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definitions - Shiraz

Shiraz (n.)

1.a city in central southwestern Iran; ruins of ancient Persepolis are nearby

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Merriam Webster

ShirazShi*raz" (?), n. A kind of Persian wine; -- so called from the place whence it is brought.

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-2008 Shiraz explosion • Ara Shiraz • Bargh Shiraz F.C. • Ghalib Shiraz Dhalla • History of Shiraz • House of the Báb, Shiraz • Hovhannes Shiraz • List of mayors of Shiraz • Louleh a.s Bond Shiraz BC • Moghavemat Shiraz F.C. • Moghavemat Shiraz F.C. (disambiguation) • Pars Museum of Shiraz • Shiraz (band) • Shiraz (disambiguation) • Shiraz Adam • Shiraz Ali • Shiraz Arts Festival • Shiraz County • Shiraz Dossa • Shiraz International Airport • Shiraz Metro • Shiraz Minwalla • Shiraz Shariff • Shiraz Shivji • Shiraz Stadium • Shiraz Sumar • Shiraz Tal • Shiraz University • Shiraz University of Medical Sciences • Shiraz University of Technology • Shiraz World Trade Center • Shiraz blood libel • Shiraz carpet • Shiraz rug • The Septembers of Shiraz

analogical dictionary




Coordinates: 29°37′N 52°32′E / 29.617°N 52.533°E / 29.617; 52.533

Tomb of resident 14th-century poet Hafiz

Nickname(s): Persian Cultural Capital
City of roses
City of gardens
City of flower and nightingale
Shiraz is located in Iran
Location of Shiraz in Iran
Coordinates: 29°37′N 52°32′E / 29.617°N 52.533°E / 29.617; 52.533
Country Iran
Province Fars
County Shiraz
Bakhsh Central
 • Mayor Mehran E'temadi[1]
 • City council Zein Al Abedin Arab
Sayed Mohammad Kazem Dastgheyb
Ezat Allah Fahandezh Sa'adi
Fatemeh Hooshmand
Mehdi Khani
Sayed Mohsen Moein
Mozaffar Mokhtari
Sayed Saeed Moosavi
Ali Zahmat Kesh
Ma'asoomeh Zare'e
Shobeir Zare'e Khafri[2]
Area[citation needed]
 • Total 178.891 km2 (69.07 sq mi)
 • Land 178.891 km2 (69.07 sq mi)
 • Water 0 km2 (0 sq mi)  0%
Elevation 1,500 m (5,200 ft)
Population (2009)
 • Total 1,455,073
 • Density 3,609.8/km2 (9,347.5/sq mi)
  Population Data:

2006 Census was 1,214,808, in 315,725 families[3]

2009 Municipality was 1,455,073[4]
Time zone IRST (UTC+3:30)
Area code(s) 0711
Routes Road 65
Road 67
Road 86
Freeway in Iran.png Shiraz-Isfahan Freeway
Website http://www.shiraz.ir/

Shiraz (About this sound listen Persian: شیرازShīrāz Persian pronunciation: [ʃiːˈrɒːz]) is the sixth most populous city in Iran[5] and is the capital of Fars Province, the city's 2009 population was 1,455,073. Shiraz is located in the southwest of Iran on the Roodkhaneye Khoshk (Dry river) seasonal river. Shiraz has a moderate climate and has been a regional trade center for more than one thousand years.

The earliest reference to the city, as Tiraziš, is on Elamite clay tablets dated to 2000 BC.[6] In the 13th century, Shiraz became a leading center of the arts and letters, thanks to the encouragement of its ruler and the presence of many Persian scholars and artists. Shiraz was the capital of Persia during the Zand dynasty from 1750 until 1781, as well as briefly during the Saffarid period.

Shiraz is known as the city of poets, literature, wine and flowers.[7] The word "shir" in Persian means "lion", but it could also mean "milk". It is also considered by many Iranians to be the city of gardens, due to the many gardens and fruit trees that can be seen in the city. Shiraz has had major Jewish and Christian communities. The crafts of Shiraz consist of inlaid mosaic work of triangular design; silver-ware; pile carpet-weaving and weaving of kilim, called gilim and jajim in the villages and among the tribes.[8] In Shiraz industries such as cement production, sugar, fertilizers, textile products, wood products, metalwork and rugs dominate.[9] Shirāz also has a major oil refinery and is also a major center for Iran's electronic industries: 53% of Iran's electronic investment has been centered in Shiraz.[10] Shiraz is home to Iran's first solar power plant.[11] Recently the city's first wind turbine has been installed above Babakoohi mountain near the city.



The earliest reference to the city is on Elamite clay tablets dated to 2000 BCE, found in June 1970, while digging to make a kiln for a brick factory in the south western corner of the city. The tablets written in ancient Elamite name a city called Tiraziš.[12] Phonetically, this is interpreted as /tiračis/ or /ćiračis/. This name became Old Persian /širājiš/; through regular sound change comes the modern Persian name Shirāz. The name Shiraz also appears on clay sealings found at a 2nd century CE Sassanid ruin, east of the city. By some of the native writers, the name Shiraz has derived from a son of Tahmuras, the third Shāh (King) of the world according to Ferdowsi's Shāhnāma.[13]



Shiraz is most likely more than 4,000 years old. The name Shiraz is mentioned in cuneiform inscriptions from around 2000 BCE found in south western corner of the Shiraz city.[14] According to some Iranian mythological traditions, it was originally erected by Tahmuras Diveband, and afterward fell to ruin.[13] The oldest sample of wine in the world, dating to approximately 7,000 years ago, was discovered on clay jars recovered outside of Shiraz.[15]

In Achaemenian era, Shiraz was on the way from Susa to Persepolis and Pasargadae. In Ferdowsi's Shāhnāma it has been said that Artabanus V, the Parthian Emperor of Iran, expanded his control over Shiraz. Ghasre Abu-Nasr (meaning "the palace of AbuNasr") which is originally from Parthian era is situated in this area. During the Sassanid era, Shiraz was in between the way which was connecting Bishapur and Gur to Istakhr. Shiraz was an important regional center under the Sassanians.[14]

  Islamic period

  The Qur'an Gate was a part of the great city wall built under the Buwayhid empire

The city became a provincial capital in 693, after the Arab invaders conquered Istakhr, the nearby Sassanian capital. As Istakhr fell into decline, Shiraz grew in importance under the Arabs and several local dynasties.[16] The Buwayhid empire (945–1055) made it their capital, building mosques, palaces, a library and an extended city wall. It was also ruled by Seljuk and Khwarezmid before the Mongol conquest.

The city was spared destruction by the invading Mongols, when its local ruler offered tributes and submission to Genghis Khan. Shiraz was again spared by Tamerlane, when in 1382 the local monarch, Shah Shoja agreed to submit to the invader.[16] In the 13th century, Shiraz became a leading center of the arts and letters, thanks to the encouragement of its ruler and the presence of many Persian scholars and artists. For this reason the city was named by classical geographers Dar al-‘Elm, the House of Knowledge.[17] Among the important Iranian poets, mystics and philosophers born in Shiraz were the poets Sa'di[18] and Hafiz,[19] the mystic Roozbehan, and the philosopher Mulla Sadra.[20] Thus Shiraz has been nicknamed "The Athens of Iran".[21]

  Bazar of Shiraz as seen by Jane Dieulafoy in 1881

As early as the 11th century, several hundred thousand people inhabited Shiraz.[22] In the 14th century Shiraz had sixty thousand inhabitants.[23] During the 16th century it had a population of 200,000 people, which by the mid-18th century had decreased to only 50,000.

In 1504, Shiraz was captured by the forces of Ismail I, the founder of the Safavid dynasty. Throughout the Safavid empire (1501–1722) Shiraz remained a provincial capital and Emam Qoli Khan, the governor of Fars under Shah Abbas I, constructed many palaces and ornate buildings in the same style as those built during the same period in Isfahan, the capital of the Empire.[16] After the fall of the Safavids, Shiraz suffered a period of decline, worsened by the raids of the Afghans and the rebellion of its governor against Nader Shah; the latter sent troops to suppress the revolt. The city was besieged for many months and eventually sacked. At the time of Nader Shah's murder in 1747, most of the historical buildings of the city were damaged or ruined, and its population fell to 50,000, one-quarter of that during the 16th century.[16]

Shiraz soon returned to prosperity under the rule of Karim Khan Zand, who made it his capital in 1762. Employing more than 12,000 workers, he constructed a royal district with a fortress, many administrative buildings, a mosque and one of the finest covered bazaars in Iran.[16] He had a moat built around the city, constructed an irrigation and drainage system, and rebuilt the city walls.[16] However, Karim Khan's heirs failed to secure his gains. When Agha Mohammad Khan, the founder of the Qajar dynasty, eventually came to power, he wreaked his revenge on Shiraz by destroying the city's fortifications and moving the national capital to Tehran.[16] Although lowered to the rank of a provincial capital, Shiraz maintained a level of prosperity as a result of the continuing importance of the trade route to the Persian Gulf. Its governorship was a royal prerogative throughout the Qajar dynasty.[16] Many of the famous gardens, buildings and residences built during this time contribute to the city's present skyline.

Shiraz is the birthplace of the co-founder of the Bahá'í Faith, the Báb (Siyyid `Ali-Muhammad, 1819–1850). In this city, on the evening of 22 May 1844, he first declared his mission as the bearer of a new divine revelation.[24] For this reason Shiraz is a holy city for Bahá’ís, and the city, particularly the house of the Báb, was identified as a place of pilgrimage.[25] Due to the hostile climate towards Baha'is in Iran, the house has been the target of repeated attacks; the house was destroyed in 1979, to be paved over two years later and made into a public square.[25]

In 1910 a pogrom of the Jewish quarter started after false rumours that the Jews had ritually killed a Muslim girl. In the course of the pogrom, 12 Jews were killed and about 50 were injured,[26] and 6,000 Jews of Shiraz were robbed of all their possessions.[27]

The city's role in trade greatly diminished with the opening of the trans-Iranian railway in the 1930s, as trade routes shifted to the ports in Khuzestan. Much of the architectural inheritance of Shiraz, and especially the royal district of the Zands, was either neglected or destroyed as a result of irresponsible town planning under the Pahlavi dynasty. Lacking any great industrial, religious or strategic importance, Shiraz became an administrative centre, although its population has nevertheless grown considerably since the 1979 revolution.[28]

  Islamic Republic

The Islamic Republic has brought with it a lot of positive changes for the city. Following the Iranian revolution in 1979, the city's municipality and other related institutions initiated important restoration and reconstruction projects.[16] Some of the most recent projects have been the complete restoration of the Arg of Karim Khan and of the Vakil Bath, as well as a comprehensive plan for the preservation of the old city quarters. Other noteworthy initiatives include the total renovation of the Qur'an Gate and the mausoleum of the poet Khwaju Kermani, both located in the Allah-u-Akbar Gorge, as well as the restoration and expansion of the mausoleum of the famous Shiraz-born poets Hafiz and Saadi.[16] A lot of different construction projects is currently underway, which is going to modernize the City's infrastructure. The Shiraz 1400 chain of projects is set to transform the city and greatly modernize the infrastructure. [29] After the Islamic Revolution of 1979, Shiraz was re-established as the capital of Iranian Art and Culture. Shiraz is known as the capital of Persian Art, Culture and Literature and it is also named as the third religious city in the country, after Mashhad and Qom. [30].


Shiraz is located in the south of Iran and the northwest of Fars Province. It is built in a green plain at the foot of the Zagros Mountains 1500 metres (5200 ft) above sea level. Shiraz is 919 kilometres (571 mi) south of Tehran.[31] A seasonal river, Rudkhaneye Khoshk, flows through the northern part of the city and on into Maharloo Lake.


Climate chart (explanation)
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: World Meteorological Organization

Shiraz has a moderate climate with regular seasons.[31]

Shiraz contains a considerable number of gardens. Due to population growth in the city, many of these gardens may be lost to give way to new developments. Although some measures have been taken by the Municipality to preserve these gardens, many illegal developments still endanger them. The rainfall in recent years, during which atmospheric conditions have changed perceptibly, has been comparatively sufficient, and has reached 23 inches in a year, but the average rainfall is between 14 and 18 inches.[32]

Shiraz weather data[33]
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average temperature, C° 6 8 11 18 23 28 30 30 25 20 12 8 18
Average Maximum temperature, C° 11 13 17 24 30 35 37 36 32 27 18 13 24
Average Minimum temperature, C° 1 3 6 11 16 20 23 22 17 12 6 3 12
Average rain days 4 5 5 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 4 24


Shiraz is the economic center of southern Iran. The second half of the 19th century witnessed certain economic developments that greatly changed the economy of Shiraz. The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 allowed the extensive import into southern Iran of inexpensive European factory-made goods, either directly from Europe or via India.[34] Farmers in unprecedented numbers began planting cash crops such as opium poppy, tobacco, and cotton. Many of these export crops passed through Shiraz on their way to the Persian Gulf. Iranian long-distance merchants from Fars developed marketing networks for these commodities, establishing trading houses in Bombay, Calcutta, Port Said, Istanbul and even Hong Kong.[34]

Shiraz's economic base is in its provincial products, which include grapes, citrus fruits, cotton and rice.[35] Industries such as cement production, sugar, fertilizers, textile products, wood products, metalwork and rugs dominate.[35] Shirāz also has a major oil refinery and is also a major center for Iran's electronic industries. 53% of Iran's electronic investment has been centered in Shiraz.[36]

Agriculture has always been a major part of the economy in and around Shiraz. This is partially due to a relative abundance of water compared to the surrounding deserts. Shirāz is famous for its carpet production and flowers as well. Viticulture has a long history in the region, and Shirazi wine used to be produced here. Shiraz is also the most important city in Iran for IT, communication and electronic industry and transportation.

The Shiraz Special Economic Zone or the SEEZ was established in 2000 with the purpose of boosting manufacture in electronic and communications.[37][38]


As of 2006, Shiraz has a population of 1,227,331, the majority of whom are Persian.[39] Most of the population of Shiraz are Muslims. Shiraz also was home to a 6,000-strong Jewish community, although most emigrated to the United States and Israel in the latter half of the 20th century.[40] Along with Tehran and Esfahan, Shiraz is one of the handful of Iranian cities with a sizable Jewish population, and more than one active synagogue.

Shiraz also has a significant Baha'i population, the largest in the country after Tehran.

There are currently two functioning churches in Shiraz, one Armenian, the other, Anglican.[41][42]


  Eram Street in Winter

Shiraz is known as the city of poets, gardens, wine, nightingales and flowers.[43][44] The crafts of Shiraz consist of inlaid mosaic work of triangular design; silver-ware; carpet-weaving, and the making of the rugs called gilim (Shiraz Kilim or Sheraz Kalim) and "jajim" in the villages and among the tribes.[32] The garden is an important part of Iranian culture. There are many old gardens in Shiraz such as the Eram garden and the Afif abad garden. According to some people,[who?] Shiraz "disputes with Xeres [or Jerez] in Spain the honour of being the birthplace of sherry."[45]

Shiraz is proud of being mother land of Hafiz Shirazi, Shiraz is an important centre for Iranian culture and has produced a number of famous poets. Saadi, a 12th and 13th century poet was born in Shiraz. He left his native town at a young age for Baghdad to study Arabic literature and Islamic sciences at Al-Nizamiyya of Baghdad. When he reappeared in his native Shiraz he was an elderly man. Shiraz, under Atabak Abubakr Sa'd ibn Zangy (1231–1260) was enjoying an era of relative tranquility. Saadi was not only welcomed to the city but he was highly respected by the ruler and enumerated among the greats of the province. He seems to have spent the rest of his life in Shiraz. Hafiz, another famous poet and mystic was also born in Shiraz. A number of scientists also originate from Shiraz. Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi, a 13th century astronomer, mathematician, physician, physicist and scientist was from Shiraz. In his The Limit of Accomplishment concerning Knowledge of the Heavens, he also discussed the possibility of heliocentrism.[46]

  Main sights

  A panoramic view of Saheli Street in Shiraz in Spring 2010
  A panoramic view of Shiraz in autumn 2009
  • The tombs of Hafiz,[47] Saadi, and Khaju e Kermani (whose tomb is inside a mountain above the city's old Qur'an Gate). Other lesser known tombs are that of Shah Shoja' (the Mozafarid emir of Persia, and patron of Hafiz), and the Haft Tanan mausoleum, where 7 Sufi mystics are buried. The Tomb of Baba Kuhi sits atop a mountain overlooking the city, and the tomb of Karim Khan Zand is at the Pars Museum of Shiraz. One of the most historical buildings is the Kian. This building was constructed around the time of Cyrus the Great, and has been a popular tourist attraction ever since.
  • The oldest mosque is Atigh Jame' Mosque, which is one of the older mosques of Iran, followed by Vakil Mosque and Nasir al-Mulk mosque. The Vakil Mosque is situated west of the famous Vakil Bazaar. It covers an area of 8,660 square meters and was built in 1187 (AH) during Zand Dynasty. On the two sides of the entrance gate there are magnificent tile-works and arches. The left and right corridors of the entrance gate are connected to the main room.
  • Shah Chiragh ("The King of Lights") Shrine.
  • The citadel of Arg of Karim Khan sits adjacent to the Vakil Bazaar and Vakil Bath at the city's central district. The most famous of houses are Zinat-ol-Molook House and Gahavam's House, both in the old quarters of the city.
  • The Qur'an Gate is the entrance to Shiraz. It is located near the gorge of Allah-o-Akbar and is flanked by the Baba Kuhi and Chehel Maqam mountains. The gateway is where two copies of the Qurans known
  • The Eram Garden (Bagh-e Eram) in Shiraz is a striking location for visitors with a variety of plants as well as a historic mansion. Although the exact date of the construction of the garden is not clear, historical evidence suggests it was constructed during the Seljuk Dynasty on the orders of the celebrated Seljuk monarch Sanjar. Other historical Persian gardens Afifabad Garden and The Museum of Weapons and Delgosha Garden.

Within a relatively short driving distance from Shiraz are the ruins of Persepolis, Bishapur, Pasargadae, and Firouzabad. At Naqsh-e Rustam can be found the tombs of the Achaemenid kings as well as the Ka'ba-ye Zartosht, which has been thought to be either a Zoroastrian fire temple or possibly even the true tomb of Cyrus the Great. Maharloo Lake is a popular breeding ground for various bird species.

Naqsh-e Rostam site contains funerary related works belonging to the Elamite (second millennium BCE), Achaemenid (550–330 BCE) and Sassanid (226–651 CE) eras. Naqsh-e Rostam is a site believed by archaeologists to have been a cemetery for Persepolis, where Achaemenid, Parthian and Sassanid royalty were laid to rest. Located about 3–4 kilometers northwest of Persepolis in Iran's Fars province, the site contains funerary relat

The tallest tower in Shiraz is Eram Tower with 150 meters. In 2013 a Shiraz TV Tower be opening with 200 meters.

  North part of Shiraz at night.

  Neighborhoods of Shiraz

  Chamran Grand Hotel located in Chamran Blvd

List of neighbourhoods in Shiraz:

  • Abivardi
  • Farhang Shahr
  • Ghasrodasht
  • Kooye Zahra
  • Ma'ali Abad
  • Molla Sadra
  • Shahcheragh
  • Shahrak-e-Golestan
  • Shahrak-e-Sadra
  • Tachara
  • Zerehi
  • kolbeh saadi
  • Podonak
  • Payegah
  • Eram
  • Bagh-e Nari (Narvan)
  • Siahatgar BLVD
  • Abiari Ave
  • Artesh square (Army Square)
  • Bridgestone
  • Babakoohi
  • Kooye Jamaran(siman)


Bargh Shiraz (Established in 1946) is Shiraz's top team and currently plays in Iran's Azadegan Football League. Its biggest honour was winning the 1997 Hazfi Cup. Moqavemat Sepasi (formerly Fajr Sepasi) (Established in 1988) also plays in Iran's Premier Football League, and have also won the Hazfi Cup in 2001. Shiraz has two Football stadiums; the Hafezieh stadium with 20,000 Capacity built in 1945 and Another stadium, Shiraz Stadium, is due to be finished in 2009 and will have 50,000 capacity.

Shiraz also has a female rugby team.[48][49]

  Higher education

  Shiraz University main building

Shiraz is home to a vibrant academic community. The Shiraz University of Medical Sciences was the first university in Shiraz and was founded in 1946. Much older is the august Madrasa-e-Khan, or Khan Theological School, with about 600 students; its tile-covered buildings date from 1627.[50]

Today Shiraz University is the largest university in the province, and one of Iran's best academic centers. Other major universities in or nearby Shiraz are the Islamic Azad University of Shiraz[2], Shiraz University of Technology, and Shiraz University of Applied Science and Technology[3].

The Shiraz Regional Library of Science and Technology is the largest provincial library serving the public.[citation needed]

Virtual University of Shiraz is one of the sub colleges of Shiraz University. [4]



Shiraz International Airport serves as the largest airport in the southern region of Iran. After undergoing renovation and redevelopment work in 2005, Shiraz Airport was identified as the second most reliable and modern airport in Iran (after Imam Khomeini International Airport of Tehran) in terms of flight safety including electronic and navigation control systems of its flight tower. In addition to domestic flights to most major Iranian cities, Turkish Airlines began operating direct flights between Istanbul and Shiraz on 14 March 2011 with weekly 5 flights. The flights are on Monday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday and Sunday from Istanbul and on Monday, Tuesday, Thursday, Friday and Saturday from Shiraz.


A metro system is being built in Shiraz by the Shiraz Urban Railway Organization which will contain three lines. The length of the first Line will be 22.4 km, the length of the second line will be 8.5 km The length of the third line will be 16 km. 21 stations will be built in route one. The three lines when completed, will have 32 stations below ground and six above and one special station which will be connected to the railway station.


Shiraz has 71 bus lines with 50,000 buses.Iran's third Bus Rapid Transit was opening in Shiraz in 2009 with 2 lines.2 other lines be opening in 2010.


Shiraz is connected with the rest of Iran's railway network. The trains arrive and leave from Shiraz Railway Station, Irans largest railway station according to surface area.[51] It has passenger trains, operating 6 days per week to Isfahan, Tehran and Mashad.


There are 700 000 cars in the city of Shiraz. [52]

  Famous people

Shiraz View.jpg

  Twin towns – sister cities

  See also


  1. ^ محمد جواد مطلع (13 June 2010). "Shiraz Mayors from 1980 to 2010". Shiraz Municipality. http://www.eshiraz.ir/main/en/mayor,03. Retrieved 5 May 2011. 
  2. ^ محمد جواد مطلع (13 August 2009). "City Council Members". Shiraz Municipality. http://www.eshiraz.ir/citycouncil/en/members. Retrieved 5 May 2011. 
  3. ^ "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1385 (2006)" (Excel). Islamic Republic of Iran. Archived from the original on 2010-11-16. http://wayback.archive.org/web/*/http://www.amar.org.ir/DesktopModules/FTPManager/upload/upload2360/newjkh/newjkh/07.xls. 
  4. ^ "Shiraz Population & Area" (PDF). http://www.shiraz.ir/shares/main/eshiraz-admin/pop1385-1388.pdf. Retrieved 5 May 2011. 
  5. ^ After Tehran, Mashhad, Esfahan, Tabriz and Karaj; in 2006 Shiraz had a total population of 1,214,808
  6. ^ Cameron, George G. Persepolis Treasury Tablets, University of Chicago Press, 1948:115.
  7. ^ (Iran Chamber Society) "Shiraz" (php file); "Shiraz"
  8. ^ محمد جواد مطلع. "the physical features of Shiraz". Shirazcity.org. http://www.shirazcity.org/shiraz/Shiraz%20Information/shiraz_history/Characteristics%20e.htm. Retrieved 5 May 2011. 
  9. ^ Tore Kjeilen (26 September 2005). "Looklex Encyclopaedia". I-cias.com. http://www.i-cias.com/e.o/shiraz.htm. Retrieved 5 May 2011. 
  10. ^ "ARSH Co. site". Arshksco.com. http://arshksco.com/seez.htm. Retrieved 5 May 2011. 
  11. ^ "Iran’s first solar power plant comes on stream". tehran times. 11 January 2009. http://www.tehrantimes.com/index_View.asp?code=186558. Retrieved 25 September 2010. 
  12. ^ Cameron, George G. Persepolis Treasury Tablets, University of Chicago Press, 1948, pp. 115.
  13. ^ a b Conder, Josiah (1827). Persia and China. Printed for J. Duncan. , p. 339
  14. ^ a b Iran. Lonely Planet. 2008. ISBN 1-74104-293-3, 9781741042931. , p. 269
  15. ^ "World's Earliest Wine". Archeology, vol. 49 (1996). Retrieved 24 February 2004.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "History of Shiraz". http://www.shirazcity.org/shiraz/Shiraz%20Information/shiraz_history/History%20e.htm. Retrieved 31 January 2008. 
  17. ^ "(pdf file)" (PDF). http://www.isocarp.net/Data/case_studies/730.pdf. Retrieved 5 May 2011. 
  18. ^ a b Persian Language & Literature: Saadi Shirazi, Sheikh Mosleh al-Din. Iran Chamber Society.
  19. ^ a b Khorramshahi, Bahaʾ-al-Din (2002). "Hafez II: Life and Times". http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/hafez-ii. Retrieved 25 July 2010. 
  20. ^ a b Rizvi, Sajjad (2002), Reconsidering the life of Mulla Sadra Shirazi, Pembroke College, pp. 181
  21. ^ "List of the day". The Guardian (London). 3 November 2005. http://www.guardian.co.uk/theguardian/2005/nov/03/features11.g22. 
  22. ^ "Shiraz, Iran"[dead link]
  23. ^ John W. Limbert (2004). Shiraz in the age of Hafez: the glory of a medieval Persian city. University of Washington Press. ISBN 0-295-98391-4. http://books.google.com/books?id=x5-voc6nzmkC&pg=PA74&lpg=PA74&dq=shiraz+economy&source=web&ots=WyN8EiOluj&sig=WWP1W5Euf3clCoCQZnm1lFBr4Zg#PPA74,M1. Retrieved 5 May 2011. 
  24. ^ a b Browne, E.G (1890). "Babism". Religious Systems of the World: A Contribution to the Study of Comparative Religion. London: Swann Sonnenschein. pp. 333–53. http://www.h-net.org/~bahai/diglib/articles/A-E/browne/brbabism.htm. Retrieved 21 February 2007. 
  25. ^ a b Smith, Peter (2000). "Shiraz: the House of the Báb". A concise encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. pp. 314. ISBN 1-85168-184-1. 
  26. ^ Littman (1979), p. 14
  27. ^ Littman (1979), p. 12
  28. ^ Clint Lucas (29 April 2011). "Shiraz History – Shiraz Travel Guide". Lonely Planet. http://www.lonelyplanet.com/worldguide/iran/shiraz/history. Retrieved 5 May 2011. 
  29. ^ http://www.shiraz1400.com/.
  30. ^ http://shiraz.irna.ir/News/80096531/%D9%85%DB%8C-%D9%83%D9%88%D8%B4%DB%8C%D9%85--%D8%AF%D8%B1-%D9%87%D8%B1-%D9%85%D9%88%D9%82%D8%B9%DB%8C%D8%AA%DB%8C-%D8%B3%D9%88%D9%85%DB%8C%D9%86-%D8%AD%D8%B1%D9%85-%D8%A7%D9%87%D9%84%D8%A8%DB%8C%D8%AA-%D8%B1%D8%A7-%D8%A8%D9%87-%D9%83%D8%B4%D9%88%D8%B1-%D9%85%D8%B9%D8%B1%D9%81%DB%8C-%D9%83%D9%86%DB%8C%D9%85/%D9%81%D8%B1%D9%87%D9%86%DA%AF%DB%8C/ .
  31. ^ a b "Shiraz". Landofaryan.tripod.com. http://landofaryan.tripod.com/shiraz.htm. Retrieved 5 May 2011. 
  32. ^ a b محمد جواد مطلع. "The Characteristics of Shiraz". Shirazcity.org. http://www.shirazcity.org/shiraz/Shiraz%20Information/shiraz_history/Characteristics%20e.htm. Retrieved 5 May 2011. 
  33. ^ Climate information for SHIRAZ in Iran - Climate Zone
  34. ^ a b "Religious Dissidence and Urban Leadership: Baha'is in Qajar Shiraz and Tehran". Personal.umich.edu. 20 April 1968. http://www-personal.umich.edu/~jrcole/bahai/2000/urbanbh2.htm. Retrieved 5 May 2011. 
  35. ^ a b Tore Kjeilen (26 September 2005). "Shiraz". I-cias.com. http://www.i-cias.com/e.o/shiraz.htm. Retrieved 5 May 2011. 
  36. ^ "Projects – Shiraz Special Electronic Economic Zone". Arsh K S Co.. http://arshksco.com/seez.htm. Retrieved 5 May 2011. 
  37. ^ [1] retrieved 18 Feb 2010
  38. ^ "World Free Trade Zones". Kishtpc.com. http://www.kishtpc.com/Freetrade%20ZONES.htm. Retrieved 5 May 2011. 
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  40. ^ Huggler, Justin (4 June 2000). "Jews accused of spying are pawns in Iran power struggle". The Independent (London). http://news.independent.co.uk/world/middle_east/article273178.ece. Retrieved 23 May 2010. 
  41. ^ Tait, Robert (27 December 2005). "Bearing the cross". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/elsewhere/journalist/story/0,,1674164,00.html. Retrieved 23 May 2010. 
  42. ^ "Iranian Monuments: Historical Churches in Iran". Iranchamber.com. http://www.iranchamber.com/monuments/historical_churches_iran.php. Retrieved 5 May 2011. 
  43. ^ "Iranian Cities: Shiraz". Iranchamber.com. http://www.iranchamber.com/cities/shiraz/shiraz.php. Retrieved 5 May 2011. 
  44. ^ "Shiraz". Asemangasht.com. http://www.asemangasht.com/Shiraz.htm. Retrieved 5 May 2011. 
  45. ^ Maclean, Fitzroy. Eastern Approaches. (1949). Reprint: The Reprint Society Ltd., London, 1951, p. 215
  46. ^ A. Baker and L. Chapter (2002), "Part 4: The Sciences". In M. M. Sharif, "A History of Muslim Philosophy", Philosophia Islamica.
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  48. ^ "Iranian women tackle rugby in Islamic republic". Haaba. 26 October 2007. http://www.haaba.com/news-story/iranian-women-tackle-rugby-islamic-republic. Retrieved 5 May 2011. 
  49. ^ <http://english.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/E4107D6E-2825-419E-BA27-BA32348A49D3.htm retrieved 28 February 2008
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  53. ^ Kaveh Farrokh. Iran at War: 1500-1988. Osprey Publishing. p. 204. ISBN 1-78096-221-5. http://books.google.com.vn/books?id=dUHhTPdJ6yIC&pg=PT204. 
  54. ^ a b c d http://www.shiraz.ir/main/fa/esSist,00009
  55. ^ http://www.nicosia.org.cy/english/lefkosia_twins.shtm
  56. ^ http://www.shiraz.ir/news/pub/fa/1155
  57. ^ http://farsp.ir/view.php?newsid=3501&title=%D9%81%D8%A7%D8%B1%D8%B3-%D8%A8%D9%87-%D8%B9%D9%86%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%86-%D8%A7%D8%B3%D8%AA%D8%A7%D9%86-%D9%BE%D8%A7%D9%8A%D9%84%D9%88%D8%AA-%D8%AC%D9%87%D8%AA-%D8%AA%D9%88%D8%B3%D8%B9%D9%87-%D8%AD%D8%AC%D9%85-%D9%85%D8%A8%D8%A7%D8%AF%D9%84%D8%A7%D8%AA-%D8%AF%D9%88-%D9%83%D8%B4%D9%88%D8%B1-%D8%A7%D9%8A%D8%B1%D8%A7%D9%86-%D9%88-%D9%85%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B2%D9%8A-%D8%AF%D8%B1-%D8%B5%D9%86%D8%B9%D8%AA-%D8%AA%D9%88%D8%B1%D9%8A%D8%B3%D9%85-%D8%A7%D9%86%D8%AA%D8%AE%D8%A7%D8%A8-%D8%B4%D8%AF

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Preceded by
Capital of Iran
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Capital of Iran
Succeeded by



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