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definitions - Root

root (n.)

1.(linguistics) the form of a word after all affixes are removed"thematic vowels are part of the stem"

2.the fundamental assumptions from which something is begun or developed or calculated or explained"the whole argument rested on a basis of conjecture"

3.the part of a tooth that is embedded in the jaw and serves as support

4.a simple form inferred as the common basis from which related words in several languages can be derived by linguistic processes

5.the set of values that give a true statement when substituted into an equation

6.the place where something begins, where it springs into being"the Italian beginning of the Renaissance" "Jupiter was the origin of the radiation" "Pittsburgh is the source of the Ohio River" "communism's Russian root"

7.someone from whom you are descended (but usually more remote than a grandparent)

8.(botany) the usually underground organ that lacks buds or leaves or nodes; absorbs water and mineral salts; usually it anchors the plant to the ground

9.a number that, when multiplied by itself some number of times, equals a given number

10.the kinship relation of an offspring to the parents

root (v. intr.)

1.take root and begin to grow"this plant roots quickly"

2.cause to take roots

3.become settled or established and stable in one's residence or life style"He finally settled down"

4.dig with the snout"the pig was rooting for truffles"

5.plant by the roots

6.come into existence, originate"The problem roots in her depression"

7.(British)move through by or as by digging"burrow through the forest"

root (v.)

1.search haphazardly"We rummaged through the drawers"

2.(coarse)have sexual intercourse with"This student sleeps with everyone in her dorm" "Adam knew Eve" "Were you ever intimate with this man?"

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Merriam Webster

RootRoot (?), v. i. [AS. wrōtan; akin to wrōt a snout, trunk, D. wroeten to root, G. rüssel snout, trunk, proboscis, Icel. rōta to root, and perhaps to L. rodere to gnaw (E. rodent) or to E. root, n.]
1. To turn up the earth with the snout, as swine.

2. Hence, to seek for favor or advancement by low arts or groveling servility; to fawn servilely.

RootRoot, v. t. To turn up or to dig out with the snout; as, the swine roots the earth.

RootRoot, n. [Icel. rōt (for vrōt); akin to E. wort, and perhaps to root to turn up the earth. See Wort.]
1. (Bot.) (a) The underground portion of a plant, whether a true root or a tuber, a bulb or rootstock, as in the potato, the onion, or the sweet flag. (b) The descending, and commonly branching, axis of a plant, increasing in length by growth at its extremity only, not divided into joints, leafless and without buds, and having for its offices to fix the plant in the earth, to supply it with moisture and soluble matters, and sometimes to serve as a reservoir of nutriment for future growth. A true root, however, may never reach the ground, but may be attached to a wall, etc., as in the ivy, or may hang loosely in the air, as in some epiphytic orchids.

2. An edible or esculent root, especially of such plants as produce a single root, as the beet, carrot, etc.; as, the root crop.

3. That which resembles a root in position or function, esp. as a source of nourishment or support; that from which anything proceeds as if by growth or development; as, the root of a tooth, a nail, a cancer, and the like. Specifically: (a) An ancestor or progenitor; and hence, an early race; a stem.

They were the roots out of which sprang two distinct people. Locke.

(b) A primitive form of speech; one of the earliest terms employed in language; a word from which other words are formed; a radix, or radical. (c) The cause or occasion by which anything is brought about; the source. “She herself . . . is root of bounty.” Chaucer.

The love of money is a root of all kinds of evil. 1 Tim. vi. 10 (rev. Ver.)

(d) (Math.) That factor of a quantity which when multiplied into itself will produce that quantity; thus, 3 is a root of 9, because 3 multiplied into itself produces 9; 3 is the cube root of 27. (e) (Mus.) The fundamental tone of any chord; the tone from whose harmonics, or overtones, a chord is composed. Busby.

(f) The lowest place, position, or part. “Deep to the roots of hell.” Milton. “The roots of the mountains.” Southey.

4. (Astrol.) The time which to reckon in making calculations.

When a root is of a birth yknowe [known]. Chaucer.

Aërial roots. (Bot.) (a) Small roots emitted from the stem of a plant in the open air, which, attaching themselves to the bark of trees, etc., serve to support the plant. (b) Large roots growing from the stem, etc., which descend and establish themselves in the soil. See Illust. of Mangrove. -- Multiple primary root (Bot.), a name given to the numerous roots emitted from the radicle in many plants, as the squash. -- Primary root (Bot.), the central, first-formed, main root, from which the rootlets are given off. -- Root and branch, every part; wholly; completely; as, to destroy an error root and branch. -- Root-and-branch men, radical reformers; -- a designation applied to the English Independents (1641). See Citation under Radical, n., 2. -- Root barnacle (Zoöl.), one of the Rhizocephala. -- Root hair (Bot.), one of the slender, hairlike fibers found on the surface of fresh roots. They are prolongations of the superficial cells of the root into minute tubes. Gray. -- Root leaf (Bot.), a radical leaf. See Radical, a., 3 (b). -- Root louse (Zoöl.), any plant louse, or aphid, which lives on the roots of plants, as the Phylloxera of the grapevine. See Phylloxera. -- Root of an equation (Alg.), that value which, substituted for the unknown quantity in an equation, satisfies the equation. -- Root of a nail (Anat.), the part of a nail which is covered by the skin. -- Root of a tooth (Anat.), the part of a tooth contained in the socket and consisting of one or more fangs. -- Secondary roots (Bot.), roots emitted from any part of the plant above the radicle. -- To strike root, To take root, to send forth roots; to become fixed in the earth, etc., by a root; hence, in general, to become planted, fixed, or established; to increase and spread; as, an opinion takes root. “The bended twigs take root.” Milton.

RootRoot (r�t), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Rooted; p. pr. & vb. n. Rooting.]
1. To fix the root; to enter the earth, as roots; to take root and begin to grow.

In deep grounds the weeds root deeper. Mortimer.

2. To be firmly fixed; to be established.

If any irregularity chanced to intervene and to cause misappehensions, he gave them not leave to root and fasten by concealment. Bp. Fell.

RootRoot, v. i. [Cf. Rout to roar.] To shout for, or otherwise noisly applaud or encourage, a contestant, as in sports; hence, to wish earnestly for the success of some one or the happening of some event, with the superstitious notion that this action may have efficacy; -- usually with for; as, the crowd rooted for the home team. [Slang or Cant, U. S.]

RootRoot, v. t.
1. To plant and fix deeply in the earth, or as in the earth; to implant firmly; hence, to make deep or radical; to establish; -- used chiefly in the participle; as, rooted trees or forests; rooted dislike.

2. To tear up by the root; to eradicate; to extirpate; -- with up, out, or away. “I will go root away the noisome weeds.” Shak.

The Lord rooted them out of their land . . . and cast them into another land. Deut. xxix. 28.

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definition (more)

definition of Wikipedia

synonyms - Root

root (v.) (coarse)

bang, bed, be intimate, bone, bonk, do it, eff, get it on, get laid, get off, have a go at it, have intercourse, have it away, have it off, hump, jazz, know, lie with, love, make out, roll in the hay, sex, sleep together, ball  (coarse), engage in coitus  (literary, old, man), fuck  (coarse, man), go to bed with  (man), have sex  (man), have sexual intercourse  (man), make love  (man), screw  (coarse, man), sleep with  (man)

root (v. intr.) (British)

burrow, delve, dig, grub, probe, pry, tunnel

see also - Root

phrases

-Root Canal • Root Canal Apexification • Root Canal Filling Materials • Root Canal Irrigants • Root Canal Medicaments • Root Canal Obturation • Root Canal Preparation • Root Canal Sealants • Root Canal Therapy • Root Caries • Root Cyst, Dental • Root Cysts, Dental • Root Nodules, Plant • Root Planing • Root Resorption • Root Scaling • Root Tip • root beer • root beer float • root canal • root canal work • root cap • root celery • root cellar • root climber • root crop • root for • root hair • root of a word • root on • root out • root rot • root system • root treatment • root up • root vegetable • root word • root-mean-square value • rose-root • square root • stone root • stone-root • take root • yellow root

analogical dictionary

 

MESH root[Thème]

root [MeSH]



root (n.)





set[Hyper.]

root (n.)



factotum[Domaine]

familyRelation[Domaine]

root (n.)




 

vieille personne (fr)[Classe]

predecessor; forerunner[ClasseParExt.]

breed; race[Classe]

famille (fr)[Classe]

affiliation (fr)[Classe]

groupe humain socialement organisé (fr)[ClasseParExt.]

relation; propinquity; kinship; relationship[Classe]

genealogical tree; genealogy; family tree[Classe]

(ancestress; forefather; progenitrix; ancestor; progenitor; primogenitor)[Thème]

(offspring)[Thème]

(relation; propinquity; kinship; relationship), (blood relation; kinsman; kinswoman; member of the family; relative)[Thème]

(surname; family name; cognomen; last name)[Thème]

(rebirth; reincarnation), (birth; origination), (beget; engender; father; mother; sire; generate; bring forth)[Thème]

(precede), (press showing; preview), (past; past times; yesteryear; ancient times; antiquity), (predecessor; forerunner)[Caract.]

anthropology[Domaine]

familyRelation[Domaine]

factotum[Domaine]

Guiding[Domaine]

relation, relationship - human relationship, relationship, terms[Hyper.]

clan, kin, kindred, kin group, kinship group, tribe - blood relation, kinsman, kinswoman, member of the family, relation, relative - family, kin, kinsperson - breeding, bringing up, fosterage, fostering, nurture, raising, rearing, upbringing - nurture, raising, rearing - ancestry, blood, bloodline, blood line, descent, line, lineage, line of descent, origin, parentage, pedigree, stemma, stock - parent - background, birth, blood, descent, extraction, origins, parentage, root - parentage, parenthood[Dérivé]

anthropology[Domaine]

be growing up, grow, grow up[Cause]

bring, land[Analogie]

root (n.)


 

go to bed with; engage in coitus; have sexual intercourse; roll in the hay; love; make out; make love; sleep with; get laid; have sex; know; do it; be intimate; have intercourse; have it away; have it off; screw; fuck; jazz; eff; hump; lie with; bed; have a go at it; bang; get it on; bonk; go to bed (often with with); sleep together[Classe]

go to bed with; engage in coitus; have sexual intercourse; roll in the hay; love; make out; make love; sleep with; get laid; have sex; know; do it; be intimate; have intercourse; have it away; have it off; screw; fuck; jazz; eff; hump; lie with; bed; have a go at it; bang; get it on; bonk; go to bed (often with with); sleep together[Classe]

monter, couvrir une femelle (fr)[Classe]

orgasm; climax; sexual climax; coming; sexual pleasure[Classe]

bed[ClasseHyper.]

(sexual act; sexual intercourse; sex act; copulation; coitus; coition; sexual congress; sexual relation; carnal knowledge), (position), (go to bed with; engage in coitus; have sexual intercourse; roll in the hay; love; make out; make love; sleep with; get laid; have sex; know; do it; be intimate; have intercourse; have it away; have it off; screw; fuck; jazz; eff; hump; lie with; bed; have a go at it; bang; get it on; bonk; go to bed (often with with); sleep together), (go to bed with; engage in coitus; have sexual intercourse; roll in the hay; love; make out; make love; sleep with; get laid; have sex; know; do it; be intimate; have intercourse; have it away; have it off; screw; fuck; jazz; eff; hump; lie with; bed; have a go at it; bang; get it on; bonk; go to bed (often with with); sleep together)[Thème]

sexuality[Domaine]

SexualReproduction[Domaine]

physiology[Domaine]

art[Domaine]

SubjectiveAssessmentAttribute[Domaine]

conjoin, join - sex, sex activity, sexual activity, sexuality, sexual practice - bedroom furniture - concupiscence, desire, eros, physical attraction, sexual desire - domestic partner, significant other, spousal equivalent, spouse equivalent - hetero, heterosexual, heterosexual person, straight, straight person - pet - drawing up, expression, formulation, wording[Hyper.]

carnal knowledge, coition, coitus, congress, copulation, fornication, intercourse, relation, screwing, sex, sex act, sexual act, sexual congress, sexual intercourse, sexual relation, union of the flesh[GenV+comp]

conjugation, coupling, mating, pairing, sexual union, union - pair - couple, match, mates - mate - better half, married person, mate, partner, spouse - coital, copulatory - bang, bed, be intimate, bone, bonk, do it, eff, engage in coitus, fuck, get it on, get laid, get off, go to bed with, have a go at it, have intercourse, have it away, have it off, have sex, have sexual intercourse, hump, jazz, know, lie with, love, make love, make out, roll in the hay, screw, sex, sleep together, sleep with - bed, take to bed - bed - caressing, cuddling, fondling, hugging, kissing, necking, petting, smooching, snuggling - necker - archaise, archaize - archaistic[Dérivé]

hospital room - apartment, bedchamber, bedroom, chamber, sleeping accommodation, sleeping room[Desc]

dirty word, filth, obscenity, smut, vulgarism - argot, cant, gobbledegook, gobbledygook, jargon, lingo, patois, shoptalk, slang, technical jargon, vernacular[Domaine]

root (v.) [coarse]










 

start; inception; outset; beginning[Classe]

factotum[Domaine]

origin[Domaine]

point[Hyper.]

root - originate[Dérivé]

root (v. intr.)


Wikipedia - see also

Wikipedia

Root

                   
  Primary and secondary roots in a cotton plant

In vascular plants, the root is the organ of a plant that typically lies below the surface of the soil. This is not always the case, however, since a root can also be aerial (growing above the ground) or aerating (growing up above the ground or especially above water). Furthermore, a stem normally occurring below ground is not exceptional either (see rhizome). So, it is better to define root as a part of a plant body that bears no leaves, and therefore also lacks nodes. There are also important internal structural differences between stems and roots.

The first root that comes from a plant is called the radicle. The four major functions of roots are 1) absorption of water and inorganic nutrients, 2) anchoring of the plant body to the ground, and supporting it, 3) storage of food and nutrients, 4) vegetative reproduction. In response to the concentration of nutrients, roots also synthesise cytokinin, which acts as a signal as to how fast the shoots can grow. Roots often function in storage of food and nutrients. The roots of most vascular plant species enter into symbiosis with certain fungi to form mycorrhizas, and a large range of other organisms including bacteria also closely associate with roots.

Contents

  Anatomy

When dissected, the arrangement of the cells in a root is root hair, epidermis, epiblem, cortex, endodermis, pericycle and lastly the vascular tissue in the centre of a root to transport the water absorbed by the root to other places of the plant.

  Root growth

Early root growth is one of the functions of the apical meristem located near the tip of the root. The meristem cells more or less continuously divide, producing more meristem, root cap cells (these are sacrificed to protect the meristem), and undifferentiated root cells. The latter become the primary tissues of the root, first undergoing elongation, a process that pushes the root tip forward in the growing medium. Gradually these cells differentiate and mature into specialized cells of the root tissues.

Roots will generally grow in any direction where the correct environment of air, mineral nutrients and water exists to meet the plant's needs. Roots will not grow in dry soil. Over time, given the right conditions, roots can crack foundations, snap water lines, and lift sidewalks. At germination, roots grow downward due to gravitropism, the growth mechanism of plants that also causes the shoot to grow upward. In some plants (such as ivy), the "root" actually clings to walls and structures.

Growth from apical meristems is known as primary growth, which encompasses all elongation. Secondary growth encompasses all growth in diameter, a major component of woody plant tissues and many nonwoody plants. For example, storage roots of sweet potato have secondary growth but are not woody. Secondary growth occurs at the lateral meristems, namely the vascular cambium and cork cambium. The former forms secondary xylem and secondary phloem, while the latter forms the periderm.

In plants with secondary growth, the vascular cambium, originating between the xylem and the phloem, forms a cylinder of tissue along the stem and root. The vascular cambium forms new cells on both the inside and outside of the cambium cylinder, with those on the inside forming secondary xylem cells, and those on the outside forming secondary phloem cells. As secondary xylem accumulates, the "girth" (lateral dimensions) of the stem and root increases. As a result, tissues beyond the secondary phloem (including the epidermis and cortex, in many cases) tend to be pushed outward and are eventually "sloughed off" (shed).

At this point, the cork cambium begins to form the periderm, consisting of protective cork cells containing suberin. In roots, the cork cambium originates in the pericycle, a component of the vascular cylinder.

The vascular cambium produces new layers of secondary xylem annually. The xylem vessels are dead at maturity but are responsible for most water transport through the vascular tissue in stems and roots.

  Types of roots

A true root system consists of a primary root and secondary roots (or lateral roots).

  • the diffuse root system: the primary root is not dominant; the whole root system is fibrous and branches in all directions. Most common in monocots. The main function of the fibrous root is to anchor the plant.

  Specialized roots

  Aerating roots of a mangrove
  The growing tip of a fine root
  The stilt roots of Socratea exorrhiza

The roots, or parts of roots, of many plant species have become specialized to serve adaptive purposes besides the two primary functions described in the introduction.

  • Adventitious roots arise out-of-sequence from the more usual root formation of branches of a primary root, and instead originate from the stem, branches, leaves, or old woody roots. They commonly occur in monocots and pteridophytes, but also in many dicots, such as clover (Trifolium), ivy (Hedera), strawberry (Fragaria) and willow (Salix). Most aerial roots and stilt roots are adventitious. In some conifers adventitious roots can form the largest part of the root system.
  • Aerating roots (or knee root or knee or pneumatophores or Cypress knee): roots rising above the ground, especially above water such as in some mangrove genera (Avicennia, Sonneratia). In some plants like Avicennia the erect roots have a large number of breathing pores for exchange of gases.
  • Aerial roots: roots entirely above the ground, such as in ivy (Hedera) or in epiphytic orchids. They function as prop roots, as in maize or anchor roots or as the trunk in strangler fig.
  • Contractile roots: they pull bulbs or corms of monocots, such as hyacinth and lily, and some taproots, such as dandelion, deeper in the soil through expanding radially and contracting longitudinally. They have a wrinkled surface.
  • Coarse roots: Roots that have undergone secondary thickening and have a woody structure. These roots have some ability to absorb water and nutrients, but their main function is transport and to provide a structure to connect the smaller diameter, fine roots to the rest of the plant.
  • Fine roots: Primary roots usually <2 mm diameter that have the function of water and nutrient uptake. They are often heavily branched and support mycorrhizas. These roots may be short lived, but are replaced by the plant in an ongoing process of root 'turnover'.
  • Haustorial roots: roots of parasitic plants that can absorb water and nutrients from another plant, such as in mistletoe (Viscum album) and dodder.
  • Propagative roots: roots that form adventitious buds that develop into aboveground shoots, termed suckers, which form new plants, as in Canada thistle, cherry and many others.
  • Proteoid roots or cluster roots: dense clusters of rootlets of limited growth that develop under low phosphate or low iron conditions in Proteaceae and some plants from the following families Betulaceae, Casuarinaceae, Elaeagnaceae, Moraceae, Fabaceae and Myricaceae.
  • Stilt roots: these are adventitious support roots, common among mangroves. They grow down from lateral branches, branching in the soil.
  • Storage roots: these roots are modified for storage of food or water, such as carrots and beets. They include some taproots and tuberous roots.
  • Structural roots: large roots that have undergone considerable secondary thickening and provide mechanical support to woody plants and trees.
  • Surface roots: These proliferate close below the soil surface, exploiting water and easily available nutrients. Where conditions are close to optimum in the surface layers of soil, the growth of surface roots is encouraged and they commonly become the dominant roots.
  • Tuberous roots: A portion of a root swells for food or water storage, e.g. sweet potato. A type of storage root distinct from taproot.

  Rooting depths

  Cross section of a mango tree

The distribution of vascular plant roots within soil depends on plant form, the spatial and temporal availability of water and nutrients, and the physical properties of the soil. The deepest roots are generally found in deserts and temperate coniferous forests; the shallowest in tundra, boreal forest and temperate grasslands. The deepest observed living root, at least 60 m below the ground surface, was observed during the excavation of an open-pit mine in Arizona, USA. Some roots can grow as deep as the tree is high. The majority of roots on most plants are however found relatively close to the surface where nutrient availability and aeration are more favourable for growth. Rooting depth may be physically restricted by rock or compacted soil close below the surface, or by anaerobic soil conditions.

  Rooting depth records

  Ficus Tree with very tall roots
Species Location Maximum rooting depth (m) References[1][2]
Boscia albitrunca Kalahari desert 68 Jennings (1974)
Juniperus monosperma Colorado Plateau 61 Cannon (1960)
Eucalyptus sp. Australian forest 61 Jennings (1971)
Acacia erioloba Kalahari desert 60 Jennings (1974)
Prosopis juliflora Arizona desert 53.3 Phillips (1963)

  Root architecture

The pattern of development of a root system is termed root architecture, and is important in providing a plant with a secure supply of nutrients and water as well as anchorage and support. The architecture of a root system can be considered in a similar way to above-ground architecture of a plant—i.e. in terms of the size, branching and distribution of the component parts. In roots, the architecture of fine roots and coarse roots can both be described by variation in topology and distribution of biomass within and between roots. Having a balanced architecture allows fine roots to exploit soil efficiently around a plant, but the plastic nature of root growth allows the plant to then concentrate its resources where nutrients and water are more easily available. A balanced coarse root architecture, with roots distributed relatively evenly around the stem base, is necessary to provide support to larger plants and trees.

Tree roots normally grow outward to about three times the branch spread. Only half of a tree's root system occurs between the trunk and the circumference of its canopy. Roots on one side of a tree normally supply the foliage on that same side of the tree. Thus when roots on one side of a tree are injured, the branches and leaves on that same side of the tree may die or wilt. For some trees however, such as the maple family, the effect of a root injury may show itself anywhere in the tree canopy.

  Evolutionary history

The fossil record of roots – or rather, infilled voids where roots rotted after death – spans back to the late Silurian,[3] but their identification is difficult, because casts and molds of roots are so similar in appearance to animal burrows – although they can be discriminated on the basis of a range of features.[4]

  Economic importance

  Roots can also protect the environment by holding the soil to prevent soil erosion

The term root crops refers to any edible underground plant structure, but many root crops are actually stems, such as potato tubers. Edible roots include cassava, sweet potato, beet, carrot, rutabaga, turnip, parsnip, radish, yam and horseradish. Spices obtained from roots include sassafras, angelica, sarsaparilla and licorice.

Sugar beet is an important source of sugar. Yam roots are a source of estrogen compounds used in birth control pills. The fish poison and insecticide rotenone is obtained from roots of Lonchocarpus spp. Important medicines from roots are ginseng, aconite, ipecac, gentian and reserpine. Several legumes that have nitrogen-fixing root nodules are used as green manure crops, which provide nitrogen fertilizer for other crops when plowed under. Specialized bald cypress roots, termed knees, are sold as souvenirs, lamp bases and carved into folk art. Native Americans used the flexible roots of white spruce for basketry.

Tree roots can heave and destroy concrete sidewalks and crush or clog buried pipes. The aerial roots of strangler fig have damaged ancient Mayan temples in Central America and the temple of Angkor Wat in Cambodia.

Vegetative propagation of plants via cuttings depends on adventitious root formation. Hundreds of millions of plants are propagated via cuttings annually including chrysanthemum, poinsettia, carnation, ornamental shrubs and many houseplants.

Roots can also protect the environment by holding the soil to prevent soil erosion. This is especially important in areas such as sand dunes.

  Roots on onion bulbs

  See also

  Notes

  1. ^ Canadell, J.; R. B. Jackson, J. B. Ehleringer, H. A. Mooney, O. E. Sala and E.-D. Schulze (December 3, 2004). "Maximum rooting depth of vegetation types at the global scale". Oecologia 108 (4): 583–595. DOI:10.1007/BF00329030. http://www.springerlink.com/content/mt5024gq08612853/. 
  2. ^ Stonea, E. L.; P. J. Kaliszb (1 December 1991). "On the maximum extent of tree roots". Forest Ecology and Management 46 (1–2): 59–102. DOI:10.1016/0378-1127(91)90245-Q. 
  3. ^ Retallack, G. J. (1986). Wright, V. P.. ed. Paleosols: their Recognition and Interpretation. Oxford: Blackwell. 
  4. ^ Hillier, R, Edwards, D;Other, A.N. (2008). "Sedimentological evidence for rooting structures in the Early Devonian Anglo–Welsh Basin (UK), with speculation on their producers". Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology 270 (3–4): 366. DOI:10.1016/j.palaeo.2008.01.038. 

  References

  • Dennis D.Baldocchi and Liukang Xu. 2007. What limits evaporation from Mediterranean oak woodlands – The supply of moisture in the soil, physiological control by plants or the demand by the atmosphere? Vol 30, issue 10. Elsevier
  • Brundrett, M. C. 2002. Coevolution of roots and mycorrhizas of land plants. New phytologist 154(2): 275–304. (Available online: DOI | Abstract | Full text (HTML) | Full text (PDF))
  • Chen, R., E. Rosen, P. H. Masson. 1999. Gravitropism in Higher Plants. Plant Physiology 120 (2): 343–350. (Available online: Full text (HTML) | Full text (PDF)) – article about how the roots sense gravity.
  • Clark, Lynn. 2004. Primary Root Structure and Development – lecture notes
  • Coutts, M. P. 1987. Developmental processes in tree root systems. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 17: 761–767.
  • Raven, J. A., D. Edwards. 2001. Roots: evolutionary origins and biogeochemical significance. Journal of Experimental Botany 52 (Suppl 1): 381–401. (Available online: Abstract | Full text (HTML) | Full text (PDF))
  • Schenk, H. J., and R. B. Jackson. 2002. The global biogeography of roots. Ecological Monographs 72 (3): 311–328.
  • Sutton, R. F., and R. W. Tinus. 1983. Root and root system terminology. Forest Science Monograph 24 pp 137.
  • Phillips, W. S. 1963. Depth of roots in soil. Ecology 44 (2): 424.

  External links


   
               

 

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Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.

boggle

Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !

English dictionary
Main references

Most English definitions are provided by WordNet .
English thesaurus is mainly derived from The Integral Dictionary (TID).
English Encyclopedia is licensed by Wikipedia (GNU).

Copyrights

The wordgames anagrams, crossword, Lettris and Boggle are provided by Memodata.
The web service Alexandria is granted from Memodata for the Ebay search.
The SensagentBox are offered by sensAgent.

Translation

Change the target language to find translations.
Tips: browse the semantic fields (see From ideas to words) in two languages to learn more.

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