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San Diego International Airport

                   
San Diego International Airport
Lindbergh Field
San Diego Airport logo.png
KSAN-Control-Tower.940.jpg
IATA: SANICAO: KSANFAA LID: SAN
Summary
Airport type Public
Owner San Diego County Regional Airport Authority
Serves San Diego
Location North Harbor Drive
San Diego, California
Elevation AMSL 17 ft / 5 m
Coordinates 32°44′01″N 117°11′23″W / 32.73361°N 117.18972°W / 32.73361; -117.18972Coordinates: 32°44′01″N 117°11′23″W / 32.73361°N 117.18972°W / 32.73361; -117.18972
Website www.san.org
Maps
FAA airport diagram
SAN is located in San Diego
SAN
Location within San Diego
Runways
Direction Length Surface
ft m
9/27 9,401 2,865 Asphalt/Concrete
Statistics (2009, 2010)
Total Passengers (2010) 16,889,622
International Passengers (2009) 194,172
Traffic Movements (2009) 199,209
Source: FAA,[1] Airport Authority[2]

San Diego International Airport (IATA: SANICAO: KSANFAA LID: SAN), also known as Lindbergh Field, is a public airport located 3 mi (4.8 km) northwest of the central business district of San Diego, California and 15 mi (24 km) from the Mexico – United States border at Tijuana, Mexico. It is operated by the San Diego County Regional Airport Authority.[1][3]

San Diego International is the second busiest single-runway commercial service airport in the world, with approximately 550 departures and arrivals carrying 50,000 passengers each day, and a total of 16,890,722 passengers in 2011. San Diego is the largest metropolitan area of the United States that serves as neither a hub nor a secondary hub for any airline; however the airport is a focus city for Southwest Airlines and Alaska Airlines.

The top five airlines in terms of market share for 2011 were Southwest Airlines (38.45%), United Airlines (15.3%), Delta Air Lines (10.9%), American Airlines (7.9%) and Alaska Airlines (6.5%).[4]

Contents

  History

The airport is located near the site of the old Ryan Airlines factory, but it is not the same as Dutch Flats, the Ryan airstrip where Charles Lindbergh flight tested the Spirit of St. Louis before his historic transatlantic flight. The site of Dutch Flats is on the other side of the Marine Corps Recruit Depot, in the Midway area, near the current intersection of Midway and Barnett avenues.[5]

Inspired by Lindbergh's historic flight and excited to have made the plane he flew, the city of San Diego passed a bond issue in 1928 for construction of a two-runway municipal airport to be operated by the city. Lindbergh himself encouraged the building of the airport and agreed to lend his name to it.[6] The new airport, dedicated on August 16, 1928, was given the name San Diego Municipal Airport – Lindbergh Field, by which name it is still known. This naming occurred because San Diego was the city from which Lindbergh began the journey that would ultimately become the first solo transatlantic flight, in addition to being the place where his aircraft was designed, built, and tested, at Dutch Flats.

The airport was the first federally certified airfield to serve all aircraft types, including seaplanes. The original terminal was located on the northeastern side of the field, along Pacific Highway. The airport also served as a testing facility for several early U.S. sailplane designs, notably those by William Hawley Bowlus (superintendent of construction on the Spirit of St. Louis) who also operated the Bowlus Glider School at Lindbergh Field from 1929–1930. On June 1, 1930, a regular San Diego – Los Angeles airmail route was initiated. The airport gained 'international airport' status in 1934, and a United States Coast Guard Air Base located adjacent to the field was commissioned in April 1937. The Coast Guard's fixed-wing aircraft made use of the runway at Lindbergh Field until the mid-1990s when the fixed-wing aircraft were retired.

The Army Air Corps took the field over in 1942 to support the war effort, improving it to handle the heavy bombers being manufactured in the region. This transformation, including an 8,750 ft (2,670 m) runway, made the airport "jet-ready' long before jet airliners came into service.[7] After the war commercial air service at Lindbergh Field expanded rapidly. Pacific Southwest Airlines established its headquarters in San Diego and inaugurated service at Lindbergh Field in 1949. The April 1957 Official Airline Guide shows 42 departures a day: 14 American, 13 United, 6 Western, 6 Bonanza and 3 PSA (5 PSA on Friday and Sunday). American had a nonstop to Dallas and one to El Paso; aside from that nonstop flights didn't reach beyond California and Arizona.

In 1960 Lindbergh Field gained its first jet service, with American Airlines Boeing 720s to Phoenix and United Airlines 720s to San Francisco.

The original terminal was on the north side of the airport and was used until the 1960s; by then air traffic in San Diego had increased considerably and new facilities were needed in a location where aircraft did not have to cross the runway to get to the gates. The current Terminal 1 was opened on the south side of the airport on March 5, 1967. It was not until July 11, 1979 that Terminal 2 was opened. These two terminals were designed by Paderewski Dean & Associates[8]. A third terminal, dubbed the Commuter Terminal, opened on July 23, 1996. Terminal 2 was later expanded by 300,000 square feet (27,871 m2) in 1998, opening on January 7, 1998. The expanded Terminal 2 and the Commuter Terminal were designed by Gensler and SGPA Architecture and Planning[9][10]. In the 1990s, the official name of the airport became San Diego International Airport, but is still often referred to as Lindbergh Field by the local residents. As downtown San Diego developed, one of the airport's two runways was closed. This 3,600 foot runway was rarely used and insufficient in length for commercial aircraft.

Originally built and operated by the City of San Diego through the sale of municipal bonds to be repaid by airport users, then the San Diego Unified Port District, the airport is now operated by the San Diego County Regional Airport Authority.

  The Green Build

San Diego International Airport's expansion program, dubbed "The Green Build", is expected to help the airport meet current and future travel demands. Expected to be complete in early 2013, the project focuses on expansion and enhancements at Terminal 2. Additions include 10 new gates on the west side of Terminal 2 West, a dual-level roadway separating arriving and departing passengers, additional security lanes, and an expanded concession area.[11]

  Flight operations

The vast majority of takeoffs and landings at SAN are from east to west.

Landing at the airport from the east (the most common approach) offers dramatic closeup views of skyscrapers, Petco Park (home of the San Diego Padres), and the Coronado Bridge from the left side of the aircraft. On the right, Balboa Park, site of the 1915–1916 Panama-California Exposition, can be seen, along with the San Diego Zoo and several freeways.

The approach from the east is steep, necessitated by terrain which drops from 266 ft (81 m) to sea level in less than one nautical mile. Aircraft normally descend at 318 feet per nautical mile (52.3 m/km), or 3.00 degrees. Recently, some obstructions have been removed and the glidepath has been lowered from 3.5 degrees to 3.14 degrees[12]. San Diego's only runway is located at the base of a hill lined with several obstructions, including Interstate 5 and trees in Balboa Park. Contrary to local lore, the parking structure off the end of the runway was built long after previous obstructions built up east of I-5. The parking structure was then built up to this controlling limit.

Aircraft arriving from the east do not land at the end of the runway as at most airports, but land at what is called a displaced threshold, located 1,810 feet (550 m) from the runway end, effectively shortening the landing distance to 7,591 feet (2,314 m). Aircraft departing to the west use the east end of the runway as their departure point, but terrain west of the airport reduces the effective runway length to roughly 8,800-foot (2,700 m).

  Reverse operations

Runway 27 (landing east to west), not equipped with ILS, becomes unusable for landing when visibility drops below 2 miles or the ceiling drops below 700 feet, forcing arriving aircraft to use Runway 9 (landing west to east). However, because of the terrain east of the airport, weight limits are imposed on larger departing aircraft, and some aircraft require taking off to the west to take advantage of the prevailing west winds and reduced terrain. This can create head to head operations, and can cause traffic problems and delays both in the air and on the ground. Problems can also arise when stormy weather brings both strong west winds and low ceilings to the airport as the only available direction to land would be in tail winds.

Terrain east and west of the airport greatly impacts the available runway length. Runway 27 (heading west) has a climb gradient of 317 ft/nmi (52.2 m/km) feet per nautical mile leaving an equivalent takeoff distance of roughly 8,000 ft (2,400 m) for twin engine aircraft). Taking off to the east requires a 300 ft/nmi (49 m/km) climb rate, this leaves an equivalent takeoff distance of 7,200 ft (2,200 m), enough to force a weight penalty on the 737–800.

It should also be noted that Lindbergh Field does not have standard runway safety areas 1,000 ft (300 m) in length at each runway end. An engineered materials arrestor system (EMAS) has been installed at the west end of the runway to halt any aircraft overruns. The east end of the runway does not have such a system as its use would reduce the runway length by at least 400 ft (120 m), further impacting the runway's capability for departures to the west. Instead, the use of declared distances reduces the mathematical length of Runway 9 (west to east operations) by declaring that the eastern most end of Runway 9 is 1,121 feet shorter than it actually is (a net length of 8,280-feet).[13] In general, use of a portion of a runway is better than a normal safety area because it is a paved and grooved surface providing full stopping power vs. a typical safety area that is usually smoothed and graded earth or grass.

  Noise curfew

  MD-10 coming into San Diego International

SAN is located in a highly populated area. To appease the airport's neighbors' concerns over noise and possible ensuing lawsuits, a curfew was put in place in 1979. Departures are allowed between 6:30 am and 11:30 pm. Outside those hours, departures are subject to a large fine. Arrivals are permitted 24 hours per day.[14] Several flights are scheduled with departure times before 6:15 am. These times, however, are pushback times. First takeoff roll is at 6:30 am.

  Current status

As of October, 2010, San Diego International Airport is served by 20 passenger airlines[15] and four cargo airlines which fly nonstop to 49 destinations in the United States, Canada, Europe,and Mexico.[16] Japan Airlines plans to launch service to Tokyo from December 2012 using the Boeing 787 aircraft, which would add the only nonstop service to Asia.[17]

The busiest route in terms of operations is to Los Angeles with 30 daily round trips split between United Express, American Eagle, and Delta Connection. The busiest route in terms of available seats per day is to San Francisco with 2,400 seats spread across 21 weekday round trips on United Airlines, Southwest Airlines, and Virgin America.

In January 2008, San Diego International Airport entered the blogosphere with the launch of the first employee blog – the Ambassablog[18] – for a major U.S. airport. Written by front-line employees, the blog features regular posts on airport activities, events and initiatives; reader comments; and several multimedia and interactive features. It has been presented as a case study in employee blogging to several public agencies at the federal, state and local levels.

In February 2008, San Diego International Airport became one of the first major airports in the U.S. to adopt a formal sustainability policy, which expresses the airport's commitment to a four-layer approach to sustainability known as EONS. As promulgated by Airports Council International – North America, EONS represents an integrated "quadruple bottom line" of (E)conomic viability, (O)perational excellence, (N)atural resource conservation and preservation and (S)ocial responsibility.

In May 2008, the California Attorney General, Jerry Brown, announced an agreement with San Diego International Airport on reducing greenhouse gas emissions associated with the airport's proposed master plan improvements. In announcing the agreement, the Attorney General's office said "San Diego airport will play a key leadership role in helping California meet its aggressive greenhouse gas reduction targets."

Public transport is provided by Metropolitan Transit System bus No. 992, which connects the airport to downtown San Diego, where connections can be made to other bus routes and the San Diego Trolley, COASTER, and Amtrak's Pacific Surfliner.

San Diego International Airport is testing a new system of airfield lights called Runway Status Lights (RWSL) for the FAA. It also completed the rehabilitation of the north taxiway in 2010. A project that included replacing its airfield lighting and signage with energy efficient LED lights where possible (LEDs are only permissible for use on Taxiway Lights, Obstruction Lights, Signage and Medium Intensity Runway Lights at this time – the runway at San Diego uses High Intensity Runway Lights) and is in the process of constructing 10 new gates for Terminal 2 West.

  USCG operations

An interesting feature of the airport is the existence of the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) air station in the south-east corner of the airfield. The installation originally supported fixed-wing seaplane operations, with seaplane ramps leading into the bay, as well as conventional land-based fixed-wing aircraft and rotary-wing operations.

The air station is physically separated from the rest of the airfield, so that USCG fixed-wing aircraft must cross North Harbor Drive, a busy, 6-lane city street, to reach the runway. Street light activation opens the locked gates to the airfield and the air station, and also stops traffic while aircraft are crossing the street. This was a common occurrence during the 1970s, 1980s and early 1990s when CGAS San Diego had both HH-3F Pelican and HH-60J Jayhawk helicopters and HU-25 Guardian jets assigned. Today, this is an extremely rare occurrence, as CGAS San Diego's HU-25As have been reassigned and there are no fixed-wing aircraft currently assigned to Coast Guard Air Station San Diego.

  Relocation proposals

  The extreme proximity of the airport to MCRD San Diego and populous neighborhoods is clearly evident here behind this CO B738.

California State Assembly Bill AB 93[19] created the San Diego County Regional Airport Authority in 2001. The SDCRAA projects that SAN will be constrained due to congestion between 2015–2022.[20] In June 2006, SDCRAA board members selected Marine Corps Air Station Miramar as its preferred site for a replacement airport, despite military objections. On November 7, 2006, San Diego County residents defeated an advisory relocation which included a joint use proposal measure.[21][22]

The airport is operating with 71% of its total gate capacity of 60 gates and will soon add 10 more gates taking the airport to 92% of its total gate capacity.

Twenty-two studies have been conducted on where to place an airport dating back to 1923. The first study developed the site location plan for Lindbergh field. Eighteen studies were conducted by private groups, most in the early days by those who were opposed to Lindbergh being built instead of on land set aside at what is now Montgomery Field. One was a revisitation of a study done in the 1980s by the City in 1994 when Miramar closed as a Navy Base and was then transferred to a Marine Base. Another was by the City of San Diego in 1984 and another that started in 1996 and sat dormant with SANDAG until the Airport Authority was formed. This study is the first study ever done to look for a new site by an agency that actually had jurisdiction over the issue, and the first non-site specific comprehensive study of the entire region.

  Terminals, airlines and destinations

  Departure and Arrivals Curb of Terminal 1
  Departure and arrivals curb of Terminal 2
  An American Airlines MD80 and a Virgin America A320 at Terminal 2

There are three terminals at Lindbergh:

Terminal 1
  • Terminal 1 is composed of two parts: East and West and has 19 gates, numbered 1–19.
Terminal 2
  • Terminal 2 is composed of two parts: East and West and has 22 gates, numbered 20–41.
  • All international arrivals at Lindbergh are handled in Terminal 2.
Commuter Terminal
  • The Commuter Terminal has 4 gates, numbered 1–4. Currently, all flights that operate at the Commuter Terminal operate are between San Diego and the Los Angeles International Airport.
Airlines Destinations Terminal
Air Canada Toronto-Pearson, Vancouver 2[23]
Alaska Airlines Honolulu, Kahului, Orlando [begins October 11, 2012],[24] Portland (OR), Puerto Vallarta, San Jose Del Cabo, Seattle/Tacoma 1
Alaska Airlines operated by Horizon Air Fresno, Monterey, Santa Rosa 1
Allegiant Air Bellingham 2
American Airlines Chicago-O'Hare, Dallas/Fort Worth, New York-JFK 2
American Eagle Los Angeles Commuter
British Airways London-Heathrow 2
Delta Air Lines Atlanta, Detroit, Minneapolis/St. Paul, New York-JFK, Salt Lake City
2
Delta Connection operated by SkyWest Airlines Los Angeles Commuter
Delta Connection operated by SkyWest Airlines Salt Lake City 2
Frontier Airlines Colorado Springs [begins September 18, 2012],[25] Denver 2
Hawaiian Airlines Honolulu 2
Japan Airlines Tokyo-Narita [begins December 2, 2012][26] 2
JetBlue Airways Boston, New York-JFK 2
Southwest Airlines Albuquerque, Austin, Baltimore, Chicago-Midway, Denver, El Paso, Houston-Hobby, Kansas City, Las Vegas, Nashville, Oakland, Phoenix, Reno/Tahoe, Sacramento, St. Louis, San Antonio, San Francisco, San Jose (CA), Tucson 1
Spirit Airlines Dallas/Fort Worth, Las Vegas 2
Sun Country Airlines Minneapolis/St. Paul 2
United Airlines Chicago-O'Hare, Denver, Houston-Intercontinental, Newark, San Francisco, Washington-Dulles 1, 2
United Express operated by SkyWest Airlines Denver, Los Angeles, San Francisco
Seasonal: Mammoth Lakes
1, Commuter
US Airways Charlotte, Philadelphia, Phoenix, Washington-National 2
US Airways Express operated by Mesa Airlines Phoenix 2
US Airways Express operated by SkyWest Airlines Phoenix 2
Virgin America San Francisco 2
Volaris Guadalajara, Mexico City 2
WestJet Calgary 2

  Top destinations

Busiest Domestic Routes from SAN (April 2011 – March 2012)[27]
Rank City Passengers Carriers
1 San Francisco, CA 729,000 Southwest, United, Virgin America
2 Phoenix, AZ 662,000 Southwest, US Airways
3 Denver, CO 581,000 Frontier, Southwest, United
4 Las Vegas, NV 425,000 Southwest, Spirit
5 Dallas/Fort Worth, TX 399,000 American, Spirit
6 Chicago, IL 374,000 American, United
7 Atlanta, GA 356,000 Delta
8 Seattle, WA 356,000 Alaska
9 Oakland, CA 352,000 Southwest
10 Los Angeles, CA 348,000 American, Delta, United

  Cargo airlines

Airlines Destinations
Capital Cargo International Airlines Toledo, Phoenix
DHL Express operated by ABX Air Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky, Phoenix
FedEx Express Memphis, Indianapolis, Oakland, Ontario, Los Angeles
UPS Airlines Honolulu, Louisville

  General aviation

Landmark Aviation is the FBO (fixed base operator) at San Diego International Airport. Landmark services all aircraft ranging from single engine Cessna aircraft to four engine Boeing 747s. Generally, they service corporate traffic to the airport. The FBO ramp is located at the north-east end of the airfield. Landmark Aviation was formerly known as Jimsair Aviation Services. Jimsair was the FBO at the airport for 55 years, until July 2008, when they were purchased by Landmark Aviation.

  Other nearby commercial airports

Tijuana International Airport is directly adjacent to the Mexico – United States border. The Tijuana airport offers intercontinental nonstop flights to Shanghai, China as well as to many destinations within Mexico. Tijuana used to have flights to Tokyo-Narita, however this flight now only operates as a westbound fuel stop to Narita. The eastbound operation operates nonstop between Tokyo and Mexico City. When Aeromexico began offering flights from Tijuana to Asia they hoped to attract passengers from both sides of the border, including those from as far away as Orange County. The airline offers complimentary shuttle service from San Diego.[28] Various proposals for cross border terminals have been discussed over the years and a Presidential permit for the border crossing was issued in the summer of 2010.

McClellan-Palomar Airport is located approximately 35 miles north in the city of Carlsbad. The airport is served by United Express with daily service to Los Angeles International Airport. It is planned to be the main base for a new startup airline, California Pacific Airlines, which anticipates beginning operations sometime in 2012.

  Nearby military airports

Naval Air Station North Island is located directly across San Diego Bay from Lindbergh Field, approximately 1.5 mi (2.4 km) to the south.

MCAS Miramar is located 13 miles north-east of Lindbergh Field.

  Accidents and incidents

  • On June 2, 1942, the first British Consolidated LB-30 Liberator II, AL503, on its acceptance flight for delivery from the Consolidated Aircraft Company plant at San Diego, California, crashed into San Diego Bay [29] when the flight controls froze, killing all five civilian crew, CAC Chief Test Pilot William Wheatley, co-pilot Alan Austen, flight engineer Bruce Kilpatrick Craig, and two chief mechanics, Lewis McCannon and William Reiser. Craig, who had been commissioned a 2nd Lieutenant in the U.S. Army Reserve in 1935 following Infantry ROTC training at the Georgia Institute of Technology where he earned a Bachelor of Science degree in aeronautical engineering, had applied for a commission in the Army Air Corps before his death. This was granted posthumously, with the rank of 2nd Lieutenant, and on August 25, 1941, the airfield in his hometown of Selma, Alabama was renamed Craig Field, later Craig Air Force Base.[30] Investigation into the cause of the accident caused a two month delay in deliveries, so the RAF did not begin receiving Liberator IIs until August 1941.
  • On May 10, 1943, the first Consolidated XB-32 Dominator, 41-141, crashed on take-off at Lindbergh Field, probably from flap failure. Although the bomber did not burn when it piled up at end of runway, Consolidated's senior test pilot Dick McMakin was killed. Six others on board were injured.[31] This was one of only two twin-finned B-32s (41-142 was the other) - all subsequent had a PB4Y-style single tail.
  • On November 22, 1944, Consolidated PB4Y-2 Privateer, BuNo 59544, on a pre-delivery test flight by company crew out of Lindbergh Field, took off at 1223 hrs., lost its port outer wing on climb-out, and crashed one quarter mile further on in a ravine in an undeveloped area of Loma Portal near the Navy Training Center, less than two miles (3 km) from point of lift-off. All crew were killed, including pilot Marvin R. Weller, co-pilot Conrad C. Cappe, flight engineers Frank D. Sands and Clifford P. Bengston, radio operator Robert B. Skala, and Consolidated Vultee field operations employee Ray Estes. A wing panel came down on home at 3121 Kingsley Street in Loma Portal. Cause was found to be 98 missing bolts; the wing was only attached with four spar bolts. Four employees who either were responsible for installation, or who had been inspectors who signed off on the undone work, were fired two days later. A San Diego coroner's jury found Consolidated Vultee guilty of "gross negligence" by vote of 11-1 on January 5, 1945, and the Bureau of Aeronautics reduced its contract by one at a cost to firm of $155,000. Consolidated Vultee paid out $130,484 to the families of the six dead crew.[32]
  • On April 5, 1945, the prototype Ryan XFR-1 Fireball, BuNo 48234, piloted by Ryan test pilot Dean Lake, on a test flight over Lindbergh Field, lost skin between the front and rear spars of the starboard wing, interrupting airflow over the wing and causing it to disintegrate. The pilot bailed out and the airframe broke up. Wreckage struck brand new Consolidated PB4Y-2 Privateer, BuNo 59836, just accepted by the Navy and preparing to depart for the modification center at Litchfield Park, Arizona. The bomber burns and the Navy crew of pilot Lt. D. W. Rietz, Lt. J. E. Creed, and Aviation Machinists Mates G. R. Brown and J. H. Randall, evacuated the burning PB4Y, with only Randall suffering injuries of first, second, and third degree burns and minor lacerations.[33]
  • April 30, 1945: Just before midnight this date, first production Consolidated PB4Y-2 Privateer, BuNo 59359, was being prepared on the ramp at Lindbergh Field for a flight to NAS Twin Cities, Minneapolis, Minnesota. A mechanic attempted to remove the port battery solenoid, located 14 inches below the cockpit floor, but did so without disconnecting the battery. Ratchet wrench accidentally punctured a hydraulic line three inches above the battery and fluid ignited, setting entire aircraft alight. The mechanic suffered severe burns. Only the number four (starboard outer) engine was deemed salvageable. Cause was an unqualified mechanic attempting a task that only a qualified electrician should undertake.[34]
  • On the morning of September 25, 1978, a Boeing 727–200 operating flight PSA Flight 182 on the Sacramento-Los Angeles-San Diego Route collided in mid-air with a Cessna 172 while attempting to land at San Diego Airport. The two aircraft collided over San Diego's North Park, killing all 135 people on Flight 182 and the two people on the Cessna, along with 7 people on the ground.

  Awards

  • Airports Council International (ACI) ranked San Diego-Lindbergh Field the No. 4 best airport in North America in 2007. ACI also ranked SAN the No. 2 best airport in the world with 15–25 million passengers in 2007.[35] ACI also ranked SAN the No. 3 best airport in the world with 15–25 million passengers in 2008.

  Endangered species habitat

A portion of the southeast infield at San Diego International Airport is set aside as a nesting site for the endangered California Least Tern. The least tern nests on three ovals from March through September. The birds lay their eggs in the sand and gravel surface at the southwest end of the airfield. The San Diego Zoological Society monitors the birds from May through September. It is believed[by whom?] that the terns nest on the airfield because they do not have to compete with beach goers and the airport fence keeps dogs and other animals out, while the airplane activity helps keep predatory hawks away from the nests. Approximately 135 nests were established there in 2007.[36]

  See also


  References

 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Air Force Historical Research Agency.

  1. ^ a b FAA Airport Master Record for SAN (Form 5010 PDF), effective October 25, 2007
  2. ^ San Diego International Airport
  3. ^ San Diego County Regional Airport Authority
  4. ^ http://www.san.org/sdia/at_the_airport/education/airport_statistics.aspx
  5. ^ Port of San Diego map
  6. ^ CharlesLindbergh.com
  7. ^ Official site
  8. ^ Paderewski, CJ - Modern San Diego Dot Com
  9. ^ Lorraine Francis, AIA, LEED AP - Cadiz Design Studio
  10. ^ SGPA - Special Projects
  11. ^ "The Green Build at San Diego County Regional Airport Authority". http://www.san.org/sdcraa/airport_initiatives/green_build/Default.aspx. Retrieved June 16, 2010. 
  12. ^ [1]
  13. ^ [2]
  14. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". san.org. The San Diego County Regional Airport Authority. http://www.san.org/sdcraa/airport_initiatives/noise/faqs.aspx. Retrieved December 6, 2009. 
  15. ^ Airlines serving San Diego
  16. ^ Nonstop cities from San Diego
  17. ^ Mutzabaugh, Ben (February 15, 2012). USA Today. http://travel.usatoday.com/flights/post/2012/02/japan-airlines-787-dreamliner-flights-san-diego-tokyo/628256/1?csp=34travel. 
  18. ^ Ambassablog
  19. ^ California Assembly Bill 93
  20. ^ [3]
  21. ^ Airport Measure Shot Down
  22. ^ SDCRAA Endorses Miramar For New Airport Site, Despite Military Protest (San Diego Tribune: June 5, 2006)
  23. ^ http://www.aircanada.com/en/news/trav_adv/100604.html
  24. ^ http://finance.yahoo.com/news/alaska-airlines-launching-nonstop-between-174500603.html;_ylt=A2KJ3CX8z8dP8msAWyrQtDMD
  25. ^ "Fly Frontier Nonstop from Colorado Springs to Orlando and San Diego" (Press release). Frontier Airlines. May 18, 2012. http://media.frontierairlines.com/article_display.cfm?article_id=5354. Retrieved May 18, 2012. 
  26. ^ "JAL Sets Start Date of New Nonstop Tokyo=San Diego Service and Announces Increase of Delhi Service to Daily in Revised Route and Flight Frequency Plan for FY2012" (Press release). Japan Airlines. June 13, 2012. http://press.jal.co.jp/en/release/201206/002159.html. Retrieved June 13, 2012. 
  27. ^ "San Diego, CA: San Diego International (SAN)". Bureau of Transportation Statistics. September 2011. http://www.transtats.bts.gov/airports.asp?pn=1&Airport=SAN. 
  28. ^ "Aeromexico hopes nonstop flights from Tijuana to Tokyo expand its clientele". http://ww.signonsandiego.com/uniontrib/20061123/news_1b23flight.html. 
  29. ^ http://www.rafb24.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=4588:liberator-ii-for-the-raflb-30&catid=29:the-b-24&Itemid=41[dead link]
  30. ^ http://www.lackland.af.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-070222-007.[dead link]
  31. ^ Johnsen, Frederick A., "Dominator: Last and Unluckiest of the Hemisphere Bombers", Wings, Granada Hills, California, February 1974, Volume 4, Number 1, p. 10.
  32. ^ Veronico, Nicholas A., " 'Failure At The Factory", Air Enthusiast, Stamford, Lincs, UK, Number 124, July–August 2006, pp.31-33.
  33. ^ Veronico, Nicholas A., " 'Failure At The Factory", Air Enthusiast, Stamford, Lincs, UK, Number 124, July–August 2006, p. 33.
  34. ^ Veronico, Nicholas A., " 'Failure At The Factory", Air Enthusiast, Stamford, Lincs, UK, Number 124, July–August 2006, p. 35.
  35. ^ San Diego-Lindbergh Field Ranked No. 4 Best Airport In North America
  36. ^ Davis, Rob (August 31, 2007). "Wildlife Agency Gets Pushback in Downgrading Endangered Bird". Voice of San Diego. http://www.voiceofsandiego.org/articles/2007/08/30/news/01leasttern083107.txt. Retrieved June 2, 2009. 

  External links

   
               

 

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Lettris

Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.

boggle

Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !

English dictionary
Main references

Most English definitions are provided by WordNet .
English thesaurus is mainly derived from The Integral Dictionary (TID).
English Encyclopedia is licensed by Wikipedia (GNU).

Copyrights

The wordgames anagrams, crossword, Lettris and Boggle are provided by Memodata.
The web service Alexandria is granted from Memodata for the Ebay search.
The SensagentBox are offered by sensAgent.

Translation

Change the target language to find translations.
Tips: browse the semantic fields (see From ideas to words) in two languages to learn more.

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