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Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.
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|San Diego International Airport
|IATA: SAN – ICAO: KSAN – FAA LID: SAN|
|Owner||San Diego County Regional Airport Authority|
|Location||North Harbor Drive
San Diego, California
|Elevation AMSL||17 ft / 5 m|
|FAA airport diagram|
|Statistics (2009, 2010)|
|Total Passengers (2010)||16,889,622|
|International Passengers (2009)||194,172|
|Traffic Movements (2009)||199,209|
|Source: FAA, Airport Authority|
San Diego International Airport (IATA: SAN, ICAO: KSAN, FAA LID: SAN), also known as Lindbergh Field, is a public airport located 3 mi (4.8 km) northwest of the central business district of San Diego, California and 15 mi (24 km) from the Mexico – United States border at Tijuana, Mexico. It is operated by the San Diego County Regional Airport Authority.
San Diego International is the second busiest single-runway commercial service airport in the world, with approximately 550 departures and arrivals carrying 50,000 passengers each day, and a total of 16,890,722 passengers in 2011. San Diego is the largest metropolitan area of the United States that serves as neither a hub nor a secondary hub for any airline; however the airport is a focus city for Southwest Airlines and Alaska Airlines.
The airport is located near the site of the old Ryan Airlines factory, but it is not the same as Dutch Flats, the Ryan airstrip where Charles Lindbergh flight tested the Spirit of St. Louis before his historic transatlantic flight. The site of Dutch Flats is on the other side of the Marine Corps Recruit Depot, in the Midway area, near the current intersection of Midway and Barnett avenues.
Inspired by Lindbergh's historic flight and excited to have made the plane he flew, the city of San Diego passed a bond issue in 1928 for construction of a two-runway municipal airport to be operated by the city. Lindbergh himself encouraged the building of the airport and agreed to lend his name to it. The new airport, dedicated on August 16, 1928, was given the name San Diego Municipal Airport – Lindbergh Field, by which name it is still known. This naming occurred because San Diego was the city from which Lindbergh began the journey that would ultimately become the first solo transatlantic flight, in addition to being the place where his aircraft was designed, built, and tested, at Dutch Flats.
The airport was the first federally certified airfield to serve all aircraft types, including seaplanes. The original terminal was located on the northeastern side of the field, along Pacific Highway. The airport also served as a testing facility for several early U.S. sailplane designs, notably those by William Hawley Bowlus (superintendent of construction on the Spirit of St. Louis) who also operated the Bowlus Glider School at Lindbergh Field from 1929–1930. On June 1, 1930, a regular San Diego – Los Angeles airmail route was initiated. The airport gained 'international airport' status in 1934, and a United States Coast Guard Air Base located adjacent to the field was commissioned in April 1937. The Coast Guard's fixed-wing aircraft made use of the runway at Lindbergh Field until the mid-1990s when the fixed-wing aircraft were retired.
The Army Air Corps took the field over in 1942 to support the war effort, improving it to handle the heavy bombers being manufactured in the region. This transformation, including an 8,750 ft (2,670 m) runway, made the airport "jet-ready' long before jet airliners came into service. After the war commercial air service at Lindbergh Field expanded rapidly. Pacific Southwest Airlines established its headquarters in San Diego and inaugurated service at Lindbergh Field in 1949. The April 1957 Official Airline Guide shows 42 departures a day: 14 American, 13 United, 6 Western, 6 Bonanza and 3 PSA (5 PSA on Friday and Sunday). American had a nonstop to Dallas and one to El Paso; aside from that nonstop flights didn't reach beyond California and Arizona.
The original terminal was on the north side of the airport and was used until the 1960s; by then air traffic in San Diego had increased considerably and new facilities were needed in a location where aircraft did not have to cross the runway to get to the gates. The current Terminal 1 was opened on the south side of the airport on March 5, 1967. It was not until July 11, 1979 that Terminal 2 was opened. These two terminals were designed by Paderewski Dean & Associates. A third terminal, dubbed the Commuter Terminal, opened on July 23, 1996. Terminal 2 was later expanded by 300,000 square feet (27,871 m2) in 1998, opening on January 7, 1998. The expanded Terminal 2 and the Commuter Terminal were designed by Gensler and SGPA Architecture and Planning. In the 1990s, the official name of the airport became San Diego International Airport, but is still often referred to as Lindbergh Field by the local residents. As downtown San Diego developed, one of the airport's two runways was closed. This 3,600 foot runway was rarely used and insufficient in length for commercial aircraft.
Originally built and operated by the City of San Diego through the sale of municipal bonds to be repaid by airport users, then the San Diego Unified Port District, the airport is now operated by the San Diego County Regional Airport Authority.
San Diego International Airport's expansion program, dubbed "The Green Build", is expected to help the airport meet current and future travel demands. Expected to be complete in early 2013, the project focuses on expansion and enhancements at Terminal 2. Additions include 10 new gates on the west side of Terminal 2 West, a dual-level roadway separating arriving and departing passengers, additional security lanes, and an expanded concession area.
Landing at the airport from the east (the most common approach) offers dramatic closeup views of skyscrapers, Petco Park (home of the San Diego Padres), and the Coronado Bridge from the left side of the aircraft. On the right, Balboa Park, site of the 1915–1916 Panama-California Exposition, can be seen, along with the San Diego Zoo and several freeways.
The approach from the east is steep, necessitated by terrain which drops from 266 ft (81 m) to sea level in less than one nautical mile. Aircraft normally descend at 318 feet per nautical mile (52.3 m/km), or 3.00 degrees. Recently, some obstructions have been removed and the glidepath has been lowered from 3.5 degrees to 3.14 degrees. San Diego's only runway is located at the base of a hill lined with several obstructions, including Interstate 5 and trees in Balboa Park. Contrary to local lore, the parking structure off the end of the runway was built long after previous obstructions built up east of I-5. The parking structure was then built up to this controlling limit.
Aircraft arriving from the east do not land at the end of the runway as at most airports, but land at what is called a displaced threshold, located 1,810 feet (550 m) from the runway end, effectively shortening the landing distance to 7,591 feet (2,314 m). Aircraft departing to the west use the east end of the runway as their departure point, but terrain west of the airport reduces the effective runway length to roughly 8,800-foot (2,700 m).
Runway 27 (landing east to west), not equipped with ILS, becomes unusable for landing when visibility drops below 2 miles or the ceiling drops below 700 feet, forcing arriving aircraft to use Runway 9 (landing west to east). However, because of the terrain east of the airport, weight limits are imposed on larger departing aircraft, and some aircraft require taking off to the west to take advantage of the prevailing west winds and reduced terrain. This can create head to head operations, and can cause traffic problems and delays both in the air and on the ground. Problems can also arise when stormy weather brings both strong west winds and low ceilings to the airport as the only available direction to land would be in tail winds.
Terrain east and west of the airport greatly impacts the available runway length. Runway 27 (heading west) has a climb gradient of 317 ft/nmi (52.2 m/km) feet per nautical mile leaving an equivalent takeoff distance of roughly 8,000 ft (2,400 m) for twin engine aircraft). Taking off to the east requires a 300 ft/nmi (49 m/km) climb rate, this leaves an equivalent takeoff distance of 7,200 ft (2,200 m), enough to force a weight penalty on the 737–800.
It should also be noted that Lindbergh Field does not have standard runway safety areas 1,000 ft (300 m) in length at each runway end. An engineered materials arrestor system (EMAS) has been installed at the west end of the runway to halt any aircraft overruns. The east end of the runway does not have such a system as its use would reduce the runway length by at least 400 ft (120 m), further impacting the runway's capability for departures to the west. Instead, the use of declared distances reduces the mathematical length of Runway 9 (west to east operations) by declaring that the eastern most end of Runway 9 is 1,121 feet shorter than it actually is (a net length of 8,280-feet). In general, use of a portion of a runway is better than a normal safety area because it is a paved and grooved surface providing full stopping power vs. a typical safety area that is usually smoothed and graded earth or grass.
SAN is located in a highly populated area. To appease the airport's neighbors' concerns over noise and possible ensuing lawsuits, a curfew was put in place in 1979. Departures are allowed between 6:30 am and 11:30 pm. Outside those hours, departures are subject to a large fine. Arrivals are permitted 24 hours per day. Several flights are scheduled with departure times before 6:15 am. These times, however, are pushback times. First takeoff roll is at 6:30 am.
As of October, 2010, San Diego International Airport is served by 20 passenger airlines and four cargo airlines which fly nonstop to 49 destinations in the United States, Canada, Europe,and Mexico. Japan Airlines plans to launch service to Tokyo from December 2012 using the Boeing 787 aircraft, which would add the only nonstop service to Asia.
The busiest route in terms of operations is to Los Angeles with 30 daily round trips split between United Express, American Eagle, and Delta Connection. The busiest route in terms of available seats per day is to San Francisco with 2,400 seats spread across 21 weekday round trips on United Airlines, Southwest Airlines, and Virgin America.
In January 2008, San Diego International Airport entered the blogosphere with the launch of the first employee blog – the Ambassablog – for a major U.S. airport. Written by front-line employees, the blog features regular posts on airport activities, events and initiatives; reader comments; and several multimedia and interactive features. It has been presented as a case study in employee blogging to several public agencies at the federal, state and local levels.
In February 2008, San Diego International Airport became one of the first major airports in the U.S. to adopt a formal sustainability policy, which expresses the airport's commitment to a four-layer approach to sustainability known as EONS. As promulgated by Airports Council International – North America, EONS represents an integrated "quadruple bottom line" of (E)conomic viability, (O)perational excellence, (N)atural resource conservation and preservation and (S)ocial responsibility.
In May 2008, the California Attorney General, Jerry Brown, announced an agreement with San Diego International Airport on reducing greenhouse gas emissions associated with the airport's proposed master plan improvements. In announcing the agreement, the Attorney General's office said "San Diego airport will play a key leadership role in helping California meet its aggressive greenhouse gas reduction targets."
Public transport is provided by Metropolitan Transit System bus No. 992, which connects the airport to downtown San Diego, where connections can be made to other bus routes and the San Diego Trolley, COASTER, and Amtrak's Pacific Surfliner.
San Diego International Airport is testing a new system of airfield lights called Runway Status Lights (RWSL) for the FAA. It also completed the rehabilitation of the north taxiway in 2010. A project that included replacing its airfield lighting and signage with energy efficient LED lights where possible (LEDs are only permissible for use on Taxiway Lights, Obstruction Lights, Signage and Medium Intensity Runway Lights at this time – the runway at San Diego uses High Intensity Runway Lights) and is in the process of constructing 10 new gates for Terminal 2 West.
An interesting feature of the airport is the existence of the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) air station in the south-east corner of the airfield. The installation originally supported fixed-wing seaplane operations, with seaplane ramps leading into the bay, as well as conventional land-based fixed-wing aircraft and rotary-wing operations.
The air station is physically separated from the rest of the airfield, so that USCG fixed-wing aircraft must cross North Harbor Drive, a busy, 6-lane city street, to reach the runway. Street light activation opens the locked gates to the airfield and the air station, and also stops traffic while aircraft are crossing the street. This was a common occurrence during the 1970s, 1980s and early 1990s when CGAS San Diego had both HH-3F Pelican and HH-60J Jayhawk helicopters and HU-25 Guardian jets assigned. Today, this is an extremely rare occurrence, as CGAS San Diego's HU-25As have been reassigned and there are no fixed-wing aircraft currently assigned to Coast Guard Air Station San Diego.
California State Assembly Bill AB 93 created the San Diego County Regional Airport Authority in 2001. The SDCRAA projects that SAN will be constrained due to congestion between 2015–2022. In June 2006, SDCRAA board members selected Marine Corps Air Station Miramar as its preferred site for a replacement airport, despite military objections. On November 7, 2006, San Diego County residents defeated an advisory relocation which included a joint use proposal measure.
The airport is operating with 71% of its total gate capacity of 60 gates and will soon add 10 more gates taking the airport to 92% of its total gate capacity.
Twenty-two studies have been conducted on where to place an airport dating back to 1923. The first study developed the site location plan for Lindbergh field. Eighteen studies were conducted by private groups, most in the early days by those who were opposed to Lindbergh being built instead of on land set aside at what is now Montgomery Field. One was a revisitation of a study done in the 1980s by the City in 1994 when Miramar closed as a Navy Base and was then transferred to a Marine Base. Another was by the City of San Diego in 1984 and another that started in 1996 and sat dormant with SANDAG until the Airport Authority was formed. This study is the first study ever done to look for a new site by an agency that actually had jurisdiction over the issue, and the first non-site specific comprehensive study of the entire region.
There are three terminals at Lindbergh:
|Air Canada||Toronto-Pearson, Vancouver||2|
|Alaska Airlines||Honolulu, Kahului, Orlando [begins October 11, 2012], Portland (OR), Puerto Vallarta, San Jose Del Cabo, Seattle/Tacoma||1|
|Alaska Airlines operated by Horizon Air||Fresno, Monterey, Santa Rosa||1|
|American Airlines||Chicago-O'Hare, Dallas/Fort Worth, New York-JFK||2|
|American Eagle||Los Angeles||Commuter|
|Delta Air Lines||Atlanta, Detroit, Minneapolis/St. Paul, New York-JFK, Salt Lake City
|Delta Connection operated by SkyWest Airlines||Los Angeles||Commuter|
|Delta Connection operated by SkyWest Airlines||Salt Lake City||2|
|Frontier Airlines||Colorado Springs [begins September 18, 2012], Denver||2|
|Japan Airlines||Tokyo-Narita [begins December 2, 2012]||2|
|JetBlue Airways||Boston, New York-JFK||2|
|Southwest Airlines||Albuquerque, Austin, Baltimore, Chicago-Midway, Denver, El Paso, Houston-Hobby, Kansas City, Las Vegas, Nashville, Oakland, Phoenix, Reno/Tahoe, Sacramento, St. Louis, San Antonio, San Francisco, San Jose (CA), Tucson||1|
|Spirit Airlines||Dallas/Fort Worth, Las Vegas||2|
|Sun Country Airlines||Minneapolis/St. Paul||2|
|United Airlines||Chicago-O'Hare, Denver, Houston-Intercontinental, Newark, San Francisco, Washington-Dulles||1, 2|
|United Express operated by SkyWest Airlines||Denver, Los Angeles, San Francisco
Seasonal: Mammoth Lakes
|US Airways||Charlotte, Philadelphia, Phoenix, Washington-National||2|
|US Airways Express operated by Mesa Airlines||Phoenix||2|
|US Airways Express operated by SkyWest Airlines||Phoenix||2|
|Virgin America||San Francisco||2|
|Volaris||Guadalajara, Mexico City||2|
|1||San Francisco, CA||729,000||Southwest, United, Virgin America|
|2||Phoenix, AZ||662,000||Southwest, US Airways|
|3||Denver, CO||581,000||Frontier, Southwest, United|
|4||Las Vegas, NV||425,000||Southwest, Spirit|
|5||Dallas/Fort Worth, TX||399,000||American, Spirit|
|6||Chicago, IL||374,000||American, United|
|10||Los Angeles, CA||348,000||American, Delta, United|
|Capital Cargo International Airlines||Toledo, Phoenix|
|DHL Express operated by ABX Air||Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky, Phoenix|
|FedEx Express||Memphis, Indianapolis, Oakland, Ontario, Los Angeles|
|UPS Airlines||Honolulu, Louisville|
Landmark Aviation is the FBO (fixed base operator) at San Diego International Airport. Landmark services all aircraft ranging from single engine Cessna aircraft to four engine Boeing 747s. Generally, they service corporate traffic to the airport. The FBO ramp is located at the north-east end of the airfield. Landmark Aviation was formerly known as Jimsair Aviation Services. Jimsair was the FBO at the airport for 55 years, until July 2008, when they were purchased by Landmark Aviation.
Tijuana International Airport is directly adjacent to the Mexico – United States border. The Tijuana airport offers intercontinental nonstop flights to Shanghai, China as well as to many destinations within Mexico. Tijuana used to have flights to Tokyo-Narita, however this flight now only operates as a westbound fuel stop to Narita. The eastbound operation operates nonstop between Tokyo and Mexico City. When Aeromexico began offering flights from Tijuana to Asia they hoped to attract passengers from both sides of the border, including those from as far away as Orange County. The airline offers complimentary shuttle service from San Diego. Various proposals for cross border terminals have been discussed over the years and a Presidential permit for the border crossing was issued in the summer of 2010.
McClellan-Palomar Airport is located approximately 35 miles north in the city of Carlsbad. The airport is served by United Express with daily service to Los Angeles International Airport. It is planned to be the main base for a new startup airline, California Pacific Airlines, which anticipates beginning operations sometime in 2012.
MCAS Miramar is located 13 miles north-east of Lindbergh Field.
A portion of the southeast infield at San Diego International Airport is set aside as a nesting site for the endangered California Least Tern. The least tern nests on three ovals from March through September. The birds lay their eggs in the sand and gravel surface at the southwest end of the airfield. The San Diego Zoological Society monitors the birds from May through September. It is believed[by whom?] that the terns nest on the airfield because they do not have to compete with beach goers and the airport fence keeps dogs and other animals out, while the airplane activity helps keep predatory hawks away from the nests. Approximately 135 nests were established there in 2007.
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