» 
Arabic Bulgarian Chinese Croatian Czech Danish Dutch English Estonian Finnish French German Greek Hebrew Hindi Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Italian Japanese Korean Latvian Lithuanian Malagasy Norwegian Persian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swedish Thai Turkish Vietnamese
Arabic Bulgarian Chinese Croatian Czech Danish Dutch English Estonian Finnish French German Greek Hebrew Hindi Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Italian Japanese Korean Latvian Lithuanian Malagasy Norwegian Persian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swedish Thai Turkish Vietnamese

definitions - Scaffolding

scaffold (n.)

1.a system of scaffolds

2.instrument of execution that consists of a weighted blade between two vertical poles; used for beheading people

3.a temporary arrangement erected around a building for convenience of workers

4.a platform from which criminals are executed (hanged or beheaded)

scaffold (v.)

1.provide with a scaffold for support"scaffold the building before painting it"

scaffolding (n.)

1.a system of scaffolds

   Advertizing ▼

Merriam Webster

ScaffoldScaf"fold (?), n. [OF. eschafault, eschafaut, escafaut, escadafaut, F. échafaud; probably originally the same word as E. & F. catafalque, It. catafalco. See Catafalque.]
1. A temporary structure of timber, boards, etc., for various purposes, as for supporting workmen and materials in building, for exhibiting a spectacle upon, for holding the spectators at a show, etc.

Pardon, gentles all,
The flat, unraised spirits that have dared
On this unworthy scaffold to bring forth
So great an object.
Shak.

2. Specifically, a stage or elevated platform for the execution of a criminal; as, to die on the scaffold.

That a scaffold of execution should grow a scaffold of coronation. Sir P. Sidney.

3. (Metal.) An accumulation of adherent, partly fused material forming a shelf, or dome-shaped obstruction, above the tuyères in a blast furnace.

ScaffoldScaf"fold, v. t. To furnish or uphold with a scaffold.

ScaffoldingScaf"fold*ing, n.
1. A scaffold; a supporting framework; as, the scaffolding of the body. Pope.

2. Materials for building scaffolds.

   Advertizing ▼

definition (more)

definition of Wikipedia

synonyms - Scaffolding

scaffolding (n.)

scaffold, staging

see also - Scaffolding

scaffold (n.)

guillotine

phrases

analogical dictionary





scaffold (n.)



Wikipedia - see also

Wikipedia

Scaffolding

                   
  Bamboo scaffolding in Hong Kong
  A condominium in periodical (every 10-15 years) large scale repairing/maintenance in Japan under regulation. In most cases the entire building is covered by steel scaffolding and mesh for easy work and safety. Typically it continues 3-5 weeks per planned schedule.
  Scaffolding, 10 months after Tokyo Skytree construction start

Scaffolding is a temporary structure used to support people and material in the construction or repair of buildings and other large structures. It is usually a modular system of metal pipes or tubes, although it can be from other materials. Bamboo is frequently used in Asia, such as Hong Kong.[1]

Contents

  Scaffolding in the ancient world

The Berlin Foundry Cup depicts scaffolding in ancient Greece (early 5th century BC). The ancient Egyptians, Nubians and Chinese are also recorded as having used scaffolding-like structures to build tall buildings.

  Scaffolding in the modern day

This European Standard specifies performance requirements and methods of structural and general design for access and working scaffolds. Requirements given are for scaffold structures that rely on the adjacent structures for stability. In general these requirements also apply to other types of working scaffolds.

The purpose of a working scaffold is to provide a safe place of work with safe access suitable for the work being done. This document sets out performance requirements for working scaffolds. These are substantially independent of the materials of which the scaffold is made. The standard is intended to be used as the basis for enquiry and design.

Thus the requirements of BS EN 12811-1. TG20 is largely based on BS 5973 with extracts taken directly from the old code, it also uses permissible stress design method. However, TG20 received a mixed response from the UK industry and as a result TG20 is being re-written and the new version is due for release sometime in 2008. This is the reason for the 'limbo' situation. Until the release of the revised TG20 the HSE continue to allow scaffold to be built in accordance with BS 5973.

  Materials

The basic components of scaffolding are tubes, couplers and boards.

  Extensive scaffolding on a building in downtown Cincinnati, Ohio.
  Assembly of bamboo scaffolding cantilevered over a Hong Kong street

The basic lightweight tube scaffolding that became the standard and revolutionized scaffolding, becoming the baseline for decades, was invented and marketed in the mid-1950s. With one basic 24 pound unit a scaffold of various sizes and heights could be assembled easily by a couple of labourers without the nuts or bolts previously needed.[2]

Tubes are usually made either of steel or aluminium, although there is composite scaffolding, which uses filament-wound tubes of glass fibre in a nylon or polyester matrix. If steel, they are either 'black' or galvanised. The tubes come in a variety of lengths and a standard diameter of 48.3 mm. (1.5 NPS pipe). The chief difference between the two types of metal tubes is the lower weight of aluminium tubes (1.7 kg/m as opposed to 4.4 kg/m) and also their greater flexibility and so their lower resistance to force. Tubes are generally bought in 6.3 m lengths and can then be cut down to certain typical sizes.

Boards provide a working surface for scaffold users. They are seasoned wood and come in three thicknesses (38 mm (usual), 50 mm and 63 mm) are a standard width (225 mm) and are a maximum of 3.9 m long. The board ends are protected either by metal plates called hoop irons or sometimes nail plates. Timber scaffold boards in the UK should comply with the requirements of BS 2482. As well as timber, steel or aluminium decking is used, as well as laminate boards. In addition to the boards for the working platform, there are sole boards which are placed beneath the scaffolding if the surface is soft or otherwise suspect, although ordinary boards can also be used. Another solution, called a scaffpad, is made from a rubber base with a base plate moulded inside; these are desirable for use on uneven ground since they adapt, whereas sole boards may split and have to be replaced.

  A short section of steel scaffold tube.

Couplers are the fittings which hold the tubes together. The most common are called scaffold couplers, and there are three basic types: right-angle couplers, putlog couplers and swivel couplers. To join tubes end-to-end joint pins (also called spigots) or sleeve couplers are used, or both may be used together. Only right angle couplers and swivel couplers can be used to fix tube in a 'load-bearing connection'. Single couplers are not load-bearing couplers and have no design capacity.

Other common scaffolding components lnclude base plates, ladders, ropes, anchor ties, reveal ties, gin wheels, sheeting, etc.

Despite the metric measurements given, many scaffolders measure tubes and boards in imperial units, with tubes from 21 feet down and boards from 13 ft down.

Bamboo scaffolding is widely used in Hong Kong, with nylon straps tied into knots as couplers.[3]

  Basic scaffolding

The key elements of a scaffold are standards, ledgers and transoms. The standards, also called uprights, are the vertical tubes that transfer the entire mass of the structure to the ground where they rest on a square base plate to spread the load. The base plate has a shank in its centre to hold the tube and is sometimes pinned to a sole board. Ledgers are horizontal tubes which connect between the standards. Transoms rest upon the ledgers at right angles. Main transoms are placed next to the standards, they hold the standards in place and provide support for boards; intermediate transoms are those placed between the main transoms to provide extra support for boards. In Canada this style is referred to as "English". "American" has the transoms attached to the standards and is used less but has certain advantages in some situations. Since scaffolding is a physical structure, it is possible to go in and come out of scaffolding.

  Scaffolding in Tretyakovsky Proyezd, Moscow

As well as the tubes at right angles there are cross braces to increase rigidity, these are placed diagonally from ledger to ledger, next to the standards to which they are fitted. If the braces are fitted to the ledgers they are called ledger braces. To limit sway a facade brace is fitted to the face of the scaffold every 30 metres or so at an angle of 35°-55° running right from the base to the top of the scaffold and fixed at every level.

Of the couplers previously mentioned, right-angle couplers join ledgers or transoms to standards, putlog or single couplers join board bearing transoms to ledgers - Non-board bearing transoms should be fixed using a right-angle coupler. Swivel couplers are to connect tubes at any other angle. The actual joints are staggered to avoid occurring at the same level in neighbouring standards.

  Basic scaffold dimensioning terms. No boards, bracing or couplers shown

The spacings of the basic elements in the scaffold are fairly standard. For a general purpose scaffold the maximum bay length is 2.1 m, for heavier work the bay size is reduced to 2 or even 1.8 m while for inspection a bay width of up to 2.7 m is allowed.

The scaffolding width is determined by the width of the boards, the minimum width allowed[where?] is 600 mm but a more typical four-board scaffold would be 870 mm wide from standard to standard. More heavy-duty scaffolding can require 5, 6 or even up to 8 boards width. Often an inside board is added to reduce the gap between the inner standard and the structure.

The lift height, the spacing between ledgers, is 2 m, although the base lift can be up to 2.7 m. The diagram above also shows a kicker lift, which is just 150 mm or so above the ground.

Transom spacing is determined by the thickness of the boards supported, 38 mm boards require a transom spacing of no more than 1.2 m while a 50 mm board can stand a transom spacing of 2.6 m and 63 mm boards can have a maximum span of 3.25 m. The minimum overhang for all boards is 50 mm and the maximum overhang is no more than 4x the thickness of the board.

  Foundations

Good foundations are essential. Often scaffold frameworks will require more than simple base plates to safely carry and spread the load. Scaffolding can be used without base plates on concrete or similar hard surfaces, although base plates are always recommended. For surfaces like pavements or tarmac base plates are necessary. For softer or more doubtful surfaces sole boards must be used, beneath a single standard a sole board should be at least 1,000 cm² with no dimension less than 220 mm, the thickness must be at least 35 mm. For heavier duty scaffold much more substantial baulks set in concrete can be required. On uneven ground steps must be cut for the base plates, a minimum step size of around 450 mm is recommended. A working platform requires certain other elements to be safe. They must be close-boarded, have double guard rails and toe and stop boards. Safe and secure access must also be provided.

Scaffolding showing required protection of a working platform with maximum dimensions. Butt-board not visible. No couplers shown

  Ties

  The Holy Trinity Church in Vladimir, with scaffolding wrapped in safety mesh.

Scaffolds are only rarely independent structures. To provide stability for a scaffolding (at left) framework ties are generally fixed to the adjacent building/fabric/steelwork.

General practice is to attach a tie every 4m on alternate lifts (traditional scaffolding). Prefabricated System scaffolds require structural connections at all frames - ie.2-3m centres (tie patterns must be provided by the System manufacturer/supplier). The ties are coupled to the scaffold as close to the junction of standard and ledger (node point) as possible. Due to recent regulation changes, scaffolding ties must support +/- loads (tie/butt loads) and lateral (shear) loads.

Due to the different nature of structures there is a variety of different ties to take advantage of the opportunities.

Through ties are put through structure openings such as windows. A vertical inside tube crossing the opening is attached to the scaffold by a transom and a crossing horizontal tube on the outside called a bridle tube. The gaps between the tubes and the structure surfaces are packed or wedged with timber sections to ensure a solid fit.

Box ties are used to attach the scaffold to suitable pillars or comparable features. Two additional transoms are put across from the lift on each side of the feature and are joined on both sides with shorter tubes called tie tubes. When a complete box tie is impossible a l-shaped lip tie can be used to hook the scaffold to the structure, to limit inward movement an additional transom, a butt transom, is place hard against the outside face of the structure.

Sometimes it is possible to use anchor ties (also called bolt ties), these are ties fitted into holes drilled in the structure. A common type is a ring bolt with an expanding wedge which is then tied to a node point.

The least 'invasive' tie is a reveal tie. These use an opening in the structure but use a tube wedged horizontally in the opening. The reveal tube is usually held in place by a reveal screw pin (an adjustable threaded bar) and protective packing at either end. A transom tie tube links the reveal tube to the scaffold. Reveal ties are not well regarded, they rely solely on friction and need regular checking so it is not recommended that more than half of all ties be reveal ties.

If it is not possible to use a safe number of ties rakers can be used. These are single tubes attached to a ledger extending out from the scaffold at an angle of less than 75° and securely founded. A transom at the base then completes a triangle back to the base of the main scaffold.

  Putlog scaffold

Scaffolding by Balfour & Beatty during refurbishment of the Waverley Station roof, Edinburgh 2011

As well as putlog couplers there are also putlog tubes, these have a flattened end or have been fitted with a blade. This feature allows the end of the tube to be within or rest upon the brickwork of the structure. They can be called a bricklayer's scaffold and as such consist only of a single row of standards with a single ledger, the putlogs are transoms - attached to the ledger at one end but integrated into the bricks at the other. Spacing is as general purpose scaffold and ties are still requireds.

  Standards

The widespread use of scaffolding systems, along with the profound importance that they earned in modern applications such as civil engineering projects and temporary structures, led to the definition of a series of standards covering a vast number of specific issues involving scaffolding. Among the standards there are:

  • DIN 4420, a DIN standard divided in 5 parts which covers the design and detail of scaffolds, ladder scaffolds, safety requirements and standard types, materials, components, dimensions and loadbearing capacity.
  • DIN 4421, a DIN standard which covers the analysis, design and construction of falsework


  See also

  References

  1. ^ Hong Kong 'spiders stick to bamboo scaffolding
  2. ^ "Light Weight Scaffolding Goes Together Without Nuts or Bolts." Popular Mechanics, February 1954, p. 103.
  3. ^ Hong Kong Buildings Department, Guidelines on the Design and Construction of Bamboo Scaffolds [1], retrieved 2011-05-01.

SCCR at www.thesccr.org ( Trade Confederation UK )

  External links

   
               

 

All translations of Scaffolding


sensagent's content

  • definitions
  • synonyms
  • antonyms
  • encyclopedia

Dictionary and translator for handheld

⇨ New : sensagent is now available on your handheld

   Advertising ▼

sensagent's office

Shortkey or widget. Free.

Windows Shortkey: sensagent. Free.

Vista Widget : sensagent. Free.

Webmaster Solution

Alexandria

A windows (pop-into) of information (full-content of Sensagent) triggered by double-clicking any word on your webpage. Give contextual explanation and translation from your sites !

Try here  or   get the code

SensagentBox

With a SensagentBox, visitors to your site can access reliable information on over 5 million pages provided by Sensagent.com. Choose the design that fits your site.

Business solution

Improve your site content

Add new content to your site from Sensagent by XML.

Crawl products or adds

Get XML access to reach the best products.

Index images and define metadata

Get XML access to fix the meaning of your metadata.


Please, email us to describe your idea.

WordGame

The English word games are:
○   Anagrams
○   Wildcard, crossword
○   Lettris
○   Boggle.

Lettris

Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.

boggle

Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !

English dictionary
Main references

Most English definitions are provided by WordNet .
English thesaurus is mainly derived from The Integral Dictionary (TID).
English Encyclopedia is licensed by Wikipedia (GNU).

Copyrights

The wordgames anagrams, crossword, Lettris and Boggle are provided by Memodata.
The web service Alexandria is granted from Memodata for the Ebay search.
The SensagentBox are offered by sensAgent.

Translation

Change the target language to find translations.
Tips: browse the semantic fields (see From ideas to words) in two languages to learn more.

last searches on the dictionary :

4020 online visitors

computed in 0.094s

   Advertising ▼

I would like to report:
section :
a spelling or a grammatical mistake
an offensive content(racist, pornographic, injurious, etc.)
a copyright violation
an error
a missing statement
other
please precise:

Advertize

Partnership

Company informations

My account

login

registration

   Advertising ▼

STAND AT 17 Feet Hatch Deck HIGH Scaffold Rolling Tower (999.0 USD)

Commercial use of this term

4 Quality 5"x5" Scaffolding Base Plate 4 Scaffold Frame (25.88 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Adjustable Rolling Scaffolding Multi-Purpose Contractor House Painting Upkeep (257.99 USD)

Commercial use of this term

5' Stationary Tower w/o Safety Rails - 5' Scaffold Tower (309.0 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Multi Purpose Aluminum Ladder Folding Step Ladder Scaffold Extendable Heavy Duty (71.05 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Scaffold Scaffolding Casters 8" x 2" Set of 4 Locking Polyurethane Wheel Swivel (97.94 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Scaffold Scaffolding Ratchet Socket Wrench 19 / 22 mm or 3/4 - 7/8 inches Podger (40.0 USD)

Commercial use of this term

29" X 6' Feet High Rolling Scaffolding With Hatch Deck (299.99 USD)

Commercial use of this term

5" MFS Square Stem Wheels A set of 4 Scaffolding Rolling Tower CBM (52.99 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Set of 4 Scaffold 8" Rubber Caster Wheels Double Locks (99.99 USD)

Commercial use of this term

6' MFS Scaffold Rolling Tower 29" X 6' Deck W/ U Lock (269.99 USD)

Commercial use of this term

All Aluminum Scaffolding Rolling Tower with Alunimum Hatch Deck & U Locks (469.0 USD)

Commercial use of this term

5' Rolling Tower w Basic Safety Rails - 5' Scaffold Tower (349.0 USD)

Commercial use of this term

A set of 4 New Scaffolding 5" Perry Scaffolding 1" diameter Round Stem Wheels (29.99 USD)

Commercial use of this term

6' Perry Scaffolding w/wheels -- made in USA (200.0 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Aluminum Scaffold Rolling Tower 6' High Deck W/ U Locks (429.0 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Scaffolding (150.0 USD)

Commercial use of this term

8 New Galvanized Scaffolding Cheeseborough Swivel Clamp (76.99 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Steel Scaffolding System 6.5' H x 6.4' W Adjustable Wheels Indoor/Outdoor (248.5 USD)

Commercial use of this term