theatre, Romani singers and ensembles prospered. All Romanies living in the USSR began to perceive Ruska Roma culture as the basic Romani culture.

Bulgaria

Romani people constitute the third largest ethnic group (after Bulgarians and Turks) in Bulgaria, they are referred to as "tzigani" (цигани). According to the 2001 census, there were 370,908 Roma in Bulgaria, equivalent to 4.7% of the country's total population.[81]

Spanish Romani woman
A Romani family travelling (1837 print)

Western Europe

Spain

Romanies in Spain are generally known as Gitanos and tend to speak Caló which is basically Andalusian Spanish with a large number of Romani loanwords.[82] Estimates of the Spanish Gitano population range between 600,000 and 1,500,000 with the Spanish government estimating between 650,000 and 700,000. [83] Semi-nomadic Quinqui consider themselves apart from the Gitanos.

Portugal

The Romanies in Portugal are known as Ciganos, and their presence goes back to the second half of the 15th century. Early on, due to their socio-cultural difference and nomadic style of live, the Ciganos were the object of fierce discrimination and persecution.[84]

The number of Ciganos in Portugal is difficult to estimate, since there are no official statistics about race or ethnic categories. According to data from Council of Europe's European Commission against Racism and Intolerance[85] there are about 40,000 to 50,000 spread all over the country.[86]

The majority of the Ciganos do not have today a nomad style of life, rather concentrating themselves in the most important urban centers. This population is characterised by very low levels of educational qualification, social exclusion and residential and housing difficulties (many living in degraded ghettos). However, from the late 1990s to the 2000s, major public housing (bairros sociais) policies were targeted at the Portuguese Romani people.[87][88] The Ciganos are the ethnic group that the Portuguese most reject and discriminate against, and are also targets for discriminatory practices from the State administration, namely at a local level, finding persistent difficulties in the access to job placement, housing and social services, as well as in the relation to police forces.[89]

France

Romanies are generally known in spoken French as "Gitans" or "Tsiganes". "Romanichels" or "Manouches" are considered pejorative and "Bohémiens" is outdated.

"Gens du Voyage" (Travellers) is a widely accepted term and does not bear any social stigma. The French National Gendarmerie tends to refer to "MENS" ("Minorités Ethniques Non-Sédentarisées"), a neutral administrative term meaning Travelling Ethnic Minorities. By law, French municipalities have the obligation to allocate a piece of land to Romani travellers when they arrive.

Northern Europe

Finland

The Kale (or Kaale) Romanies of Finland are known in Finnish as mustalaiset ('blacks', cf. Romani: kalò, 'black') or romanit. Currently, there are approximately 10,000 Romanies living in Finland, mostly in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area.[citation needed] In Finland, Romani people usually wear their traditional dress in everyday life.[90]

Norway and Sweden

Romanies in Sweden were formerly known as zigenare for Roma and tattare for Romani Travellers. More recently the romer has been adopted as a collective designation referring to both groups, with resande (Travellers) also referring to the latter only. Currently, there are approximately 50,000 Romanies living in Sweden, many of them being Finnish Kale who immigrated in the 1960s. The latter, particularly women, often wear traditional dress in public.[91]

Romanies in Sweden have periodically suffered at the hands of the state. For example, the state has subjected children to being forcibly taken into foster care, or even forcibly sterilised Romani women. Prejudice against Romanies is widespread, with most stereotypes portraying Romanies as welfare cheats, shoplifters, and con artists. In the 1992, Bert Karlsson, one of the leaders of Ny Demokrati, declared that "Gypsies are responsible for 90% of crime against senior citizens" in Sweden.[92] Previously he had tried to ban the entry of Romanies to his Skara Sommarland theme park, because he considered them responsible for theft. Some shopkeepers, employers and landlords continue to discriminate Romanies.[93]

The situation is, however, improving. There are several Romani organisations that promote Romani rights and culture in Sweden. Since 2000, Romani chib is an officially recognised minority language in Sweden. The Swedish government also has a special standing Delegation for Romani Issues. There is now even a Romani folk high school in Gothenburg.[94]

United Kingdom

Romanies in England are generally known as Romanichals or Romani Gypsies, while their Welsh equivalent are known as Kale. They have been known in the UK since at least the early 16th century and may number up to 120,000. There is also a sizable population of East European Roma who immigrated into the UK in the late 1990s/early 2000s, and also after EU expansion in 2004.

There are records of Romani people in Scotland in the early 16th century, the first recorded reference to "the Egyptians" would appear to be in 1492, in the reign of James IV, when an entry in the Book of the Lord High Treasurer records a payment "to Peter Ker of four shillings, to go to the king at Hunthall, to get letters subscribed to the 'King of Rowmais'". Two days after, a payment of twenty pounds was made at the king's command to the messenger of the 'King of Rowmais'.[95]

It is difficult to be clear about the numbers of Romanies today in Scotland, according to the Scottish Traveller Education Programme, there are probably about 20,000 Scottish Gypsies/Travellers.[96] Although it is unknown how many of this number are Romanies and it is recognised that Gypsies and Travellers in Scotland are not one homogenous group, but consist of several groups each with different histories and cultures, and could consist of many unrelated ethnic groups.

From this, the term "gypsy" in the United Kingdom has come to mean, in common culture, anyone who travels with no fixed abode (regardless of ethnic group). This use of the term is synonymous with "pikey"[citation needed], which is seen by many as a derogatory term. In some parts of the UK they are commonly called "tinkers" from their work as tinsmiths.

West Asia

The route taken by the medieval proto-Romanies cut across Persia and Asia Minor to Europe. There remains a significant number of Romanies in Asia Minor.[citation needed] Other Romani populations in the Middle East are the result of modern migrations from Europe. Also found in the Middle East are the various groups of the Dom people often identified as "gypsies", but likely deriving from a migration out of India several centuries earlier than that of the proto-Romanies.

Cyprus

History

Although there are no official records confirming the arrival of Roma in Cyprus, it has been estimated by historical calculation that the first immigrants came between 1322 and 1400, when Cyprus was under the rule of the Lusignan (Crusader) kings. These Roma were part of a general movement from Asia Minor to Europe. Those who landed on Cyprus probably came across from the Crusader colonies on the eastern Mediterranean coast (present day Lebanon and Israel).[97]

There is no evidence to suggest that any one cause motivated the Roma to leave mainland Asia, yet there are historical events which would have caused widespread upheaval and prompted a move to the nearby island. In 1347 the contagious Black Death had reached Constantinople, the capital of Byzantium, in 1390 the Turks had defeated the Greek kingdom in Asia and ten years later the Battle of Aleppo marked the advance of the Mongols under Tamerlane.

Only in 1468 is there any written record of Roma in Cyprus. In the Chronicle of Cyprus compiled by Florio Bustron, the Cingani are said to have paid tax to the royal treasury, at that time King James II. Later, in 1549, the French traveler Andre Theret found "les Egyptiens ou Bohemiens" in Cyprus and other Mediterranean islands. He observed their simple way of life, supported by the production of nails by the men and belts by the women, which were sold to the local population.

It is likely that a second immigration took place some time after the Turks occupied the island in 1571 and that some Kalderash came in the 19th century. During the Middle Ages, Cyprus was on a regular shipping route from Bari in Italy to the Holy Land.

Currently, Roma in Cyprus refer to themselves as Kurbet, and their language as Kurbetcha — although most no longer speak it. Specifically Christian or Greek-speaking Roma are known as Mantides.[98]

Names of Roma in Cyprus

  • Tsignos: the official term used in Greek documents and written material. It comes from the term Cingani (used already in the text of 1468) which in turn comes from the archaic word Adsincan used in mediaeval Byzantium.
  • Yleftos: the Cypriot dialect form of mainland Greek Giftos. This is common in speech and comes from earlier Aigiptos, a reference to the earlier belief that the Romanies came from Egypt.[99]

(For additional names of Roma in Greek-speaking Cyprus, see Roma in Greece)

Turkey

Romani people in Turkey are known as Çingene (Mostly), Çingen or Çingan, Çingit (West Black Sea region), Cono (South Turkey), Roman (Izmir) [100] and Gipleri (derived from the term "Egyptian"). They have integrated fully to the ethnic make up of the country, and in later years have started to recognize, and cherish their Romani background as well.[101] Blacksmithing and other handicrafts are their main occupations.

Israel

Some Eastern European Roma are known to have arrived in Israel in the late 1940s and early 1950s, being from Bulgaria or having intermarried with Jews in the post-WWII displaced persons camps or, in some cases, having pretended to be Jews when Zionist representatives arrived in those camps. The exact numbers of these Romanies living in Israel are unknown, since such individuals tended to assimilate into the Israeli Jewish environment. According to several recent accounts in the Israeli press, some families preserve traditional Romani lullabies and a small number of Romani expressions and curse words, and pass them on to generations born in Israel who, for the most part, are Jews and speak Hebrew.[citation needed] The Romani community in Israel has grown since the 1990s, as some Roma immigrated there from the former Soviet Union.

A community related to the Romanies and living in Israel and the Palestinian territories and in neighboring countries are known as Dom people.

Overseas

Most Romani populations overseas were founded in the 19th century by emigration from Europe.

North America

The beginning of the 19th century saw the first Romani group, the Romanichal, arrive in North America. The ancestors of the majority of the contemporary local Romani population, Eastern European Roma, started to migrate during the second half of the century. Among these groups were the Romani-speaking peoples like the Kalderash, Machvaya, Lovari and Churari, as well as the linguistically Romanianized groups, like the Boyash (Ludari). Most of them arrived either directly from Romania after their liberation from slavery between 1840-1850, or after a short-period in neighbouring states such as the Russia, Austria-Hungary, or Serbia. The Bashalde arrived from what is now Slovakia at about the same time.[102] This immigration decreased drastically during the Communist era in Eastern Europe, but resumed in the 1990s after the fall of Communism. Romani organizations currently estimate that there are about one million Romanies in the USA and 80,000 in Canada.[103]

South America

Romani groups settled the Brazilian states of Espirito Santo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais in the late 19th century. They came from Serbia (the Machvaya), from Romania (the Kalderash), from Italy (the Lovari), as well as from Greece and Turkey (the Horahane) [104] Initially, the presence of Romanies in Brazil was explained by the Portuguese Inquisition persecuting the Ciganos of Portugal by exiling them overseas. Now there are 600,000 Romanies there, although the exact number cannot be known.[citation needed] Most of them are Kalderash, Macwaia, Rudari, Horahane, and Lovara.

There is also a sizeable population of Romani people in Chile. They are widely and easily recognized and they continue to hold on to their traditions and language and many continue to live semi-nomadic lifestyles traveling from city to city and living in small tented communities. A domestically produced television series (a soap opera) called Romane was based around the Romani people, it went into depth showing their lifestyles, ideas and even featured the Chilean born actors speaking in the Romani language with subtitles in Spanish occasionally.

See also

References

  1. Council of Europe website, European Roma and Travellers Forum (ERTF)
  2. European effort spotlights plight of the Roma
  3. Chiriac, Marian (2004-09-29). "It Now Suits the EU to Help the Roma". other-news.info. http://other-news.info/index.php?p=172#more-172. 
  4. 3.8 million according to Pan and Pfeil, National Minotiries in Europe (2004), ISBN 978-3700314431, p. 27f.; 9.1 million in the high estimate of Liégois, Jean-Pierre (2007). Roms en Europe, Éditions du Conseil de l'Europe.
  5. Council of Europe compilation of population estimates
  6. Hancock, Ian, 2001, Ame sam e rromane džene / We are the Romani People, The Open Society Institute, New York, page 2
  7. Matras, Yaron, Romani: A linguistic introduction, Cambridge University Press, 2002, page 5
  8. "Names of the Romani People", http://desicritics.org/2007/12/24/012125.php, retrieved 2009-01-30 
  9. N.Bessonov, N.Demeter "Ethnic groups of Gypsies"
  10. Other News » It Now Suits the EU to Help the Roma
  11. [1] Ethnic groups of Afghanistan
  12. United Nations, International Roma Day - Promoting social inclusion and celebrating Roma culture  » 08/04/2009
  13. http://www.greekhelsinki.gr/pdf/cedime-se-albania-roma.doc
  14. Ethnologue report for language code:rme
  15. 15.00 15.01 15.02 15.03 15.04 15.05 15.06 15.07 15.08 15.09 15.10 15.11 Jean-Pierre Liégeois, Roma, Tsiganes, Voyageurs, p.34, Conseil de l'Europe, 1994
  16. http://www.springerlink.com/content/l8517tp4460vr721/
  17. (Russian) Our Roma Neighbours by Kamal Ali. Echo. 30 December 2006. Retrieved 29 April 2007
  18. POPULATION CENSUS' 1999
  19. [2]: From 50,000 to 60,000 Gypsies currently live in Belarus, mostly in the provinces of Homel (Gomel) and Mahilau (Mogilyov), and especially in the towns and cities of Bobruisk, Zhlobin, Gomel, Kalinkovichi, Zhitkovichi, Mogilyov, Vitebsk, Minsk, and Turov.
  20. Bosnia and Herzegovina: Roma and the right to education. Factsheet | Amnesty International
  21. Roma of Bosnia and Herzegovina
  22. Ethnologue report for Bosnia: 400,000 Vlax Romani speakers in Bosnia
  23. According to the last official census in 2001 370,908 Bulgarian citizens define their identity as Roma (official results here). 313,000 self-declared in 1992 census (Elena Marushiakova and Vesselin Popov, The Gypsies of Bulgaria: Problems of the Multicultural Museum Exhibition (1995), cited in Patrin Web Journal). According to Marushiakova and Popov, "The Roma in Bulgaria", Sofia, 1993, the people who declared Romani identity in 1956 were about 194,000; in 1959—214,167; in 1976—373,200; because of the obvious and significant difference between the number of Bulgarian citizens with Romani self-identification and this of the large total population with physical appearance and cultural particularity similar to Romanies in 1980 the authorities took special census of all people, defined as Roma through the opinions of the neighboring population, observations of their way of life, cultural specificity, etc.—523,519; in the 1989 the authorities counted 576,927 people as Roma, but noted that more than a half of them preferred and declared Turkish identity (pages 92-93). According to the rough personal assumption of Marushiakova and Popov the total number of all people with Romani ethic identity plus all people of Romani origin with different ethnic self-identification around 1993 was about 800,000 (pages 94-95). Similar supposition Marushiakova and Popov made in 1995: estimate 750,000 ±50,000. Some international sources mention the estimates of some unnamed experts, who suggest 700,000–800,000 or higher than figures in the official census (here, UNDP's Regional Bureau for Europe). These mass non-Romani ethnic partialities are confirmed in the light of the last census in 2001—more than 300,000 Bulgarian citizens of Romani origin traditionally declare their ethnic identity as Turkish or Bulgarian. Other statistics: 450,000 estimated in 1990 (U.S. Library of Congress study); at least 553,466 cited in a confidential census by the Ministry of the Interior in 1992 (cf Marushiakova and Popov 1995).
  24. Roma in Canada fact sheet
  25. Ethnologue report for language code:rmy
  26. Central Bureau of Statistics of Republic of Croatia. "Census 2001, Population by Ethnicity, by Towns/Municipalities". http://www.dzs.hr/Eng/censuses/Census2001/Popis/E01_02_02/E01_02_02.html. 
  27. 27.0 27.1 27.2 [3]
  28. http://www.tau.ac.il/Anti-Semitism/asw2000-1/vago.htm
  29. Ethnologue report for Croatia: "Croatia. 4,496,869. National or official languages: Croatian, Italian. Literacy rate: 97%. Also includes Sinte Romani (131,000), Slovenian (22,810)."
  30. 12,000 according to 2001 census, 220,000 ([4] according to NGOs)
  31. [ http://www.romnews.com/community/modules.php?op=modload&name=News&file=article&sid=945 By James Palmer]: In Slovakia the number ranges from 90,000 to 520,000, in a 5.4 million population, and in the Czech Republic from 12,000 to 300,000, among 10.2 million.
  32. Romani World
  33. National Minorities of Finland, The Roma — Virtual Finland
  34. EDU.fi: The Roma and health services
  35. Report by the European Roma Rights Centre
  36. Full Report by the European Roma Rights Centre
  37. Ethnologue report for Germany
  38. 200,000, according to the Greek government ([5]); 300,000 to 350,000 according to the IHF monitor for Greece ([6]).
  39. http://www.mhrmi.org/news/2008/september13_e.asp
  40. 2001 census
  41. Hablicsek László: A magyarországi cigányság demográfiája
  42. Demos Hungary - Hungary's strategic audit 2005
  43. The New York City Times: Roma make up an estimated 8 to 10 percent of Hungary’s population
  44. The christian science monitor: "[...] the Roma, who account for between 8 and 10 percent of Hungary's 10 million people."
  45. The Times: Italy gypsies find echoes of Nazism in fingerprinting move
  46. Ethnologue report for language code:rmo
  47. Estimated by the Soros foundation
  48. 2002 census, UNDP's Regional Bureau for Europe, [7]
  49. Jorge M. Fernandez Bernal, The Rom in the Americas
  50. Teamromany | Roma in Moldova
  51. http://www.coe.int/t/dg3/romatravellers/Documentation/strategies/statistiques_en.asp
  52. http://europeandcis.undp.org/uploads/public/File/rbec_web/vgr/chapter1.1.pdf
  53. Ethnologue report for Norway
  54. Joshua project Ethnic people of Peru
  55. Early 1990s from U.S. Library of Congress Country study.
  56. http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/topic,4565c2252,4565c25f95,49749cc828,0.html
  57. People on the Move—Supp. N°93, Pontifical Council, December 2003, pp.299–305.
  58. http://countrystudies.us/portugal/55.htm
  59. 2002 census data, based on Population by ethnicity, gives a total of 535,250 Roma in Romania. This figure is disputed by other sources, because at the local level, many Roma declare a different ethnicity (mostly Romanian, but also Hungarian in Transylvania and Turkish in Dobruja) for fear of discrimination. Many are not recorded at all, since they do not have ID cards [8]. International sources give higher figures than the official census(UNDP's Regional Bureau for Europe, World Bank, International Association for Official Statistics).
  60. [9]: "[...]independent estimates point to numbers varying form 1 million to 2.5 million."
  61. Rumänien sieht Ende starker Auswanderung (Schweiz, NZZ Online)
  62. 2002 Russian census recorded 182,766 Roma.
  63. The Council of Europe estimates a population of 450,000 to 1,000,000 Roma in Russia [10]
  64. European Roma Rights Centre
    http://www.gfbv.ch/pdf/02-01-031.pdf
    http://www.n-tv.de/845281.html
    The Council of Europe estimates 400,000-800,000 Roma in Serbia [11]
  65. CNN.com - Slovakia seeks help on Roma issue - Apr 14, 2004
  66. CIA Factbook on Slovakia.
  67. http://www.rnl.sk/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=2080
  68. http://www.datum.at/0104/stories/786761
  69. http://volksgruppen.orf.at/kroatenungarn/aktuell/stories/71708/
  70. 2002 census http://www.stat.si/letopis/2005/04_05/04-03-05.htm
  71. [12]: The Government estimates a Roma/gitano population of between 600,000 and 650,000, of a total national population of approximately 40 million.
  72. U.S. Library of Congress Country study.
  73. Estimated by the Society for Threatened Peoples [13]
  74. Ethnologue report for Sweden
  75. "Bu düzenlemeyle ortaya çıkan tabloda Türkiye’de yetişkinlerin (18 yaş ve üstündekilerin) etnikkimliklerin dağılımı ... % 0,05 Roman ... şeklindedir.": http://www.konda.com.tr/html/dosyalar/ttya_tr.pdf
  76. "Türkiye’deki Çingene nüfusu tam bilinmiyor. 2, hatta 5 milyon gibi rakamlar dolaşıyor Çingenelerin arasında.": http://webarsiv.hurriyet.com.tr/2005/05/08/639714.asp
  77. 2001 Ukrainian census recorded 47,587 Roma.
  78. Нова Січ | Новини | Історія українських циган
  79. Helbing Adriana, Ukraine: Performing Politics, 02/28/2006
  80. 40,000–90,000 Anglo-Romani speakers, see [14] and [15]. Unspecified number of Romani immigrants from Eastern Europe (among them in 2004 there were 4,100 Vlax Roma [16]).
  81. "Population as of 1 March 2001 divided by provinces and ethnic group" (in Bulgarian). National Statistical Institute. 2001. http://www.nsi.bg/Census/Ethnos.htm. Retrieved 2006-06-18. 
  82. My Friends, The Gypsies
  83. http://www.eumap.org/reports/2002/eu/international/sections/spain/2002_m_spain.pdf
  84. Joel Serrão, Ciganos, in Dicionário de História de Portugal, Lisboa, 2006.
  85. ECRI (2002), Relatório da Comissão Europeia contra o Racismo e a Intolerância - Segundo Relatório sobre Portugal, Estrasburgo, p. 23 (In Portuguese).
  86. (Portuguese) [17]
  87. (Portuguese) [18]
  88. (Portuguese) [19]
  89. ECRI (2002), Relatório da Comissão Europeia contra o Racismo e a Intolerância - Segundo Relatório sobre Portugal, Estrasburgo, pp. 23-25.; ; See also: European Commission against Racism and Intolerance, Third report on Portugal, 2006.
  90. http://www.elamajavalo.fi/index.php?id=823
  91. Gyllenbäck, Mirelle (25 July 2007). "Därför klär jag mig inte som min mamma" (in Swedish). Aftonbladet. http://www.aftonbladet.se/debatt/article553421.ab. Retrieved 6 December 2008. 
  92. Bjurwald, Lisa (1 July 2008). "Vår skuld till romerna" (in Swedish). Dagens Nyheter. http://www.dn.se/DNet/jsp/polopoly.jsp?d=577&a=799727. Retrieved 6 December 2008. 
  93. "Report faults Sweden for discrimination". The Local. 7 November 2008. http://www.thelocal.se/15540/20081107/. Retrieved 6 December 2008. 
  94. "Victoria invigde romsk folkhögskola" (in Swedish). Göteborgs-Posten. 21 September 2007. http://www.gp.se/gp/jsp/Crosslink.jsp?d=113&a=370645. Retrieved 6 December 2008. 
  95. "Gypsies in Scotland". The Scottish Gypsies of Scotland. 2004. http://www.scottishgypsies.co.uk/scotland.html. Retrieved 2007-08-26. 
  96. "Gypsies and Travellers in Scotland". Scottish Traveller Education Programme. 2007-02-05. http://www.scottishtravellered.net/travellers.html. Retrieved 2007-08-26. 
  97. Donald Kenrick and Gillian Taylor, "Gypsies in Cyprus", January 1986
  98. Trimikliniotis, Nicos, "The Cypriot Roma and the Failure of Education", The Minorities of Cyprus, 2009
  99. Donald Kenrick and Gillian Taylor, "Gypsies in Cyprus", January 1986
  100. Özhan Öztürk. Karadeniz Ansiklopedik Sözlük. İstanbul. 2005. ISBN 975-6121-00-9. p.280-281.
  101. "TÜRKİYE'Lİ ÇİNGENELER" (in Turkish). http://www.cingene.org. Retrieved 2007-08-26. 
  102. ""Gypsies" in the United States". Migrations in History. Smithsonian Institution. http://www.smithsonianeducation.org/migrations/gyp/gypstart.html. Retrieved 2007-08-26. 
  103. Lee, Ronald (October 1998). Roma in Canada fact sheet "ROMA IN CANADA". Roma Community Centre. http://home.cogeco.ca/~rcctoronto/pdfs/fs08canada.pdf Roma in Canada fact sheet. 
  104. The Roma (Gypsies) of Brazil

External links

Romani people by country

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The Romani people are divided into a number of distinct populations, the largest being the Roma, located originally, and currently still mostly, in Central and Eastern Europe.

Distribution of the Romani people in Europe (2007 Council of Europe "average estimates", totalling 9.8 million)[1]
* The size of the wheel symbols reflects absolute population size
* The gradient reflects the percent in the country's population: 0%                              10%.
Distribution of the Romanies in Europe based on self-designation.

There is no official or reliable count of the Romani populations worldwide.[2] Many Romanies refuse to register their ethnic identity in official censuses for fear of discrimination[3]

There are an estimated 4 to 9 million Romani people in Europe and Asia Minor (as of 2000s).[4] although some high estimates by Romani organizations give numbers as high as 14 million.[5]Significant Romani populations are found in the Balkan peninsula, in some Central European states, in Spain, France, Russia, and Ukraine. Several more million Romanies may live out of Europe, in particularly in the Middle East and in the Americas.

The Romani people recognize divisions among themselves based in part on territorial, cultural and dialectal differences and self-designation. The main branches are:[6][7][8][9]

  1. Roma, crystallized in Eastern Europe and Central Italy, emigrated also (mostly from the 19th century onwards), in the rest of Europe, but also on the other continents;
  2. Iberian Kale, mostly in Spain (see Romani people in Spain), but also in Portugal, Southern France and Latin America;
  3. Finnish Kale, in Finland, emigrated also in Sweden;
  4. Welsh Kale, in Wales;
  5. Romanichal, in the United Kingdom, emigrated also to the United States and Australia;
  6. Sinti, in German-speaking areas of Central Europe and some neighboring countries;
  7. Manush, in French-speaking areas of Central Europe;
  8. Romanisæl, in Sweden and Norway.

Among Romanies there are further internal differentiations, like Bashaldé; Churari; Luri; Ungaritza; Lovari (Lovara) from Hungary; Machvaya (Machavaya, Machwaya, or Macwaia) from Serbia; Romungro from Hungary and neighbouring carpathian countries; Erlides (also Yerlii or Arli); Xoraxai (Horahane) from Greece/Turkey; Boyash (Lingurari, Ludar, Ludari, Rudari, or Zlătari) from Romanian/Moldovan miners; Ursari from Romanian/Moldovan bear-trainers; Argintari from silversmiths; Aurari from goldsmiths; Florari from florists; and Lăutari from singers.

Contents

Population by country

This is a table of Romani people by country. Note that some countries with a Romani population. The list does not include the Dom people often subsumed under "gypsies".

The official number of Romani people is disputed in many countries, because many Romani individuals often refuse to register their ethnic identity for fear of discrimination,[10] determining parallel unofficial censuses, surveys and estimations in order to reveal the true numbers.

countryregionpopulationsubgroups
AfghanistanAsia13,000[11]Zargari[dubious ]
AlbaniaSouthern Europe, Balkans1,300 (official)
to 80,000–150,000 (estimated)[12][13]
ArgentinaOverseas300,000Kalderash, Boyash, Kale
AustraliaOverseas5,000+[14]Romanichal, Boyash
AustriaCentral Europe20,000–50,000[15][16]Burgenland-Roma, Sinti, Lovari, Arlije from Macedonia, Kalderash from Serbia, Gurbeti from Serbia and Macedonia
AzerbaijanAsia2,000 [17]Garachi[dubious ]
BelarusEastern Europe10,000 (census data)
or 50,000–60,000
(estimated data)[18][19]
BelgiumWestern Europe10,000–15,000[15]Romungro
Bosnia and HerzegovinaSouthern Europe, Balkans60,000 or 80,000
and 400,000 Vlax Roma[20][21][22]
BrazilOverseas678,000–1,000,000Kale, Kalderash, Machvaya, Xoraxane, Boyash
BulgariaSouthern/Eastern Europe, Balkans370,908 (official census)
to 800,000[23]
Yerli, Gurbeti, Kalderash, Boyash, Ursari
CanadaOverseas80,000[24]Kalderash, Romanichal
ChileOverseas15,000–20,000Xoraxane
ColombiaOverseas79,000[25]Kalderash
CroatiaCentral / Southern Europe9,463 (census results)[26]
Estimated: 40,000[27] to 300,000[28]
and 131,000 Sinte (by Ethnologue)[29]
Lovari
Czech RepublicCentral/Eastern Europe12,000
or 220,000[30] to 360,000[31][32]
Romungro; Bohemian Roma
DenmarkNorthern Europe1,500–2,000[15]
EcuadorOverseas2,000Kalderash
FinlandNorthern Europe10,000+ [33][34]Kàlo
FranceWestern Europe500,000 (official estimation)
1,200,000–1,300,000 (unofficial estimation)[35][36]
Manush, Kalderash, Lovari, Sinti
GermanyCentral / Western Europe210,000[37]mostly Sinti, but also Balkan Roma, Vlax Roma
GreeceSouthern Europe, Balkans200,000
or 300,000–500,000 [38][39]
Arlije
HungaryCentral/Eastern Europe205,984[40];
394,000–482,000[41];
450,000–600,000[42];
to
800,000-1,000,000[43][44]
Romungro, Boyash, Lovari
IraqAsia?Qawliya, Kalderash, Xoraxane[citation needed]
IrelandNorthern Europe8,000Romanichal, Kalderash, Lovari, Romungro
ItalySouthern Europe90,000–180,000[15] + 152,000 illegal Roma in 700 camps[45]Sinti, Abruzzesi Roma, Ursari,Kalderash, Xoraxane
KazakhstanAsia/Eastern Europe7,000[citation needed]Sinti[46]
LatviaEastern/Northern Europe8,205 (census 2005) or 13,000–15,000[47]Lofitka Roma (in same Baltic Romani dialect family as Polska Roma and Ruska Roma)
LithuaniaEastern/Northern Europe3,000–4,000[15]
LuxembourgWestern Europe100–150[15]
Republic of MacedoniaSouthern Europe, Balkans53,879 Roma and 3,843 Balkan Egyptians
to 260,000[48]
Yerli, Gurbeti, Cergari, Egyptians
MexicoOverseasKale, Boyash, Machwaya, Lovari, Kalderash[49]
MoldovaEastern Europe12,900 (census) to 20,000–25,000[15] or
150,000[50][51]
Rusurja, Ursari, Kalderash
MontenegroSouthern Europe, Balkans2,601
to 20,000 [27],
additionally 8,000 registered Roma refugees from Kosovo, the entire number of IDP Kosovarian Roma in Montenegro is twice as large.[52]
NetherlandsWestern Europe35,000–40,000[15]
NorwayNorthern Europe6,500 or more[53]Norwegian and Swedish Travellers (Romanoar, Tavringer), Vlax[citation needed]
PeruOverseas8,400[dubious ][54]Kalderash, Calo
PolandCentral/Eastern Europe15,000–60,000[55][56]Polska Roma
PortugalSouthern / Western Europe40,000–100,000[15][57][58]
RomaniaSouthern/Central/Eastern Europe535,250 (census)
700,000–2,500,000 (estimated)[59][60][61]
Kalderash, Ursari, Lovari, Vlax, Romungro
RussiaEastern Europe, Asia182,766 (census 2002)
or
450,000–1,000,000 (estimated)[62][63]
Ruska Roma (descended from Polska Roma, from Poland), Kalderash (from Moldova), Servy (from Ukraine and Balkans), Ursari (from Bulgaria) Lovare, Vlax Roma (from Walachia).[citation needed]
SerbiaSouthern Europe, Balkans108,193
or 400,000–800,000 [27][64]
Ursari, Machvaya, Egyptians
SlovakiaCentral/Eastern Europe92,500 or 550,000[65][66][67][68][69]Romungro
SloveniaCentral / Southern Europe, Balkans3,246–10,000[15][70]
South AfricaOverseas7,900[citation needed]Romanichal
SpainSouthern / Western Europe600,000–650,000 (official estimation)[71]
600,000–800,000 [72]
or 1,500,000[73]
Gitanos, Kalderash, Boyash
SwedenNorthern Europe15,000–20,000[15] or 28,092[74]Swedish Travellers (Tavringer), Vlax (Kalderash, Lovara), Kàlo (Finnish Roma)
SwitzerlandCentral / Western Europe30,000–35,000[15]
TurkeyAsia and Balkans35,000[75] to 2,000,000[76]Bosha, Yerli
UkraineEastern Europe47,587 (census 2001)
or 400,000 (estimated)[77]
Kelderare (Hungarian name for Kotlyary; Zakarpattia), Kotlyary (other Ukrainian regions), Ruska Roma (northern Ukraine), Servy (Serby, southern and central Ukraine, from Serbia), Lovare (central Ukraine), Kelmysh, Crymy (in Crimea), Servica Roma (in Zakarpattia from Slovakia), Ungriko Roma (in Zakarpattia from Hungary)[78][79]
United KingdomWestern Europe44,000–94,000+[80]Romanichal, Welsh Kale
USAOverseas1,000,000 (Romani organizations' estimations)
UruguayOverseas2,000–5,000

Central and Eastern Europe

A significant proportion of the world's Romanies live in Central and Eastern Europe, often in squatter communities with very high unemployment, while only some are fully integrated in the society. However, in some cases—notably the Kalderash clan in Romania, who work as traditional coppersmiths—they have prospered. Some Romani families choose to immigrate to Western Europe now that many of the former Communist countries like the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Romania, Hungary and Bulgaria have entered the European Union and free travel is permitted. During the 1970s and 1980s many Romanies from former Yugoslavia migrated to Western European countries, especially to Austria, Germany and Sweden.

Romania

An 1852 Wallachian poster advertising an auction of Romani slaves.

There is a sizable minority of Romani people in Romania, known as Ţigani or recently as Rromi in Romanian, of 535,140 people or 2.5% of the total population (2001 census). The Romanies are the most socially-disadvantaged minority group in Romania, even though there are a variety of governmental and non-governmental programs for integration and social advancement, including the National Agency for the Roma and Romania's participation in the Decade of Roma Inclusion. In this program are participating Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Macedonia, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, and Spain. As an officially-recognized ethnic minority, the Romani people also have guaranteed representation in Parliament and official recognition of their language in localities where they make up more than 20% of the population.

Greece

Hungary

The number of Romani people in Hungary is disputed. In the 2001 census only 190,000 people called themselves Roma, but sociological estimates give much higher numbers (about 5%-10% of the total population). Since World War II, the number of Roma has increased rapidly, multiplying sevenfold in the last century[citation needed].

Russia

In Russian the Romani people are referred to as tzigani. The largest ethnic group of Romani people in Russia are the Ruska Roma. They are also the largest group in Belarus. They are adherents of the Russian Orthodox faith.

They came to Russia in the 18th century from Poland, and their language includes Polish, German, and Russian words.

The Ruska Roma were nomadic horse traders and singers. They traveled during the summer and stayed in cottages of Russian peasants during the winter. They paid for their lodging with money, or with the work of their horses.

In 1812, when Napoleon I invaded Russia, the Romani diasporas of Moscow and Saint Petersburg gave large sums of money and good horses for the Russian army. Many young Romani men took part in the war as uhlans.

At the end of the 19th century, Rusko Rom Nikolai Shishkin created a Romani theatre troupe. One of its plays was in the Romani language.

During World War II some Ruska Roma entered the army, by call-up and as volunteers. They took part in the war as soldiers, officers, infantrymen, tankmen, artillerymen, aviators, drivers, paramedical workers, and doctors. Some teenagers, old men and adult men were also partisans. Romani actors, singers, musicians, dancers (mostly women) performed for soldiers in the front line and in hospitals. A huge number of Roma, including many of the Ruska Roma, died or were murdered in territories occupied by the enemy, in battles, and in the blockade of Leningrad.

After World War II, music of the Ruska Roma became very popular. Romen Theatre, Romani singers and ensembles prospered. All Romanies living in the USSR began to perceive Ruska Roma culture as the basic Romani culture.

Bulgaria

Romani people constitute the third largest ethnic group (after Bulgarians and Turks) in Bulgaria, they are referred to as "tzigani" (цигани). According to the 2001 census, there were 370,908 Roma in Bulgaria, equivalent to 4.7% of the country's total population.[81]

Spanish Romani woman
A Romani family travelling (1837 print)

Western Europe

Spain

Romanies in Spain are generally known as Gitanos and tend to speak Caló which is basically Andalusian Spanish with a large number of Romani loanwords.[82] Estimates of the Spanish Gitano population range between 600,000 and 1,500,000 with the Spanish government estimating between 650,000 and 700,000. [83] Semi-nomadic Quinqui consider themselves apart from the Gitanos.

Portugal

The Romanies in Portugal are known as Ciganos, and their presence goes back to the second half of the 15th century. Early on, due to their socio-cultural difference and nomadic style of live, the Ciganos were the object of fierce discrimination and persecution.[84]

The number of Ciganos in Portugal is difficult to estimate, since there are no official statistics about race or ethnic categories. According to data from Council of Europe's European Commission against Racism and Intolerance[85] there are about 40,000 to 50,000 spread all over the country.[86]

The majority of the Ciganos do not have today a nomad style of life, rather concentrating themselves in the most important urban centers. This population is characterised by very low levels of educational qualification, social exclusion and residential and housing difficulties (many living in degraded ghettos). However, from the late 1990s to the 2000s, major public housing (bairros sociais) policies were targeted at the Portuguese Romani people.[87][88] The Ciganos are the ethnic group that the Portuguese most reject and discriminate against, and are also targets for discriminatory practices from the State administration, namely at a local level, finding persistent difficulties in the access to job placement, housing and social services, as well as in the relation to police forces.[89]

France

Romanies are generally known in spoken French as "Gitans" or "Tsiganes". "Romanichels" or "Manouches" are considered pejorative and "Bohémiens" is outdated.

"Gens du Voyage" (Travellers) is a widely accepted term and does not bear any social stigma. The French National Gendarmerie tends to refer to "MENS" ("Minorités Ethniques Non-Sédentarisées"), a neutral administrative term meaning Travelling Ethnic Minorities. By law, French municipalities have the obligation to allocate a piece of land to Romani travellers when they arrive.

Northern Europe

Finland

The Kale (or Kaale) Romanies of Finland are known in Finnish as mustalaiset ('blacks', cf. Romani: kalò, 'black') or romanit. Currently, there are approximately 10,000 Romanies living in Finland, mostly in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area.[citation needed] In Finland, Romani people usually wear their traditional dress in everyday life.[90]

Norway and Sweden

Romanies in Sweden were formerly known as zigenare for Roma and tattare for Romani Travellers. More recently the romer has been adopted as a collective designation referring to both groups, with resande (Travellers) also referring to the latter only. Currently, there are approximately 50,000 Romanies living in Sweden, many of them being Finnish Kale who immigrated in the 1960s. The latter, particularly women, often wear traditional dress in public.[91]

Romanies in Sweden have periodically suffered at the hands of the state. For example, the state has subjected children to being forcibly taken into foster care, or even forcibly sterilised Romani women. Prejudice against Romanies is widespread, with most stereotypes portraying Romanies as welfare cheats, shoplifters, and con artists. In the 1992, Bert Karlsson, one of the leaders of Ny Demokrati, declared that "Gypsies are responsible for 90% of crime against senior citizens" in Sweden.[92] Previously he had tried to ban the entry of Romanies to his Skara Sommarland theme park, because he considered them responsible for theft. Some shopkeepers, employers and landlords continue to discriminate Romanies.[93]

The situation is, however, improving. There are several Romani organisations that promote Romani rights and culture in Sweden. Since 2000, Romani chib is an officially recognised minority language in Sweden. The Swedish government also has a special standing Delegation for Romani Issues. There is now even a Romani folk high school in Gothenburg.[94]

United Kingdom

Romanies in England are generally known as Romanichals or Romani Gypsies, while their Welsh equivalent are known as Kale. They have been known in the UK since at least the early 16th century and may number up to 120,000. There is also a sizable population of East European Roma who immigrated into the UK in the late 1990s/early 2000s, and also after EU expansion in 2004.

There are records of Romani people in Scotland in the early 16th century, the first recorded reference to "the Egyptians" would appear to be in 1492, in the reign of James IV, when an entry in the Book of the Lord High Treasurer records a payment "to Peter Ker of four shillings, to go to the king at Hunthall, to get letters subscribed to the 'King of Rowmais'". Two days after, a payment of twenty pounds was made at the king's command to the messenger of the 'King of Rowmais'.[95]

It is difficult to be clear about the numbers of Romanies today in Scotland, according to the Scottish Traveller Education Programme, there are probably about 20,000 Scottish Gypsies/Travellers.[96] Although it is unknown how many of this number are Romanies and it is recognised that Gypsies and Travellers in Scotland are not one homogenous group, but consist of several groups each with different histories and cultures, and could consist of many unrelated ethnic groups.

From this, the term "gypsy" in the United Kingdom has come to mean, in common culture, anyone who travels with no fixed abode (regardless of ethnic group). This use of the term is synonymous with "pikey"[citation needed], which is seen by many as a derogatory term. In some parts of the UK they are commonly called "tinkers" from their work as tinsmiths.

West Asia

The route taken by the medieval proto-Romanies cut across Persia and Asia Minor to Europe. There remains a significant number of Romanies in Asia Minor.[citation needed] Other Romani populations in the Middle East are the result of modern migrations from Europe. Also found in the Middle East are the various groups of the Dom people often identified as "gypsies", but likely deriving from a migration out of India several centuries earlier than that of the proto-Romanies.

Cyprus

History

Although there are no official records confirming the arrival of Roma in Cyprus, it has been estimated by historical calculation that the first immigrants came between 1322 and 1400, when Cyprus was under the rule of the Lusignan (Crusader) kings. These Roma were part of a general movement from Asia Minor to Europe. Those who landed on Cyprus probably came across from the Crusader colonies on the eastern Mediterranean coast (present day Lebanon and Israel).[97]

There is no evidence to suggest that any one cause motivated the Roma to leave mainland Asia, yet there are historical events which would have caused widespread upheaval and prompted a move to the nearby island. In 1347 the contagious Black Death had reached Constantinople, the capital of Byzantium, in 1390 the Turks had defeated the Greek kingdom in Asia and ten years later the Battle of Aleppo marked the advance of the Mongols under Tamerlane.

Only in 1468 is there any written record of Roma in Cyprus. In the Chronicle of Cyprus compiled by Florio Bustron, the Cingani are said to have paid tax to the royal treasury, at that time King James II. Later, in 1549, the French traveler Andre Theret found "les Egyptiens ou Bohemiens" in Cyprus and other Mediterranean islands. He observed their simple way of life, supported by the production of nails by the men and belts by the women, which were sold to the local population.

It is likely that a second immigration took place some time after the Turks occupied the island in 1571 and that some Kalderash came in the 19th century. During the Middle Ages, Cyprus was on a regular shipping route from Bari in Italy to the Holy Land.

Currently, Roma in Cyprus refer to themselves as Kurbet, and their language as Kurbetcha — although most no longer speak it. Specifically Christian or Greek-speaking Roma are known as Mantides.[98]

Names of Roma in Cyprus

  • Tsignos: the official term used in Greek documents and written material. It comes from the term Cingani (used already in the text of 1468) which in turn comes from the archaic word Adsincan used in mediaeval Byzantium.
  • Yleftos: the Cypriot dialect form of mainland Greek Giftos. This is common in speech and comes from earlier Aigiptos, a reference to the earlier belief that the Romanies came from Egypt.[99]

(For additional names of Roma in Greek-speaking Cyprus, see Roma in Greece)

Turkey

Romani people in Turkey are known as Çingene (Mostly), Çingen or Çingan, Çingit (West Black Sea region), Cono (South Turkey), Roman (Izmir) [100] and Gipleri (derived from the term "Egyptian"). They have integrated fully to the ethnic make up of the country, and in later years have started to recognize, and cherish their Romani background as well.[101] Blacksmithing and other handicrafts are their main occupations.

Israel

Some Eastern European Roma are known to have arrived in Israel in the late 1940s and early 1950s, being from Bulgaria or having intermarried with Jews in the post-WWII displaced persons camps or, in some cases, having pretended to be Jews when Zionist representatives arrived in those camps. The exact numbers of these Romanies living in Israel are unknown, since such individuals tended to assimilate into the Israeli Jewish environment. According to several recent accounts in the Israeli press, some families preserve traditional Romani lullabies and a small number of Romani expressions and curse words, and pass them on to generations born in Israel who, for the most part, are Jews and speak Hebrew.[citation needed] The Romani community in Israel has grown since the 1990s, as some Roma immigrated there from the former Soviet Union.

A community related to the Romanies and living in Israel and the Palestinian territories and in neighboring countries are known as Dom people.

Overseas

Most Romani populations overseas were founded in the 19th century by emigration from Europe.

North America

The beginning of the 19th century saw the first Romani group, the Romanichal, arrive in North America. The ancestors of the majority of the contemporary local Romani population, Eastern European Roma, started to migrate during the second half of the century. Among these groups were the Romani-speaking peoples like the Kalderash, Machvaya, Lovari and Churari, as well as the linguistically Romanianized groups, like the Boyash (Ludari). Most of them arrived either directly from Romania after their liberation from slavery between 1840-1850, or after a short-period in neighbouring states such as the Russia, Austria-Hungary, or Serbia. The Bashalde arrived from what is now Slovakia at about the same time.[102] This immigration decreased drastically during the Communist era in Eastern Europe, but resumed in the 1990s after the fall of Communism. Romani organizations currently estimate that there are about one million Romanies in the USA and 80,000 in Canada.[103]

South America

Romani groups settled the Brazilian states of Espirito Santo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais in the late 19th century. They came from Serbia (the Machvaya), from Romania (the Kalderash), from Italy (the Lovari), as well as from Greece and Turkey (the Horahane) [104] Initially, the presence of Romanies in Brazil was explained by the Portuguese Inquisition persecuting the Ciganos of Portugal by exiling them overseas. Now there are 600,000 Romanies there, although the exact number cannot be known.[citation needed] Most of them are Kalderash, Macwaia, Rudari, Horahane, and Lovara.

There is also a sizeable population of Romani people in Chile. They are widely and easily recognized and they continue to hold on to their traditions and language and many continue to live semi-nomadic lifestyles traveling from city to city and living in small tented communities. A domestically produced television series (a soap opera) called Romane was based around the Romani people, it went into depth showing their lifestyles, ideas and even featured the Chilean born actors speaking in the Romani language with subtitles in Spanish occasionally.

See also

References

  1. ^ Council of Europe website, European Roma and Travellers Forum (ERTF)
  2. ^ European effort spotlights plight of the Roma
  3. ^ Chiriac, Marian (2004-09-29). "It Now Suits the EU to Help the Roma". other-news.info. http://other-news.info/index.php?p=172#more-172. 
  4. ^ 3.8 million according to Pan and Pfeil, National Minotiries in Europe (2004), ISBN 978-3700314431, p. 27f.; 9.1 million in the high estimate of Liégois, Jean-Pierre (2007). Roms en Europe, Éditions du Conseil de l'Europe.
  5. ^ Council of Europe compilation of population estimates
  6. ^ Hancock, Ian, 2001, Ame sam e rromane džene / We are the Romani People, The Open Society Institute, New York, page 2
  7. ^ Matras, Yaron, Romani: A linguistic introduction, Cambridge University Press, 2002, page 5
  8. ^ "Names of the Romani People", http://desicritics.org/2007/12/24/012125.php, retrieved 2009-01-30 
  9. ^ N.Bessonov, N.Demeter "Ethnic groups of Gypsies"
  10. ^ Other News » It Now Suits the EU to Help the Roma
  11. ^ [1] Ethnic groups of Afghanistan
  12. ^ United Nations, International Roma Day - Promoting social inclusion and celebrating Roma culture  » 08/04/2009
  13. ^ http://www.greekhelsinki.gr/pdf/cedime-se-albania-roma.doc
  14. ^ Ethnologue report for language code:rme
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Jean-Pierre Liégeois, Roma, Tsiganes, Voyageurs, p.34, Conseil de l'Europe, 1994
  16. ^ http://www.springerlink.com/content/l8517tp4460vr721/
  17. ^ (Russian) Our Roma Neighbours by Kamal Ali. Echo. 30 December 2006. Retrieved 29 April 2007
  18. ^ POPULATION CENSUS' 1999
  19. ^ [2]: From 50,000 to 60,000 Gypsies currently live in Belarus, mostly in the provinces of Homel (Gomel) and Mahilau (Mogilyov), and especially in the towns and cities of Bobruisk, Zhlobin, Gomel, Kalinkovichi, Zhitkovichi, Mogilyov, Vitebsk, Minsk, and Turov.
  20. ^ Bosnia and Herzegovina: Roma and the right to education. Factsheet | Amnesty International
  21. ^ Roma of Bosnia and Herzegovina
  22. ^ Ethnologue report for Bosnia: 400,000 Vlax Romani speakers in Bosnia
  23. ^ According to the last official census in 2001 370,908 Bulgarian citizens define their identity as Roma (official results here). 313,000 self-declared in 1992 census (Elena Marushiakova and Vesselin Popov, The Gypsies of Bulgaria: Problems of the Multicultural Museum Exhibition (1995), cited in Patrin Web Journal). According to Marushiakova and Popov, "The Roma in Bulgaria", Sofia, 1993, the people who declared Romani identity in 1956 were about 194,000; in 1959—214,167; in 1976—373,200; because of the obvious and significant difference between the number of Bulgarian citizens with Romani self-identification and this of the large total population with physical appearance and cultural particularity similar to Romanies in 1980 the authorities took special census of all people, defined as Roma through the opinions of the neighboring population, observations of their way of life, cultural specificity, etc.—523,519; in the 1989 the authorities counted 576,927 people as Roma, but noted that more than a half of them preferred and declared Turkish identity (pages 92-93). According to the rough personal assumption of Marushiakova and Popov the total number of all people with Romani ethic identity plus all people of Romani origin with different ethnic self-identification around 1993 was about 800,000 (pages 94-95). Similar supposition Marushiakova and Popov made in 1995: estimate 750,000 ±50,000. Some international sources mention the estimates of some unnamed experts, who suggest 700,000–800,000 or higher than figures in the official census (here, UNDP's Regional Bureau for Europe). These mass non-Romani ethnic partialities are confirmed in the light of the last census in 2001—more than 300,000 Bulgarian citizens of Romani origin traditionally declare their ethnic identity as Turkish or Bulgarian. Other statistics: 450,000 estimated in 1990 (U.S. Library of Congress study); at least 553,466 cited in a confidential census by the Ministry of the Interior in 1992 (cf Marushiakova and Popov 1995).
  24. ^ Roma in Canada fact sheet
  25. ^ Ethnologue report for language code:rmy
  26. ^ Central Bureau of Statistics of Republic of Croatia. "Census 2001, Population by Ethnicity, by Towns/Municipalities". http://www.dzs.hr/Eng/censuses/Census2001/Popis/E01_02_02/E01_02_02.html. 
  27. ^ a b c [3]
  28. ^ http://www.tau.ac.il/Anti-Semitism/asw2000-1/vago.htm
  29. ^ Ethnologue report for Croatia: "Croatia. 4,496,869. National or official languages: Croatian, Italian. Literacy rate: 97%. Also includes Sinte Romani (131,000), Slovenian (22,810)."
  30. ^ 12,000 according to 2001 census, 220,000 ([4] according to NGOs)
  31. ^ [ http://www.romnews.com/community/modules.php?op=modload&name=News&file=article&sid=945 By James Palmer]: In Slovakia the number ranges from 90,000 to 520,000, in a 5.4 million population, and in the Czech Republic from 12,000 to 300,000, among 10.2 million.
  32. ^ Romani World
  33. ^ National Minorities of Finland, The Roma — Virtual Finland
  34. ^ EDU.fi: The Roma and health services
  35. ^ Report by the European Roma Rights Centre
  36. ^ Full Report by the European Roma Rights Centre
  37. ^ Ethnologue report for Germany
  38. ^ 200,000, according to the Greek government ([5]); 300,000 to 350,000 according to the IHF monitor for Greece ([6]).
  39. ^ http://www.mhrmi.org/news/2008/september13_e.asp
  40. ^ 2001 census
  41. ^ Hablicsek László: A magyarországi cigányság demográfiája
  42. ^ Demos Hungary - Hungary's strategic audit 2005
  43. ^ The New York City Times: Roma make up an estimated 8 to 10 percent of Hungary’s population
  44. ^ The christian science monitor: "[...] the Roma, who account for between 8 and 10 percent of Hungary's 10 million people."
  45. ^ The Times: Italy gypsies find echoes of Nazism in fingerprinting move
  46. ^ Ethnologue report for language code:rmo
  47. ^ Estimated by the Soros foundation
  48. ^ 2002 census, UNDP's Regional Bureau for Europe, [7]
  49. ^ Jorge M. Fernandez Bernal, The Rom in the Americas
  50. ^ Teamromany | Roma in Moldova
  51. ^ http://www.coe.int/t/dg3/romatravellers/Documentation/strategies/statistiques_en.asp
  52. ^ http://europeandcis.undp.org/uploads/public/File/rbec_web/vgr/chapter1.1.pdf
  53. ^ Ethnologue report for Norway
  54. ^ Joshua project Ethnic people of Peru
  55. ^ Early 1990s from U.S. Library of Congress Country study.
  56. ^ http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/topic,4565c2252,4565c25f95,49749cc828,0.html
  57. ^ People on the Move—Supp. N°93, Pontifical Council, December 2003, pp.299–305.
  58. ^ http://countrystudies.us/portugal/55.htm
  59. ^ 2002 census data, based on Population by ethnicity, gives a total of 535,250 Roma in Romania. This figure is disputed by other sources, because at the local level, many Roma declare a different ethnicity (mostly Romanian, but also Hungarian in Transylvania and Turkish in Dobruja) for fear of discrimination. Many are not recorded at all, since they do not have ID cards [8]. International sources give higher figures than the official census(UNDP's Regional Bureau for Europe, World Bank, International Association for Official Statistics).
  60. ^ [9]: "[...]independent estimates point to numbers varying form 1 million to 2.5 million."
  61. ^ Rumänien sieht Ende starker Auswanderung (Schweiz, NZZ Online)
  62. ^ 2002 Russian census recorded 182,766 Roma.
  63. ^ The Council of Europe estimates a population of 450,000 to 1,000,000 Roma in Russia [10]
  64. ^ European Roma Rights Centre
    http://www.gfbv.ch/pdf/02-01-031.pdf
    http://www.n-tv.de/845281.html
    The Council of Europe estimates 400,000-800,000 Roma in Serbia [11]
  65. ^ CNN.com - Slovakia seeks help on Roma issue - Apr 14, 2004
  66. ^ CIA Factbook on Slovakia.
  67. ^ http://www.rnl.sk/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=2080
  68. ^ http://www.datum.at/0104/stories/786761
  69. ^ http://volksgruppen.orf.at/kroatenungarn/aktuell/stories/71708/
  70. ^ 2002 census http://www.stat.si/letopis/2005/04_05/04-03-05.htm
  71. ^ [12]: The Government estimates a Roma/gitano population of between 600,000 and 650,000, of a total national population of approximately 40 million.
  72. ^ U.S. Library of Congress Country study.
  73. ^ Estimated by the Society for Threatened Peoples [13]
  74. ^ Ethnologue report for Sweden
  75. ^ "Bu düzenlemeyle ortaya çıkan tabloda Türkiye’de yetişkinlerin (18 yaş ve üstündekilerin) etnikkimliklerin dağılımı ... % 0,05 Roman ... şeklindedir.": http://www.konda.com.tr/html/dosyalar/ttya_tr.pdf
  76. ^ "Türkiye’deki Çingene nüfusu tam bilinmiyor. 2, hatta 5 milyon gibi rakamlar dolaşıyor Çingenelerin arasında.": http://webarsiv.hurriyet.com.tr/2005/05/08/639714.asp
  77. ^ 2001 Ukrainian census recorded 47,587 Roma.
  78. ^ Нова Січ | Новини | Історія українських циган
  79. ^ Helbing Adriana, Ukraine: Performing Politics, 02/28/2006
  80. ^ 40,000–90,000 Anglo-Romani speakers, see [14] and [15]. Unspecified number of Romani immigrants from Eastern Europe (among them in 2004 there were 4,100 Vlax Roma [16]).
  81. ^ "Population as of 1 March 2001 divided by provinces and ethnic group" (in Bulgarian). National Statistical Institute. 2001. http://www.nsi.bg/Census/Ethnos.htm. Retrieved 2006-06-18. 
  82. ^ My Friends, The Gypsies
  83. ^ http://www.eumap.org/reports/2002/eu/international/sections/spain/2002_m_spain.pdf
  84. ^ Joel Serrão, Ciganos, in Dicionário de História de Portugal, Lisboa, 2006.
  85. ^ ECRI (2002), Relatório da Comissão Europeia contra o Racismo e a Intolerância - Segundo Relatório sobre Portugal, Estrasburgo, p. 23 (In Portuguese).
  86. ^ (Portuguese) [17]
  87. ^ (Portuguese) [18]
  88. ^ (Portuguese) [19]
  89. ^ ECRI (2002), Relatório da Comissão Europeia contra o Racismo e a Intolerância - Segundo Relatório sobre Portugal, Estrasburgo, pp. 23-25.; ; See also: European Commission against Racism and Intolerance, Third report on Portugal, 2006.
  90. ^ http://www.elamajavalo.fi/index.php?id=823
  91. ^ Gyllenbäck, Mirelle (25 July 2007). "Därför klär jag mig inte som min mamma" (in Swedish). Aftonbladet. http://www.aftonbladet.se/debatt/article553421.ab. Retrieved 6 December 2008. 
  92. ^ Bjurwald, Lisa (1 July 2008). "Vår skuld till romerna" (in Swedish). Dagens Nyheter. http://www.dn.se/DNet/jsp/polopoly.jsp?d=577&a=799727. Retrieved 6 December 2008. 
  93. ^ "Report faults Sweden for discrimination". The Local. 7 November 2008. http://www.thelocal.se/15540/20081107/. Retrieved 6 December 2008. 
  94. ^ "Victoria invigde romsk folkhögskola" (in Swedish). Göteborgs-Posten. 21 September 2007. http://www.gp.se/gp/jsp/Crosslink.jsp?d=113&a=370645. Retrieved 6 December 2008. 
  95. ^ "Gypsies in Scotland". The Scottish Gypsies of Scotland. 2004. http://www.scottishgypsies.co.uk/scotland.html. Retrieved 2007-08-26. 
  96. ^ "Gypsies and Travellers in Scotland". Scottish Traveller Education Programme. 2007-02-05. http://www.scottishtravellered.net/travellers.html. Retrieved 2007-08-26. 
  97. ^ Donald Kenrick and Gillian Taylor, "Gypsies in Cyprus", January 1986
  98. ^ Trimikliniotis, Nicos, "The Cypriot Roma and the Failure of Education", The Minorities of Cyprus, 2009
  99. ^ Donald Kenrick and Gillian Taylor, "Gypsies in Cyprus", January 1986
  100. ^ Özhan Öztürk. Karadeniz Ansiklopedik Sözlük. İstanbul. 2005. ISBN 975-6121-00-9. p.280-281.
  101. ^ "TÜRKİYE'Lİ ÇİNGENELER" (in Turkish). http://www.cingene.org. Retrieved 2007-08-26. 
  102. ^ ""Gypsies" in the United States". Migrations in History. Smithsonian Institution. http://www.smithsonianeducation.org/migrations/gyp/gypstart.html. Retrieved 2007-08-26. 
  103. ^ Lee, Ronald (October 1998). Roma in Canada fact sheet "ROMA IN CANADA". Roma Community Centre. http://home.cogeco.ca/~rcctoronto/pdfs/fs08canada.pdf Roma in Canada fact sheet. 
  104. ^ The Roma (Gypsies) of Brazil

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