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definitions - Shilling

shilling (n.)

1.an English coin worth one twentieth of a pound

2.a former monetary unit in Great Britain

3.the basic unit of money in Kenya; equal to 100 cents

4.the basic unit of money in Somalia; equal to 100 cents

5.the basic unit of money in Tanzania; equal to 100 cents

6.the basic unit of money in Uganda; equal to 100 cents

shill (n.)

1.a decoy who acts as an enthusiastic customer in order to stimulate the participation of others

shill (v.)

1.act as a shill"The shill bid for the expensive carpet during the auction in order to drive the price up"

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Merriam Webster

ShillingShil"ling (?), n. [OE. shilling, schilling, AS. scilling; akin to D. schelling, OS. & OHG. scilling, G. schilling, Sw. & Dan. skilling, Icel. skillingr, Goth. skilliggs, and perh. to OHG. scellan to sound, G. schallen.]
1. A silver coin, and money of account, of Great Britain and its dependencies, equal to twelve pence, or the twentieth part of a pound, equivalent to about twenty-four cents of the United States currency.

2. In the United States, a denomination of money, differing in value in different States. It is not now legally recognized.

☞ Many of the States while colonies had issued bills of credit which had depreciated in different degrees in the different colonies. Thus, in New England currency (used also in Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida), after the adoption of the decimal system, the pound in paper money was worth only $3.333, and the shilling 16� cts., or 6s. to $1; in New York currency (also in North Carolina, Ohio, and Michigan), the pound was worth $2.50, and the shilling 12½ cts., or 8s. to $1; in Pennsylvania currency (also in New Jersey, Delaware, and Maryland), the pound was worth $2.70, and the shilling 13½ cts., or 7s. 6d. to $1; and in Georgia currency (also in South Carolina), the pound was worth $4.29�, and the shilling 21� cts., or 4s 8d. to $1. In many parts of the country . . . the reckoning by shillings and pence is not yet entirely abandoned. Am. Cyc.

3. The Spanish real, of the value of one eight of a dollar, or 12� cets; -- formerly so called in New York and some other States. See Note under 2.

York shilling. Same as Shilling, 3.

ShillShill (?), v. t. To shell. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.]

ShillShill, v. t. [Cf. Sheal.] To put under cover; to sheal. [Prov.ng.] Brockett.

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definition (more)

definition of Wikipedia

synonyms - Shilling

shill (n.)

decoy

phrases

-7450 Shilling • Australian 10 shilling note • Australian 5 shilling note • Banknotes of the East African shilling • Banknotes of the Somaliland shilling • Beatrice Shilling • Blackburne Shilling Gambit • British Fifty Shilling coin • Carroll H. Shilling • Charles Wesley Shilling • Coins of the East African shilling • Coins of the Somaliland shilling • East African shilling • Fifty Shilling Tailors • Forty Shilling Freeholders • Forty-shilling Freeholders • Gary Shilling • George Shilling • Jennifer Shilling • Jim Shilling • Jodi Shilling • Josh Shilling • Kenyan shilling • King's shilling • Kurt shilling • Lindsay Shilling • Marion Shilling • Miss Shilling's orifice • Richard Shilling • Shilling (Australian) • Shilling (British coin) • Shilling (Irish coin) • Shilling (disambiguation) • Shilling Air Force Base • Somali shilling • Somaliland shilling • Tanzanian shilling • Ten shilling (Irish coin) • Uganda Shilling • Ugandan shilling

analogical dictionary



 

monetary unit[Hyper.]

metrology[Domaine]

CurrencyMeasure[Domaine]

UnitOfMeasure[Domaine]

shilling (n.)


 

monetary unit[Hyper.]

shilling (n.)




Wikipedia

Shilling

                   
  A 1933 UK shilling

The shilling is a unit of currency used in some current and former British Commonwealth countries. The word shilling comes from scilling, an accounting term that dates back to Anglo-Saxon times where it was deemed to be the value of a cow in Kent or a sheep elsewhere. The word is thought to derive from the base skell-, "to ring/resound" and the diminutive suffix -ling.[1] The slang term for a shilling as a currency unit was a "bob".

The abbreviation for shilling is s, from the Latin solidus, the name of a Roman coin. Often it was informally represented by a slash, standing for a long s: e.g., "1/6" would be 1 shilling and sixpence, often pronounced "one and six" (and equivalent to 18d; the shilling itself was valued at 12d). A price with no pence would be written with a slash and a dash, e.g., "11/-". Quite often a triangle or (serif) apostrophe would be used to give a neater appearance, e.g., "1'6" and "11'-". In Africa it is often abbreviated sh.

During the Great Recoinage of 1816, the mint was instructed to coin one troy pound (weighing 5760 grains) of standard (0.925 fine) silver into 66 shillings, or its equivalent in other denominations. This effectively set the weight of the shilling, and its subsequent decimal replacement 5 new pence coin, at 87.2727 grains or 5.655 grams from 1816 to 1990, when a new smaller 5p coin was introduced.

  1956 Elizabeth II UK shilling showing English and Scottish reverses

Contents

  Kingdom of England

In England, a shilling was a coin used from the reign of Henry II[2] (or Edward VI ca 1550) until the Acts of Union ended the Kingdom of England (when, in the terms of Article 16 of the Articles of Union created by the Acts of Union of 1707, a common currency for the new United Kingdom was created).

  Kingdom of Scotland

The term schilling or shilling was in use in Scotland from early medieval times.

  Great Britain and the United Kingdom

The common currency created in 1707 by Article 16 of the Articles of Union continued in use until decimalisation in 1971. Before decimalisation, there were 20 shillings per pound and 12 pence per shilling, and thus there were 240 pence in a pound. Three coins denominated in multiple shillings were also in circulation at this time. They were:

  • the florin, two shillings (2/-), which adopted the value of 10 new pence (10p) at decimalisation;
  • the half-crown, two shillings and sixpence (2/6) or one-eighth of a pound, which was abolished at decimalisation (otherwise it would have had the value of 12½p);
  • the crown (five shillings), the highest denominated non-bullion UK coin in circulation at decimalisation (in practice, crowns were commemorative coins not used in everyday transactions).

At decimalisation, the shilling coin was superseded by the new five-pence piece, which initially was of identical size and weight and had the same value, and inherited the shilling's slang name of a bob.

  Irish shillings

In Ireland, the shilling was issued as scilling in Irish and was worth one 20th of an Irish pound. The coin featured the bull on the obverse side. The first minting from 1928 until 1941 contained 75% silver, more than the equivalent British coin. The Irish shilling was finally withdrawn from circulation on January 1, 1993, as a smaller five-pence coin was introduced.

  Australian shillings

Australian shillings, twenty of which made up one Australian pound, were first issued in 1910, with the Australian coat of arms on the reverse and King Edward VII on the face. The coat of arms design was retained through the reign of King George V until a new ram's head design was introduced for the coins of King George VI. This design continued until the last year of issue in 1963. In 1966, Australia's currency was decimalised and the shilling was replaced by a ten cent coin (Australian), where 10 shillings made up one Australian dollar.

The slang term for a shilling coin in Australia was "deener". The slang term for a shilling as currency unit was "bob", the same as in the United Kingdom.

After 1966, shillings continued to circulate, as they were replaced by 10-cent coins of the same size and weight.

  Countries in Africa where the currency is called shilling.

  New Zealand shilling

New Zealand shillings, twenty of which made up one New Zealand pound, were first issued in 1933 and featured the image of a Maori warrior carrying a taiaha "in a warlike attitude" on the reverse.[3] In 1967, New Zealand's currency was decimalised and the shilling was replaced by a ten cent coin of the same size and weight. Smaller 10-cent coins were introduced in 2006.

  East African shillings

The East African shilling was in use in the British colonies and protectorates of British Somaliland, Kenya, Tanganyika, Uganda and Zanzibar from 1920, when it replaced the rupee, until after those countries became independent, and in Tanzania after that country was formed by the merger of Tanganyika and Zanzibar in 1964. Upon independence in 1960, the East African shilling in the State of Somaliland (former British Somaliland) and the Somali somalo in the Trust Territory of Somalia (former Italian Somaliland) were replaced by the Somali shilling.[4]

In 1966, the East African Monetary Union broke up, and the member countries replaced their currencies with the Kenyan shilling, the Ugandan shilling and the Tanzanian shilling, respectively.[5] Though all these currencies have different values at present, there were plans to reintroduce the East African shilling as a new common currency by 2009,[6] although this has not come about.

  Somali shilling

  Overview

The Somali shilling is the official currency of Somalia. It is subdivided into 100 cents (English), senti (Somali, also سنت) or centesimi (Italian).

The Somali shilling has been the currency of parts of Somalia since 1921, when the East African shilling was introduced to the former British Somaliland protectorate. Following independence in 1960, the somalo of Italian Somaliland and the East African shilling (which were equal in value) were replaced at par in 1962 by the Somali shilling. Names used for the denominations were cent, centesimo (plural: centesimi) and سنت (plurals: سنتيمات and سنتيما) together with shilling, scellino (plural: scellini) and شلن.

That same year, the Banca Nazionale Somala issued notes for 5, 10, 20 and 100 scellini/shillings. In 1975, the Bankiga Qaranka Soomaaliyeed (Somali National Bank) introduced notes for 5, 10, 20 and 100 shilin/shillings. These were followed in 1978 by notes of the same denominations issued by the Bankiga Dhexe Ee Soomaaliya (Central Bank of Somalia). 50 shilin/shillings notes were introduced in 1983, followed by 500 shilin/shillings in 1989 and 1000 shilin/shillings in 1990. Also in 1990 there was an attempt to reform the currency at 100 to 1, with new banknotes of 20 and 50 new shilin prepared for the redenomination. [7]

Following the breakdown in central authority that accompanied the civil war, which began in the early 1990s, the value of the Somali shilling was disrupted. The Central Bank of Somalia, the nation's monetary authority, also shut down operations. Rival producers of the local currency, including autonomous regional entities such as the Somaliland territory, subsequently emerged.

Somalia's newly-established Transitional Federal Government revived the defunct Central Bank of Somalia in the late 2000s. In terms of financial management, the monetary authority is in the process of assuming the task of both formulating and implementing monetary policy.[8] Owing to a lack of confidence in the Somali shilling, the US dollar is widely accepted as a medium of exchange alongside the Somali shilling. Dollarization notwithstanding, the large issuance of the Somali shilling has increasingly fueled price hikes, especially for low value transactions. This inflationary environment, however, is expected to come to an end as soon as the Central Bank assumes full control of monetary policy and replaces the presently circulating currency introduced by the private sector.[8]

  Somaliland shilling

The Somaliland shilling is the official currency of Somaliland, a self-declared republic that is internationally recognized as an autonomous region of Somalia.[9] The currency is not recognized as legal tender by the international community, and it currently has no official exchange rate. It is regulated by the Bank of Somaliland, the territory's central bank. Although the authorities in Somaliland have attempted to bar usage of the Somali shilling, Somalia's official currency is still the preferred means of exchange for many peoples in the region.[10]

  Austrian shilling

The Austrian schilling was the currency of Austria between 1924 and 1938 and again between 1945 and 2002. It was replaced by the euro at a fixed parity of €1 = 13.7603 Schilling. The Schilling was divided into 100 Groschen.

  Other countries' shillings

  Owing to the reach of the British Empire, the shilling was once used on every inhabited continent. This two-shilling piece was minted for British West Africa.

Shillings were issued in the Scandinavian countries (skilling) until the Scandinavian Monetary Union of 1873, and in the city of Hamburg, Germany.

The sol (later the sou), both also derived from the Roman solidus, were the equivalent coins in France, while the (nuevo) sol (PEN) remains the currency of Peru. As in France, the Peruvian sol was originally named after the Roman solidus, but the name of the Peruvian currency is now much more closely linked to the Spanish word for the sun (sol). This helps explain the name of its temporary replacement, the inti, named for the Incan sun god.

Shillings were used in Malta, prior to decimalisation in 1972, and had a face value of five Maltese cents.

Elsewhere in the former British Empire, forms of the word shilling remain in informal use. In Vanuatu and Solomon Islands, selen is used in Bislama and Pijin to mean "money"; in Malaysia, syiling (pronounced like shilling) means "coin". In Egypt and Jordan the shillin (Arabic: شلن‎) is equal to 1/20th (five qirshesArabic: قرش‎, English: piastres) of the Egyptian pound or the Jordanian dinar.

In the thirteen British colonies that became the United States in 1776, British money was often in circulation. Each colony issued its own paper money, with pounds, shillings, and pence used as the standard units of account. Some coins were minted in the colonies, such as the 1652 pine-tree shilling in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. After the United States adopted the dollar as its unit of currency and accepted the gold standard, one British shilling was worth 24 US cents. Due to ongoing shortages of US coins in some regions, shillings continued to circulate well into the 19th century, for example being mentioned as the standard monetary unit throughout the autobiography of Solomon Northup.[11]

In British Ceylon, a shilling (Sinhala: Silima, Tamil: Silin) was equivalent to eight fanams. With the replacement of the rixdollar by the rupee in 1852, a shilling was deemed to be equivalent to half a rupee. On the decimalisation of the currency in 1869, a shilling was deemed to be equivalent to 50 Ceylon cents. The term continued to be used colloquially until the late 20th century.[12]

  References

  1. ^ shilling - Definitions from Dictionary.com
  2. ^ Understanding old British money - pounds, shillings and pence
  3. ^ Reserve Bank of New Zealand- URL retrieved 17th April 2011
  4. ^ Description of Somalia shilling - URL retrieved October 8, 2006
  5. ^ Dissolution of the East African Monetary Union - URL retrieved October 8, 2006
  6. ^ East African Business Council - Fact Sheet: Customs Union - URL Retrieved October 8, 2002
  7. ^ Somalbanca - Currency
  8. ^ a b Central Bank of Somalia - Monetary policy
  9. ^ Somaliland’s Quest for International Recognition and the HBM-SSC Factor
  10. ^ Time for Somaliland to Rethink its Strategy
  11. ^ Solomon Northup. Twelve Years a Slave. Auburn, Derby and Miller; Buffalo, Derby, Orton and Mulligan; [etc., etc.] 1853
  12. ^ Early Monetary Systems of Lanka (Ceylon), Currency Museum Circular No 7, Currency Department, Central Bank of Ceylon, Colombo, 15 March 1984

  External links

   
               

Shill

                   

A shill, plant, or stooge is a person who publicly helps a person or organization without disclosing that he has a close relationship with that person or organization. Shill typically refers to someone who purposely gives onlookers the impression that he is an enthusiastic independent customer of a seller (or marketer of ideas) for whom he is secretly working. The person or group who hires the shill is using crowd psychology, to encourage other onlookers or audience members to purchase the goods or services (or accept the ideas being marketed). Shills are often employed by professional marketing campaigns. Plant and stooge more commonly refer to any person who is secretly in league with another person or organization while pretending to be neutral or actually a part of the organization he is planted in, such as a magician's audience, a political party, or an intelligence organization (see double agent).[citation needed]

  Auctioneer and assistants, Cheviot, Ohio.

Shilling is illegal in many circumstances and in many jurisdictions[1] because of the frequently fraudulent and damaging[vague] character of the shill's actions. However, if a shill does not place uninformed parties at a risk of loss, but merely generates "buzz", the shill's actions may be legal. For example, a person planted in an audience to laugh and applaud when desired (see claque), or to participate in on-stage activities as a "random member of the audience", is a type of legal shill.[citation needed]

"Shill" can also be used pejoratively to describe a critic who appears either all-too-eager to heap glowing praise upon mediocre offerings, or who acts as an apologist for glaring flaws. In this sense, they would be an implicit "shill" for the industry at large, possibly because their income is tied to its prosperity. The origin of the term shill is uncertain; it may be an abbreviation of shillaber. The word originally denoted a carnival worker who pretended to be a member of the audience in an attempt to elicit interest in an attraction. Some sources trace the usage back to 1914.[2][3]

Contents

  Internet

In online discussion media, satisfied consumers or "innocent" parties may express specific opinions in order to further the interests of an organization in which they have an interest, such as a commercial vendor or special interest group. In academia, this is called opinion spamming.[4] Web sites can also be set up for the same purpose. For example, an employee of a company that produces a specific product might praise the product anonymously in a discussion forum or group in order to generate interest in that product, service, or group. In addition, some shills use sock puppetry, where they sign on as one user soliciting recommendations for a specific product or service. They then sign on as a different user pretending to be a satisfied customer of a specific company.[citation needed]

In some jurisdictions and circumstances this type of activity may be illegal. In addition, reputable organizations may prohibit their employees and other interested parties (contractors, agents, etc.) from participating in public forums or discussion groups in which a conflict of interest might arise, or will at least insist that their employees and agents refrain from participating in any way that might create a conflict of interest. For example, the plastic surgery company, Lifestyle Lift, ordered their employees to post fake positive reviews on websites. As a result, they were sued, and ordered to pay $300,000 in damages by the New York Attorney General's office. Said Attorney General Andrew Cuomo: "This company’s attempt to generate business by duping consumers was cynical, manipulative, and illegal. My office has [been] and will continue to be on the forefront in protecting consumers against emerging fraud and deception, including ‘astroturfing,’ on the Internet."[5]

  Sock puppets

Sometimes shills may be used to downplay legitimate complaints posted by users on the Internet. (See Spin (public relations) and sock puppet (internet).)

  Gambling

Both the illegal and legal gambling industries often use shills to make winning at games appear more likely than it actually is. For example, illegal Three-card Monte and Shell game peddlers are notorious employers of shills. These shills also often aid in cheating, disrupting the game if the "mark" is likely to win. In a legal casino, however, a shill is sometimes a gambler who plays using the casino's money in order to keep games (especially poker) going when there are not enough players. The title of Earle Stanley Gardner's mystery novel Shills Can't Cash Chips is derived from this type of shill. This is different from "proposition players" who are paid a salary by the casino for the same purpose, but bet with their own money.[citation needed]

  Marketing

In Marketing, Shills Are often employed to assume the air of satisfied customers and give testimonials to the merits of a given product. This type of shilling is illegal in some jurisdictions but almost impossible to detect. It may be considered a form of unjust enrichment or unfair competition, as in California's Business & Professions Code § 17200, which prohibits any "unfair or fraudulent business act or practice and unfair, deceptive, untrue or misleading advertising".[citation needed]

  Auctions

Shills, or "potted plants", are sometimes employed in auctions. Driving prices up with phony bids, they seek to provoke a bidding war among other participants. Often they are told by the seller precisely how high to bid, as the seller actually pays the price (to himself, of course) if the item does not sell, losing only the auction fees. Shilling has a substantially higher rate of occurrence in online auctions, where any user with multiple accounts can bid on their own items. Many online auction sites employ sophisticated (and usually secret) methods to detect collusion. The online auction site eBay forbids shilling; its rules do not allow friends or employees of a person selling an item to bid on the item. [6]

  Journalism

The term is applied metaphorically to journalists or commentators who have vested interests in or associations with parties in a controversial issue. Corporate owned media outlets of radio and television are often accused of being shills for establishment political candidates.[citation needed] By limiting the dialogue and discourse between specific candidates and political parties, the media can psychologically limit choices in the public mind and thus assure that only politicians acceptable to the ruling class and corporate structure are elected to public office. By highlighting the disparities of each candidate, the media appears as an honest broker and fair minded third party to the public, but is acting as a shill for the wealthy investment class. This methodology was one of Edward Bernays favorite techniques for manipulating public opinion by the indirect use of "third party authorities" to influence the public, without their conscious cooperation.[citation needed]

More specifically, there are historical cases of journalists in private media organizations being covert representatives of government and/or businesses.[citation needed] In these roles the journalists will present positive stories about their respective interests at key moments in order to influence public opinion. This is often achieved by claiming to have access to anonymous government or business sources. At other times, the links may actually appear overt to some, but not to the intended audience such as with Radio Free Europe, a broadcaster which targeted Eastern European audiences on behalf of the Central Intelligence Agency.[citation needed]

An extension of these tactics is the practice of monitoring news outlets prior to or during publication. Often when a negative story is discovered attempts are made first to stop it. However as this can, in some societies, draw attention to what could otherwise be a minor story, shills are used to put out alternative views, either to confuse the public about the legitimacy of the story or to outright convince them that it is a lie.[citation needed]

  Research and experiments

  The experimenter (E) orders the teacher (S), the subject of the experiment, to give what the latter believes are painful electric shocks to a learner (A), who is actually an actor and confederate. The subject believes that for each wrong answer, the learner was receiving actual electric shocks, though in reality there were no such punishments. Being separated from the subject, the confederate set up a tape recorder integrated with the electro-shock generator, which played pre-recorded sounds for each shock level.

A shill in a psychology experiment, or the like, is called a "confederate". In Stanley Milgram's experiment in which the subjects witnessed people getting electric shocks, a confederate would pretend to be one of the experimental subjects who would receive the fake shocks, so that the real experimental subject would think that a draw of names from a hat was random. The confederate would always play the role of the learner, and the subject would be the teacher, and the subject would think that this was a random draw from a hat containing papers that say "learner" and "teacher".[citation needed]

In performance art, such as DECONference (Decontamination Conference), the confederates were called, "deconfederates." When a large group of DECONference attendees were asked to remove all clothing prior to entry to the event, the deconfederates, planted among the attendees, would comply immediately with the request, causing all of the others to follow the orders and disrobe as well.[7]

  Interrogations

Police or military interrogators sometimes use undercover agents (called "plants") to assist with the interrogation of an individual or suspect. The plant can pose as a fellow inmate or internee, build a rapport and earn the confidence of the interviewee. The plant may subtly suggest that telling the interrogators what they want to know is the sensible or right thing to do. Even if no outright confessions are obtained, minor details and discrepancies that come out in supposedly innocent conversation can be used to chip away at the interviewee. Some plants are in reality inmates or prisoners of war who have been promised better treatment and conditions in return for helping with the interrogation, as in the character played by William Hurt in the film Kiss of the Spider Woman. One notorious UK case is that of Colin Stagg, a man who was falsely accused of the murder of Rachel Nickell, in which a female police officer posed as a potential love interest to try to tempt Stagg to implicate himself.[citation needed]

  Relation to Other Concepts

  Puppet Government

Puppet, Vassal, Quisling, or Satellite states have been routinely used in exercises of foreign policy to give weight to the arguments of the country that controls them. Examples of this include the USSR's use of its satellites in the United Nations during the Cold War. These states are also used to give the impression of legitimacy to domestic policies that are ultimately harmful to the population they control, while beneficial to the government that controls them.[citation needed]

Even outside the spectrum of sovereign powers many multiparty democratic systems give foreign powers the capacity to influence political discourse through shills and pseudo sock-puppets. Thanks to the reliance of many political parties on external sources of revenue for campaigns it can be easy for a government or business to either choose which party it funds or to outright create one. This way they can either choose to support existing minority voices that echo their views or form their own, using their funds and usually semi-covert influence to make them a more prominent voice.[citation needed]

Another concept in foreign policy is seen in sovereign alliances. In these instances, an allied country acts on behalf of another's interests so that it appears that the original power does not want to get involved. This is useful in situations where there is little public support in the original country for the actions. This type of collusion is typically practiced between countries that share common goals and are capable of returning favours. An example of this may be Cuba's role during the Cold War, in sending active combat troops to wars in Africa when it was unpalatable for the USSR to do so.[citation needed]

  False Flag Operation

Another tool utilizing the appearance of another entity is a False Flag Operation. In these operations a government or organization attempts to impersonate another party while committing a criminal act. This allows the actual perpetrators to blame the other party and react to the offense. This is typically termed a Frameup. An example of this is the Nazi Operation to destroy German radio towers while dressed as Polish troops at the onset of World War Two.[citation needed]

Operation Northwoods is another example of a False Flag Operation, planned at the highest levels of the U.S. Government in 1962 but never implemented. The proposals called for the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), or other operatives, to commit acts of terrorism in U.S. cities and elsewhere. These criminal acts were to be blamed on Cuba in order to create public support and moral justification for a war against that nation. Black operators would act as shills to frame Cuba and thereby fool the U.S. population into carrying out the intended objective, the removal of Fidel Castro by military force and installation of a pro U.S. regime in Cuba. After investigation of the JFK Assassination in 1964, Operation Northwoods was one of many government documents sealed under the justification of National Security for 75 years (until 2039). The previously Top Secret document was finally declassified 33 years later and made public on 18 November 1997, by the John F. Kennedy Assassination Records Review Board.[citation needed]

  Undercover operations

During covert operations or police investigations agents may routinely claim to be of political views or a part of an organisation in order to gain the confidence of the people they wish to surveil. Sometimes this goes further with the agents participating in acts on behalf of the organisations they infiltrate or falsely represent as was the case during the Operations like Gladio and Chaos. Often the end goal is not just to gain information about the organisation but to discredit them in the eyes of the public. However, these kinds of actions are more similar to False Flag Operations then typical Undercover Operations. In other examples, operatives may act in a manner they deem positive to assist an organisation to which they cannot have overt ties.[citation needed]

  See also

  References

  1. ^ "FTC v. Greeting Cards of America, Inc. et al' - USA". ftc.gov. http://www.ftc.gov/bcp/internet/cases-internet.pdf. 
  2. ^ "Shill". merriam-webster.com. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/shill. 
  3. ^ Note: Shillaber as a surname was known in the US during the 19th Century.
  4. ^ "Opinion Spam and Analysis,". Nitin Jindal and Bing Liu, Proceedings of the ACM International Conference on Web Search and Data Mining (WSDM-2008), 2008.. http://www.cs.uic.edu/~liub/FBS/opinion-spam-WSDM-08.pdf. 
  5. ^ "Attorney General Cuomo secures settlement with plastic surgery franchise that flooded internet with false positive reviews. Cuomo's deal is first case in nation against growing practice of "astroturfing" on Internet 'Lifestyle Lift' Will Pay $300,000 in Penalties and Costs to New York State". oag.state.ny.us. http://www.oag.state.ny.us/media_center/2009/july/july14b_09.html. Retrieved 25 November 2010. 
  6. ^ "Man fined over fake eBay auctions". BBC. 2010-07-05. http://news.bbc.co.uk/newsbeat/hi/technology/newsid_10500000/newsid_10508900/10508913.stm. 
  7. ^ Reference: Volume 36, Number 4, August 2003, E-ISSN: 1530-9282 Print ISSN: 0024-094X, "Decon 2 (Decon Squared): Deconstructing Decontamination", August 2003, pp. 285-290

  External links

   
               

 

All translations of Shilling


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Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.

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Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !

English dictionary
Main references

Most English definitions are provided by WordNet .
English thesaurus is mainly derived from The Integral Dictionary (TID).
English Encyclopedia is licensed by Wikipedia (GNU).

Copyrights

The wordgames anagrams, crossword, Lettris and Boggle are provided by Memodata.
The web service Alexandria is granted from Memodata for the Ebay search.
The SensagentBox are offered by sensAgent.

Translation

Change the target language to find translations.
Tips: browse the semantic fields (see From ideas to words) in two languages to learn more.

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