A Schistosomiasis vaccine is a vaccine against Schistosomiasis (also known as bilharzia, bilharziosis or snail fever), a parasitic disease caused by several species of fluke of the genus Schistosoma. Schistosomiasis affects over 200 million people worldwide, mainly in rural agricultural and peri-urban areas of developing countries, and approximately 10% suffer severe health complications from the infection. While chemotherepeutic drugs, such as praziquantel, oxamniquine and metrifonate, are currently considered safe and effective for the treatment of schistosomiasis, reinfection occurs frequently following drug treatment, thus a vaccine is sought to provide long-term treatment. Several studies have determined that an age-dependent resistance to reinfection after cure of schistosomiasis through chemotherapeutic treatment occurs in some patients, suggesting that immunity to Schistosoma infection can be acquired and vaccination may be an effective treatment option. Additionally, experimental vaccination efforts have been successful in animal models of schistosomiasis.
Another target is Sm14.
Schistosomiasis has been considered a "neglected disease" that disproportionately affects poorer localities and has received little attention from pharmaceutical companies. Support for current research efforts to develop hookworm vaccines has come from the Schistosomiasis Vaccine Initiative, a program of the Sabin Vaccine Institute in collaboration with George Washington University, the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, the Chinese Institute of Parasitic Diseases, the Queensland Institute of Medical Research, and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.
- Efficacy of Vaccine Sh28GST in Association With Praziquantel (PZQ) for Prevention of Clinical Recurrences of Schistosoma Haematobium Pathology (Bilhvax), clinicaltrials.gov
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 McManus DP, Loukas A (January 2008). "Current status of vaccines for schistosomiasis". Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 21 (1): 225–42. doi:10.1128/CMR.00046-07. PMID 18202444. PMC 2223839. http://cmr.asm.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=18202444.
- ↑ Oliveira SC, Fonseca CT, Cardoso FC, Farias LP, Leite LC (2008). "Recent advances in vaccine research against schistosomiasis in Brazil". Acta Trop. 108 (2-3): 256–62. doi:10.1016/j.actatropica.2008.05.023. PMID 18577363. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0001-706X(08)00169-1.
- ↑ Jiz M, Wu HW, Meng R, et al. (July 2008). "Pilot-scale production and characterization of paramyosin, a vaccine candidate for schistosomiasis japonica". Infect. Immun. 76 (7): 3164–9. doi:10.1128/IAI.00409-08. PMID 18426875. PMC 2446706. http://iai.asm.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=18426875.
- ↑ Nara T, Iizumi K, Ohmae H, et al. (February 2007). "Antibody isotype responses to paramyosin, a vaccine candidate for schistosomiasis, and their correlations with resistance and fibrosis in patients infected with Schistosoma japonicum in Leyte, The Philippines". Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 76 (2): 384–91. PMID 17297052. http://www.ajtmh.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=17297052.
- ↑ Ohta N, Kumagai T, Maruyama H, Yoshida A, He Y, Zhang R (June 2004). "Research on calpain of Schistosoma japonicum as a vaccine candidate". Parasitol. Int. 53 (2): 175–81. doi:10.1016/j.parint.2004.01.007. PMID 15081949. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1383576904000091.
- ↑ Tendler M, Simpson AJ (2008). "The biotechnology-value chain: development of Sm14 as a schistosomiasis vaccine". Acta Trop. 108 (2-3): 263–6. doi:10.1016/j.actatropica.2008.09.002. PMID 18834847. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0001-706X(08)00228-3.
- ↑ Schistosomiasis Overview, Sabin Vaccine Institute