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Roy Thomas

Roy Thomas

Thomas at the Big Apple Con, November 14, 2008.
Born (1940-11-22) November 22, 1940 (age 71)
Nationality American
Area(s) Writer, Editor
Notable works the Avengers
Alter Ego
Uncanny X-Men
Ghost Rider
Iron Fist
All-Star Squadron
Arak, Son of Thunder
Infinity, Inc.
Secret Origins
Young All-Stars
Awards Alley Award, 1969
Shazam Award, 1971, 1973, 1974

Roy William Thomas, Jr. [1] (born November 22, 1940,[2]) is an American comic book writer and editor, and Stan Lee's first successor as editor-in-chief of Marvel Comics. He is possibly best known for introducing the pulp magazine hero Conan the Barbarian to American comics, with a series that added to the storyline of Robert E. Howard's character and helped launch a sword and sorcery trend in comics. Thomas is also known for his championing of Golden Age comic-book heroes — particularly the 1940s superhero team the Justice Society of America — and for lengthy writing stints on Marvel's X-Men and Avengers, and DC Comics' All-Star Squadron, among other titles.

Thomas was inducted into the Will Eisner Comic Book Hall of Fame in 2011.


  Early life

Thomas was born in Missouri, United States. As a child, Thomas was a devoted comic book fan, and in grade school he wrote and drew his own comics for distribution to friends and family. The first of these was All-Giant Comics, which he recalls as having featured such characters as Elephant Giant.[3] He graduated from Southeast Missouri State University in 1961 with a B.S. in Education,[1] having majored in history and social science.

Thomas became an early and active member of Silver Age comic book fandom when it organized in the early 1960s — primarily around Jerry Bails, whose enthusiasm for the rebirth of superhero comics during that period led Bails to found the fanzine Alter Ego, an early focal point of fandom. Thomas, then a high school English teacher, took over as editor in 1964 when Bails moved on to other pursuits. Letters from him appeared regularly in the letters pages of both DC and Marvel Comics, including The Flash #116 (November 1960), Fantastic Four #5 (July 1962), and Fantastic Four #22 (January 1964) (in which a letter by Dave Cockrum also appears).


  Marvel Comics

In 1965, Thomas moved to New York City to take a job at DC Comics as assistant to Mort Weisinger, then the editor of the Superman titles. Thomas said he had just accepted a fellowship to study foreign relations at George Washington University when he received a letter from Weisinger, "with whom I had exchanged one or two letters, tops", asking Thomas to become "his assistant editor on a several-week trial basis."[4] Thomas had already written a Jimmy Olsen script "a few months before, while still living and teaching in the St. Louis area," he said in 2005. "I worked at DC for eight days in late June and very early July of 1965"[5] before accepting a job at Marvel Comics.

This came after his chafing under the notoriously difficult Weisinger, to a point, Thomas said in 1981, that he would go "home to my dingy little room at, coincidentally, the George Washington Hotel in Manhattan, during that second week, and actually feeling tears well into my eyes, at the ripe old age of 24."[4] Familiar with editor and chief writer Stan Lee's Marvel work, and feeling them "the most vital comics around,[4] Thomas "just sat down one night at the hotel and — I wrote him a letter! Not applying for a job or anything so mundane as that — I just said that I admired his work, and would like to buy him a drink some time. I figured he just might remember me from Alter Ego."[4] Lee did, and phoned Thomas to offer him a Marvel writing test.

I was hired after taking [the] ' writer's test', and my first official job title at Marvel was 'staff writer'. I wasn't hired as an editor or assistant editor. I was supposed to come in 40 hours a week and write scripts on staff. ... I sat at this corrugated metal desk with a typewriter in a small office with production manager Sol Brodsky and corresponding secretary Flo Steinberg. Everybody who came up to Marvel wound up there, and the phone was constantly ringing, with conversations going on all around me. ... Almost at once, even though Stan proofed all the finished stories, he and Sol started having me check the corrections before they went out, and that would break up my concentration still further. ... [and] they kept asking me to do this or that, or questions like in which issue something happened, or Stan would come in to check something, because I knew a lot about Marvel continuity up to that time. ... It quickly became apparent to them, too, that the staff writer thing wasn't working, and Stan segued me over to being an editorial assistant, which immediately worked out better for all concerned.[6]

  The Avengers #57 (Oct. 1968), debut of the Silver Age Vision, created by Thomas as a homage to the Golden Age original. Cover art by John Buscema.

The writer's test, Thomas said in 1998, "was four Jack Kirby pages from Fantastic Four Annual #2 ... [Stan Lee] had Sol [Brodsky] or someone take out the dialogue. It was just black-and-white. Other people like Denny O'Neil and Gary Friedrich took it. But soon afterwards we stopped using it."[7] The day after taking the test, Thomas was at DC, proofreading a Supergirl story, when Steinberg called asking Thomas meet with Lee during lunch, where Thomas agreed to work for Marvel.[8] He returned to DC to give "indefinite notice" to Weisinger, but Weisinger ordered him to leave immediately and "I was back at Marvel less than an hour after I first left, and had a Modeling with Millie assignment to do over the weekend. It was a Friday."[8]

To that point, editor-in-chief Lee had been the main scripter of Marvel publications, with his brother, Larry Lieber, picking up the slack as a sometime-scripter of Lee-plotted stories. Thomas soon became the first new Marvel writer to sustain a presence, at a time when comics veterans such as Robert Bernstein, Ernie Hart, Leon Lazarus, and Don Rico, and fellow newcomers Steve Skeates (hired a couple of weeks earlier) and O'Neil (brought in at Thomas' recommendation a few months later) did not.

His Marvel debut was the romantic-adventure story "Whom Can I Turn To?" in the Millie the Model spin-off Modeling with Millie #44 (Dec. 1965) — for which the credits and the logo were inadvertently left off due to a production glitch, resulting in this being left off most credit lists.[9] Thomas' first Marvel superhero scripting was "My Life for Yours", the "Iron Man" feature in Tales of Suspense #73 (Jan. 1966), working from a Lee plot as well as a plot assist from secretary Steinberg. Thomas estimates that Lee rewrote approximately half of that fledgling attempt.

Thomas' earliest Marvel work also included the teen-romance title Patsy and Hedy #104-105 (Feb.-April 1966), and two "Doctor Strange" stories, plotted by Lee and Steve Ditko, in Strange Tales #143-144 (April–May 1966). Two previously written freelance stories for Charlton Comics also saw print: "The Second Trojan War" in Son of Vulcan #50 (Jan. 1966) and "The Eye of Horus" in Blue Beetle #54 (March 1966).[10] "When Stan saw the couple of Charlton stories I'd written earlier in more of a Gardner Fox style, he wasn't too impressed," Thomas recalled. "It's probably a good thing I already had my job at Marvel at that point! I think I was the right person in the right place at the right time, but there are other people who, had they been there, might have been just as right."[11]

Thomas took on what would be his first long-term Marvel title, the World War II series Sgt. Fury and his Howling Commandos, starting with #29 (April 1966) and continuing through #41 (April 1967) and the series' 1966 annual, Sgt. Fury Special #2. He also began writing the mutant-superteam title [Uncanny] X-Men from #20-43 (May 1966 - April 1968), and, finally, took over The Avengers, starting with #35 (Dec. 1966), and continuing until 1972. That notable run was marked by a strong sense of continuity, and stories that ranged from the personal to the cosmic — the latter most prominently with the Kree-Skrull War in issues #89-97 (June 1971 - March 1972). Additional work included an occasional "Nick Fury, Agent of S.H.I.E.L.D" and "Doctor Strange" story in Strange Tales. When that title became the solo comic Doctor Strange, he wrote the entire run of new stories, from #169-183 (June 1968 - Nov. 1969), mostly with the art team of penciler Gene Colan and inker Tom Palmer.[10]

As Thomas self-evaluated in a 1981 interview, shortly after leaving Marvel for rival DC Comics, "One of the reasons Stan liked my writing ... was that after a few issues he felt he could trust me enough that he virtually never again read anything I wrote — well, at least not more than a page or two in a row, just to keep me honest."[12]

Thomas eloped in July 1968 to marry his first wife, Jean Maxey,[13] returning to work a day late from a weekend comic-book convention in St. Louis, Missouri. Thomas said in 2000 that Brodsky, in the interim, had assigned Doctor Strange to the writer Archie Goodwin, newly ensconced at Marvel and writing Iron Man, but Thomas convinced Brodsky to return it to him. "I got very possessive about Doctor Strange," Thomas recalled. "It wasn't a huge seller, but [by the time it was canceled], we were selling in the low 40 percent range of more than 400,000 print run, so it was actually selling a couple hundred thousand copies [but] at the time you needed to sell even more."[14] He eventually did have a Caribbean honeymoon, where he scripted the wedding of Hank Pym and Janet Van Dyne in The Avengers #60 (Jan.1969).[15]

  X-Men #63 (Dec. 1969). Cover art by Neal Adams and Tom Palmer

Thomas, who had turned over X-Men to other writers, returned with issue #55 (April 1969) when the series was on the verge of cancellation.[16] While efforts to save it failed — the title ended its initial run with #66 — Thomas' collaboration with artist Neal Adams through #63 (Dec. 1969) is regarded as a Silver Age creative highlight.[17] Thomas won the 1969 Alley Award that year for Best Writer, while Adams and inker Tom Palmer, netted 1969 Alley Awards for Best Pencil Artist and Best Inking Artist, respectively.

In 1971, with Stan Lee and Gerry Conway, Thomas created Man-Thing and wrote the first Man-Thing story in color comics, after Conway and Len Wein had introduced the character in the black-and-white comics magazine Savage Tales.[10] Among the many other characters Thomas co-created with Marvel artists were Yellowjacket and Adam Warlock, based on existing characters; Morbius, Doc Samson, Ms. Marvel, Valkyrie, Killraven and Ultron. He also devised the fictional metal adamantium, used in countless stories.


The following year, when Lee became Marvel's publisher, Thomas succeeded him as editor-in-chief. Thomas by this time had already launched Conan the Barbarian, based on Robert E. Howard's 1930s pulp-fiction sword-and-sorcery character. Thomas, who stepped down from his editorship in August 1974, wrote hundreds of Conan stories in a host of Marvel comics and black-and-white magazines.[10] During that time, he and Smith also brought to comics Howard's little-known, sword-wielding woman-warrior Red Sonja, initially as a Conan supporting character.

Thomas also continued to script mainstream titles, including Marvel's flagships, The Fantastic Four and The Amazing Spider-Man. He launched such new titles as the unusual "non-team" series The Defenders, as well as What If, a title that explored alternate histories. In addition, he indulged his love of Golden Age comic-book heroes in the World War II-set superhero series The Invaders.[10] Thomas also helped create such new characters as the superpowered martial artist Iron Fist, the supernatural Brother Voodoo, and the demonic, motorcycle-driving Ghost Rider. He was instrumental in engineering Marvel's comic-book adaptation of the movie Star Wars, without which, 1980s editor Jim Shooter believed, "[W]e would have gone out of business".[18] In 1975, Thomas wrote the first joint publishing venture between Marvel and DC Comics - a 72-page Wizard of Oz movie adaptation in an oversized "Treasury Edition" format with art by John Buscema.[10][19]

  DC Comics

  All-Star Squadron #1 (Sept. 1981). Cover art by penciler-inker Rich Buckler.

In 1981, after several years of freelancing for Marvel and a dispute with then editor-in-chief Jim Shooter, Thomas signed a three-year exclusivity writing/editing contract with DC. He marked his return to DC with a two part Green Lantern story in Green Lantern #138-139 (March–April 1981), and briefly wrote Batman, DC Comics Presents, and the Legion of Super-Heroes.[10] DC gave Thomas' work a promotional push by featuring several of his series in free, 16-page insert previews.[20][21][22]

Thomas married his second wife Danette Couto in May 1981.[23] Danette legally changed her first name to Dann [24] and would become Roy's regular writing partner. Thomas credits her with the original idea for the Arak, Son of Thunder series drawn by Ernie Colón.[25] Writer Gerry Conway would also be a frequent collaborator with Thomas; together they wrote a two-part Superman-Captain Marvel team-up in DC Comics Presents; a series of Atari Force and Swordquest mini-comics packaged with Atari 2600 video games; and three Justice League-Justice Society crossovers.[10][26][27] Conway also contributed ideas to the funny animal comic Captain Carrot and His Amazing Zoo Crew!, created by Thomas and Scott Shaw.[10][28] Thomas and Conway were to be the co-writers of the JLA/Avengers intercompany crossover[29] but editorial disputes between DC and Marvel caused the project's cancellation.[30] As a solo writer, Roy Thomas wrote Wonder Woman and, with artist Gene Colan, updated the character's costume and introduced a new supervillainess, the Silver Swan.[10] His final work on the series, issue #300 (Feb. 1983), was co-written with Dann Thomas,[31] who, as Roy Thomas noted in 1999 "became the first woman ever to receive scripting credit on the world's foremost super-heroine."[24]

Thomas realized a childhood dream in writing the Justice Society of America (JSA). Reviving the Golden Age group in Justice League of America #193 and continuing in All-Star Squadron,[32] he wrote retro adventures, like those of The Invaders, set in World War II. In addition to the JSA's high-profile heroes, Thomas revived such characters as Liberty Belle, Johnny Quick, the Shining Knight, Robotman, Firebrand, the Tarantula, and Neptune Perkins.[10] He used the series to address the complicated and sometimes contradictory continuity issues surrounding the JSA.[33]

In 1983, Thomas and artist Jerry Ordway created Infinity, Inc., a group composed of the JSA's children. The characters debuted in All-Star Squadron #25 (Sept. 1983)[34] and were launched in their own series in March 1984.[35] Thomas wrote several limited series for DC including America vs. the Justice Society,[36] Jonni Thunder a.k.a. Thunderbolt, Shazam! The New Beginning, and Crimson Avenger. From 1986 to 1988, Thomas contributed to the Secret Origins series[37] and wrote most of the stories involving the Golden Age characters. In 1986, DC decided to write off the JSA from active continuity. A one-shot issue titled The Last Days of the Justice Society involved most of the JSA battling the forces of evil while merged with the Norse gods in an ever-repeating Ragnarok-like Limbo was written by Thomas, with art by David Ross.[38] Young All-Stars replaced All-Star Squadron following the changes to DC's continuity brought about by the Crisis on Infinite Earths limited series. Thomas's last major project for DC was an adaptation of Richard Wagner's Ring cycle drawn by Gil Kane and published in 1989-1990. Since then, Thomas has written a trio of Elseworlds one-shots combining DC characters with classic cinema and literature: Superman's Metropolis, Superman: War of the Worlds, and JLA: The Island of Dr. Moreau.[10]

  Later career

Thomas and Gerry Conway collaborated on the screenplays for two movies: the animated feature Fire and Ice (1983) and Conan the Destroyer (1984).[39] In that latter year, Shooter wrote in 2011, Thomas sent him a letter on May 14 in which he hoped

...to let bygones be bygones, and if possible, to avoid adverse comment on Marvel and its policies. I’ve even long regretted the fact that your elevation to the position of editor-in-chief, in which you’ve obviously done a fine job, came at a time after I’d moved to the West Coast. Perhaps if we’d had more personal communication from 1977 to 1980, we could have come to some sort of agreement at that time or at least parted under more amicable circumstances. I leave it to you to decide if we should ever make any attempt to rectify that situation; certainly I’ve never been a grudge-carrier in other cases....[40]

By 1986, Thomas had begun writing for Marvel's New Universe line, beginning with Spitfire and the Troubleshooters #5 (Feb. 1987). He then embarked on a multi-issue run of Nightmask, co-scripted by his wife Dann Thomas. He went on to script titles starring Doctor Strange, Thor, the Avengers West Coast, and Conan, often co-scripting with Dann Thomas or Jean-Marc Lofficier.[10]

During the following decade, Thomas began working less for Marvel and DC than for independent companies. He wrote issues of the TV-series tie-ins Xena: Warrior Princess and Hercules: The Legendary Journeys for Topps Comics.[10] Additionally, he began writing more for other media, including television, and relaunched Alter Ego as a formal magazine published by TwoMorrows Publishing in 1999. In 2005, he earned a Master's degree in Humanities from California State University.[1]

With Marvel's four-issue miniseries Stoker's Dracula (Oct. 2004 - May 2005), Thomas and artist Dick Giordano completed an adaptation of Bram Stoker's novel Dracula, which the duo had begun 30 years earlier in 10- to 12-page installments, beginning with Marvel's black-and-white horror-comics magazine Dracula Lives #5 (March 1974). They had completed 76 pages, comprising roughly one-third of the novel, through issues #6-8 and 10-11 and Marvel Preview #8 ("The Legion of Monsters"),[10] before Marvel canceled Dracula Lives and later many of its other black-and-whites.[41] Anthem, a comic book series by Thomas and artists Daniel Acuña, Jorge Santamaria Garcia and Benito Gallego, about World War II superheroes in an alternate reality, began publication by Heroic Publishing in January 2006. Thomas returned to Red Sonja in 2006, writing the one-shot Red Sonja: Monster Isle for Dynamite Entertainment. In 2007 Thomas wrote a Black Knight story for the four-issue miniseries, Mystic Arcana.[10][42]

As of 2011, he lives in South Carolina, and serves on the Disbursement Committee of the comic-book industry charity The Hero Initiative.[43]


  • 1969: Alley Award for Best Writer.
  • 1971: Shazam Award for Best Writer (Dramatic Division)
  • 1973: Shazam Award for Best Individual Story ("Song of Red Sonja", with artist Barry Smith, in Conan the Barbarian #24)
  • 1974: Shazam for Superior Achievement by an Individual
  • 1974: Angoulême International Comics Festival Award for Best Foreign Author
  • 1977: Favourite Comicbook Writer at the Eagle Awards
  • 1977: Nomination: Favourite Single Comicbook Story at the Eagle Awards for Fantastic Four #176: "Improbable as It May Seem the Impossible Man is Back in Town" with penciler George Pérez
  • 1978: Nomination: Favourite Writer at the Eagle Awards
  • 1978: Nomination: Favourite Continued Story at the Eagle Awards for Star Wars #1-6 with George Lucas and Howard Chaykin
  • 1979: Nomination: Best Comic Book Writer (US) at the Eagle Awards
  • 1979: Nomination: Best Continued Story at the Eagle Awards for Thor #272-278 with John Buscema
  • 1980: Roll of Honour at the Eagle Awards
  • 1985: Named as one of the honorees by DC Comics in the company's 50th anniversary publication Fifty Who Made DC Great.[44]
  • 1996: Author That We Loved at the Haxtur Awards
  • 2011: Will Eisner Comic Book Hall of Fame


  1. ^ a b c "Roy Thomas Checklist" Alter Ego Vol. 3 #50 (July 2005) p. 16
  2. ^ Comics Buyer's Guide #1636 (December 2007) p. 135
  3. ^ The Avengers Annual #1 (1967), biographical text page
  4. ^ a b c d "Interview with Roy Thomas". The Comics Journal (61): 79. Winter 1981. 
  5. ^ Roy Thomas interview (July 2005). "'Roy the Boy' in the Marvel Age of Comics". Alter Ego 3 (50): p. 4. 
  6. ^ " 'Roy the Boy' in the Marvel Age of Comics", pp. 4-5
  7. ^ "Stan the Man & Roy the Boy: A Conversation Between Stan Lee and Roy Thomas". Comic Book Artist (2). Summer 1998. Archived from the original on November 14, 2009. http://twomorrows.com/comicbookartist/articles/02stanroy.html. 
  8. ^ a b Thomas, The Comics Journal #61, p. 80
  9. ^ Alter Ego vol. 3, #50, p. 8
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Roy Thomas at the Grand Comics Database
  11. ^ Alter Ego vol. 3, #50, pp. 9-10
  12. ^ Thomas, The Comics Journal #61, p. 78
  13. ^ Alter Ego vol. 3, #50, p. 37
  14. ^ Thomas (interviewer) in "So You Want a Job, Eh? The Gene Colan Interview", Alter Ego vol. 3, #6 (Autumn 2000) pp. 13-14
  15. ^ Marvel Bullpen Bulletins page, "Brilliant Bits of Block-Busting Bombast Straight from your Blushin' Bullpen!" in Marvel Comics cover-dated March 1969, including The Incredible Hulk vol. 2, #113
  16. ^ Stiles, Steve. "The Groundbreaking Neal Adams". SteveStiles.com (official site). Archived from the original on July 16, 2011. http://web.archive.org/web/20110716140737/http://stevestiles.com/adams.htm.  Additional WebCitation archive.
  17. ^ For example: Hill, Shawn, "Essential Avengers v4" (review), Comics Bulletin, February 15, 2006, re: the "Kree-Skrull War" arc: "This story set the standard for years to come, even if it has since been surpassed" (WebCitation archive); and Sanderson, Peter. Marvel Universe (Harry N. Abrams, 1998) ISBN 0-8109-8171-8, ISBN 978-0-8109-8171-3, p. 127: "Running nine issues, much of it spectacularly illustrated by Neal Adams, the Kree-Skrull War had no precedent in comics.... With this story The Avengers unquestionably established its reputation as one of Marvel's leading books"; and Stiles, re: X-Men: "Even knowing that the book was slated for the axe, Adams poured out some of the finest, most innovative work of his career".
  18. ^ "Jim Shooter Interview, Part 1". ComicBookResources.com. October 6, 2000. Archived from the original on October 17, 2010. http://web.archive.org/web/20101017210535/http://www.comicbookresources.com/?page=article&id=147. "We had been losing money for several years in the publishing. And y'know, actually a lot of credit should go to Roy Thomas, who — kicking and screaming —had dragged Marvel into doing Star Wars. If we hadn't done Star Wars — what was that, '77? — well, we would have gone out of business."  Additional WebCitation archive.
  19. ^ McAvennie, Michael; Dolan, Hannah, ed. (2010). "1970s". DC Comics Year By Year A Visual Chronicle. Dorling Kindersley. p. 165. ISBN 978-0-7566-6742-9. "The Yellow Brick Road from Munchkin Land to the Emerald City was also wide enough to accommodate DC and Marvel as they produced their first-ever joint publication...Roy Thomas scripted a faithful, seventy-two page adaptation of Dorothy Gale's adventure, while John Buscema's artwork depicted the landscape of Oz in lavish detail." 
  20. ^ "All-Star Squadron, DC's new World War II-era superhero series debuts in May in a 16-page preview insert in Justice League of America #193." as noted in "Thomas Revives WWII Superheroes" and "Arak, Son of Thunder, described as an 'Indian/Viking,' makes his debut in a preview insert in Warlord #48, on sale in May." as noted in "Thomas's Indian/Viking to Roam Medieval Europe" both Catron, Michael Amazing Heroes #1 June 1981 pp. 28-30
  21. ^ "The hotly-debated new Wonder Woman uniform will be bestowed on the Amazon Princess in her first adventure written and drawn by her new creative team: Roy Thomas and Gene Colan." "This story will appear as an insert in DC Comics Presents #41." as noted in "Thomas/Colan Premiere Wonder Woman's New Look" Sanderson, Peter Comics Feature #12/13 (September/October 1981) p. 23
  22. ^ Manning, Matthew K. "1980s" in Dolan, p. 196: "The New Teen Titans #16 - In a sixteen-page bonus preview insert in the middle of The New Teen Titans...was the debut story of Captain Carrot and his Amazing Zoo Crew."
  23. ^ Amazing Heroes #3 August 1981 p. 23
  24. ^ a b Thomas, Roy "The Secret Origins of Infinity, Inc." Alter Ego Vol. 3 #1 (Summer 1999) TwoMorrows Publishing p. 27
  25. ^ Thomas, Roy "Roy Thomas Checklist" Alter Ego (Vol. 3) #50 (July 2005) TwoMorrows Publishing p. 23
  26. ^ Thomas, Roy. "The Justice League-Justice Society Team-Ups" The All-Star Companion TwoMorrows Publishing 2000 ISBN 1-893905-05-5 pp. 191-192
  27. ^ Thomas, Roy "Crisis on Finite Earths The Justice League-Justice Society Team-Ups (1963-1985)" Alter Ego, vol. 3, #7 (Winter 2001) TwoMorrows Publishing, pp. 31-34
  28. ^ Shaw, Scott "Captain Carrot and His Amazing Zoo Crew! Vol. 1, No. 1", OddBallComics.com #1180, October 8, 2007
  29. ^ George Pérez interview, David Anthony Kraft's Comics Interview #6 (Fictioneer, Aug. 1983).
  30. ^ O'Neill, Patrick Daniel. "Career Moves" (Pérez interview), Wizard Magazine #35 (July 1994).
  31. ^ Manning "1980s" in Dolan, p. 200: "The Amazing Amazon was joined by a host of DC's greatest heroes to celebrate her 300th issue in a seventy-two-page blockbuster...Written by Roy and Dann Thomas, and penciled by Gene Colan, Ross Andru, Jan Duursema, Dick Giordano, Keith Pollard, Keith Giffen, and Rich Buckler."
  32. ^ Manning "1980s" in Dolan, p. 195: "The creative team of writer Roy Thomas and artist Rich Buckler on All-Star Squadron offered readers a nostalgic glimpse back in time, albeit through the slightly distorted lens of Earth-2's history."
  33. ^ "One of Thomas's goals is to resolve problems in past Earth-2 continuity." as noted in "From Here to Infinity" Sanderson, Peter Amazing Heroes #36 (December 1, 1983) p. 47
  34. ^ Manning "1980s" in Dolan, p. 203: "The children of the original Justice Society of America made their smash debut in this issue by writer Roy Thomas and penciler Jerry Ordway...All-Star Squadron #25 marked the first appearances of future cult-favorite heroes Jade, Obsidian, Fury, Brainwave Jr., the Silver Scarab, Northwind, and Nuklon."
  35. ^ Manning "1980s" in Dolan, p. 207: "Written by DC's Golden Age guru Roy Thomas and drawn by Jerry Ordway, Infinity, Inc. was released in DC's new deluxe format on bright Baxter paper."
  36. ^ Manning "1980s" in Dolan, p. 212: "In this limited series by writer Roy Thomas and penciler Rafael Kayanan, the JSA was taken to trial following a modern-day witchhunt."
  37. ^ Manning "1980s" in Dolan, p. 218: "The heroes of the DC Universe got a little more exposed thanks to the new ongoing effort Secret Origins, a title offering new interpretations to the backgrounds of some of comics' biggest icons.
  38. ^ Manning "1980s" in Dolan, p. 221: "The world's first super-team saw its adventures come to a temporary end thanks to its biggest fan. Writer/editor Roy Thomas acknowledged that, after...the Crisis maxiseries, the JSA seemed no longer relevant."
  39. ^ "Roy Thomas Checklist" p. 17
  40. ^ Shooter, Jim (August 18, 2011). "Writer/Editors – Part 6: Years Later". JimShooter.com (official site). Archived from the original on September 5, 2011. http://liveweb.archive.org/http://www.jimshooter.com/2011/08/writereditors-part-6.html. 
  41. ^ Weiland, Jonah (September 30, 2004). "30 Years of Horror: Editor Beazley talks the return of Stoker's Dracula". ComicBookResources.com. Archived from the original on September 5, 2011. http://liveweb.archive.org/http://www.comicbookresources.com/?page=article&id=4084. Retrieved September 5, 2011. 
  42. ^ Smith, Zack. "NYCC '07/D2: Marvel Magic Gets Spotlight in Mystic Arcana", Newsarama, February 24, 2007
  43. ^ The Hero Initiative Disbursement Committee Retrieved February 20, 2012
  44. ^ Marx, Barry, Cavalieri, Joey and Hill, Thomas (w), Petruccio, Steven (a), Marx, Barry (ed). "Roy Thomas From Fan to Professional" Fifty Who Made DC Great: 33 (1985), DC Comics

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Gary Friedrich
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The English word games are:
○   Anagrams
○   Wildcard, crossword
○   Lettris
○   Boggle.


Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.


Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !

English dictionary
Main references

Most English definitions are provided by WordNet .
English thesaurus is mainly derived from The Integral Dictionary (TID).
English Encyclopedia is licensed by Wikipedia (GNU).


The wordgames anagrams, crossword, Lettris and Boggle are provided by Memodata.
The web service Alexandria is granted from Memodata for the Ebay search.
The SensagentBox are offered by sensAgent.


Change the target language to find translations.
Tips: browse the semantic fields (see From ideas to words) in two languages to learn more.

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