1.a young person who belongs to a British or American group that shave their heads and gather at rock concerts or engage in white supremacist demonstrations
2.body covering of a living animal
3.an outer surface (usually thin)"the skin of an airplane"
4.a bag serving as a container for liquids; it is made from the hide of an animal
5.a natural protective body covering and site of the sense of touch"your skin is the largest organ of your body"
6.the rind of a fruit or vegetable
7.a person's skin regarded as their life"he tried to save his skin"
8.the tissue forming the hard outer layer (of e.g. a fruit)
1.bruise, cut, or injure the skin or the surface of"The boy skinned his knee when he fell"
2.strip the skin off"pare apples"
3.remove the bark of a tree
4.climb awkwardly, as if by scrambling
1.break the skin (of a body part) by scraping"She was grazed by the stray bullet"
1.(MeSH)The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
SkinSkin (?), n. [Icel. skinn; akin to Sw. skinn, Dan. skind, AS. scinn, G. schined to skin.]
1. (Anat.) The external membranous integument of an animal.
☞ In man, and the vertebrates generally, the skin consist of two layers, an outer nonsensitive and nonvascular epidermis, cuticle, or skarfskin, composed of cells which are constantly growing and multiplying in the deeper, and being thrown off in the superficial, layers; and an inner sensitive, and vascular dermis, cutis, corium, or true skin, composed mostly of connective tissue.
2. The hide of an animal, separated from the body, whether green, dry, or tanned; especially, that of a small animal, as a calf, sheep, or goat.
3. A vessel made of skin, used for holding liquids. See Bottle, 1. “Skins of wine.” Tennyson.
4. The bark or husk of a plant or fruit; the exterior coat of fruits and plants.
5. (Naut.) (a) That part of a sail, when furled, which remains on the outside and covers the whole. Totten. (b) The covering, as of planking or iron plates, outside the framing, forming the sides and bottom of a vessel; the shell; also, a lining inside the framing.
Skin friction, Skin resistance (Naut.), the friction, or resistance, caused by the tendency of water to adhere to the immersed surface (skin) of a vessel. -- Skin graft (Surg.), a small portion of skin used in the process of grafting. See Graft, v. t., 2. -- Skin moth (Zoöl.), any insect which destroys the prepared skins of animals, especially the larva of Dermestes and Anthrenus. -- Skin of the teeth, nothing, or next to nothing; the least possible hold or advantage. Job xix. 20. -- Skin wool, wool taken from dead sheep.
SkinSkin, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Skinned (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Skinning.]
1. To strip off the skin or hide of; to flay; to peel; as, to skin an animal.
2. To cover with skin, or as with skin; hence, to cover superficially.
It will but skin and film the ulcerous place. Shak.
3. To strip of money or property; to cheat. [Slang]
SkinSkin, v. i.
1. To become covered with skin; as, a wound skins over.
2. To produce, in recitation, examination, etc., the work of another for one's own, or to use in such exercise cribs, memeoranda, etc., which are prohibited. [College Cant, U.S.]
definition of Wikipedia
Skin Abnormalities • Skin Absorption • Skin Administration, Drug • Skin Aging • Skin Cancer • Skin Care • Skin Dendritic Cells • Skin Diseases • Skin Diseases, Bacterial • Skin Diseases, Bullous • Skin Diseases, Eczematous • Skin Diseases, Fungal • Skin Diseases, Genetic • Skin Diseases, Infectious • Skin Diseases, Metabolic • Skin Diseases, Papulosquamous • Skin Diseases, Parasitic • Skin Diseases, Staphylococcal • Skin Diseases, Vascular • Skin Diseases, Vesicular • Skin Diseases, Vesiculobullous • Skin Diseases, Viral • Skin Drug Administration • Skin Electric Conductance • Skin Fistula • Skin Infections, Staphylococcal • Skin Irritancy Tests • Skin Manifestations • Skin Mastocytoma • Skin Mastocytosis • Skin Neoplasms • Skin Physiology • Skin Pigmentation • Skin Rash • Skin Substitutes • Skin Surface Microscopy • Skin Syphilis • Skin Tape • Skin Temperature • Skin Test End-Point Titration • Skin Test Endpoint Titration • Skin Tests • Skin Transplantation • Skin Tryptase • Skin Tuberculosis • Skin Ulcer • Skin Window Technic • Skin Window Technique • Skin Wrinkling • Skin and Connective Tissue Diseases • Skin changes due to chronic exposure to nonionizing radiation • Skin changes due to chronic exposure to nonionizing radiation, unspecified • Skin donor • Skin lesions achromic of pinta [carate] • Skin lesions cicatricial of pinta [carate] • Skin lesions dyschromic of pinta [carate] • Skin of breast • Skin of ear and external auricular canal • Skin of eyelid, including canthus • Skin of female genital organs • Skin of lip • Skin of lower limb, including hip • Skin of male genital organs • Skin of other and unspecified parts of face • Skin of other sites • Skin of penis NOS • Skin of scalp and neck • Skin of scrotum • Skin of trunk • Skin of upper limb, including shoulder • Skin parasites NOS • Skin tags of anus or rectum • Skin tests for bacterial disease • Skin tests for hypersensitivity • Skin transplant status • Skin, Artificial • Skin, unspecified • Skin-Derived Antileukoproteinase • Skin-Peeling Agents • all skin and bone • animal skin • color of the skin • get under one's skin • skin and bones • skin cancer • skin care • skin cell • skin color • skin colour • skin disease • skin disorder • skin diving • skin doctor • skin effect • skin eruption • skin fat • skin flick • skin graft • skin infections • skin of (external) ear • skin of breast • skin of eyelid • skin of female genital organs • skin of genital organs • skin of lip • skin of male genital organs • skin of nose • skin over • skin patch • skin perceptiveness • skin plasty • skin pop • skin rash • skin sensation • skin senses • skin test • skin tumor • skin-deep • skin-dive • skin-diver • skin-diving • skin-sensitizing antibody • skin-tight • water skin
...To Skin a Cat • 2econd Skin • A Lizard in a Woman's Skin • A Wrinkle in the Skin • Absorption (skin) • African Split-skin Toad • Aloe Vera Benefits to Skin • Alone in My Room (Skin song) • Beautiful Skin • Beauty Is Only Skin Deep • Beyond Skin • Black Skin, White Masks • Blue skin • Callus and Corns of the Skin • Cat skin disorders • Celebrity Skin • Celebrity Skin (disambiguation) • Celebrity Skin (magazine) • Celebrity Skin (song) • Chicken Skin Music • Dragon Skin • Dreadful Skin • Ermine skin • Fair skin • Goat skin • God Told Me to Skin You Alive • God's Great Banana Skin • Goldbeater's skin • Gular skin • Hasta la Vista, Baby! (Skin album) • Human skin • Human skin color • I Can't Look at Your Skin / What's He Got? • I Eat Your Skin • I've Got You Under My Skin • I've Got You Under My Skin (Angel episode) • I've Got You Under My Skin (disambiguation) • In This Skin • In the Skin • In the Skin of a Lion • KFC Skin Piles • Leopard-Skin Pill-Box Hat • Living in Skin • Lose This Skin • Lost (Skin song) • Madagascar Skin • Mr. Skin • Mr.Skin • My Skin • Mysterious Skin • Mysterious Skin – Music from the Film • National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases • Natural skin care • New Skin • New Skin (disambiguation) • No Skin Off My Ass • Nu Skin • Nu Skin Enterprises • Nu Skin Enterprizes • Onion Skin (song) • Onion skin • Orchestra of Skin and Bone • Pearly Skin Puddle Frog • Peau d'âne / Donkey Skin • Perfect Skin (The 69 Eyes song) • Possum-skin cloak • Rabbit-skin glue • Red Skin Eclipse • Resistive skin time • Save Your Skin • Second Skin • Second Skin (album) • Second Skin (song) • Second Skin of Harlequin • Second skin • Second skin (fetishism) • Sensitive Skin (TV series) • Sensitive skin • Shark Skin Man and Peach Hip Girl • Shifting Skin • Sindh Institute of Skin Diseases • Skin (16 Volt album) • Skin (British band) • Skin (Endorphin album) • Skin (Japanese band) • Skin (Katie Noonan album) • Skin (Melissa Etheridge album) • Skin (Peter Hammill album) • Skin (Sarabeth) • Skin (Skin album) • Skin (Spock's Beard song) • Skin (Westworld album) • Skin (anthropology) • Skin (comics) • Skin (computing) • Skin (disambiguation) • Skin (film) • Skin (graphic novel) • Skin (novel) • Skin (short story) • Skin Alley • Skin Bracer • Skin Cream (cosmetic) • Skin Deep • Skin Deep (1989 film) • Skin Deep (Cher song) • Skin Deep (House) • Skin Deep (The Outer Limits) • Skin Food • Skin Game • Skin Games • Skin Gang • Skin Graft Records • Skin Test • Skin Two • Skin Two Rubber Ball • Skin Two magazine • Skin Tyson • Skin Up • Skin allergy test • Skin and Bones • Skin and Other Stories • Skin appendage • Skin biopsy • Skin bleaching • Skin cancer • Skin cancer in cats and dogs • Skin cleanser • Skin cream • Skin crease • Skin decoration • Skin discography • Skin disease • Skin diving • Skin effect • Skin fiber • Skin flora • Skin fold • Skin folds • Skin girth • Skin glue • Skin grafting • Skin graph • Skin lotion • Skin malignancy • Skin o' My Teeth • Skin o' My Tooth • Skin on Skin • Skin pack • Skin popping • Skin rash • Skin rashes • Skin repair • Skin test • Skin to Skin • Skin tone color matching • Skin trauma • Skin type • Skin whitening • Skin-pass • Skin-tight garment • Skin-walker • Skin-walker (disambiguation) • Skin-walkers • Snake skin hunter slug • Soft single skin kite • Spray-on skin • Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome • Stressed skin • Stressed-skin • Structural skin • Take Your Skin Off • The Boy Whose Skin Fell Off • The Dog Beneath the Skin • The Hair and Skin Trading Company • The Knight in the Panther's Skin • The Princess That Wore a Rabbit-skin Dress • The Skin Game (1931 film) • The Skin Game (play) • The Skin Mechanic • The Skull Beneath the Skin • The Wife Wrapt in Wether's Skin • The World of Skin • Thick skin • Things Outside the Skin • Tofu skin roll • Toner (skin care) • Under My Skin • Under My Skin (Avril Lavigne album) • Under My Skin (Winterville song) • Under My Skin (film) • Under the Skin • Under the Skin (album) • Under the Skin (novel) • Under the Skin (video game) • Werewolf Skin • White Skin • Wrinkle (skin)
hide; skin; pelt[Classe]
peau humaine (fr)[Thème]
anatomie du corps humain (fr)[DomainDescrip.]
personne mécontente (fr)[Classe]
personne dont les mœurs sont contestées (fr)[ClasseParExt.]
partisan de droite (fr)[Classe]
personne malhonnête (fr)[Classe]
personne cruelle (fr)[Classe]
marginalité sociale (fr)[Thème]
extrême droite (fr)[Thème]
personne marginale (fr)[Classe]
partisan d'extrême droite (fr)[Classe]
ce qui effectue qqch (fr)[Classe...]
chose qui contient qqch (fr)[ClasseParExt...]
organ; fabric; tissue[Classe]
(heap; shower; coat; cover)[Thème]
(hide; skin; pelt)[Thème]
ce qui enveloppe (fr)[Classe]
tissu conjonctif (fr)[Classe]
relatif à (fr)[Classe...]
being, beingness, existence[Hyper.]
organ; fabric; tissue[ClasseHyper.]
body part, part of the body[Hyper.]
décomposer en éléments (fr)[Classe]
parse; analyze; analyse[Classe]
skin (v. tr.)
abattage des animaux (fr)[Thème]
(leather), (soft leather)[Thème]
travailler le cuir, les peaux (fr)[DomaineCollocation]
skin (v. tr.)
abattage des animaux (fr)[Thème]
(leather), (soft leather)[Thème]
travailler le cuir, les peaux (fr)[DomaineCollocation]
skin (v. tr.)
ce qui enveloppe (fr)[Classe]
hide; skin; pelt[ClasseHyper.]
enveloppe d'un animal (fr)[Classe]
wound, wounding - injury - accidental injury, injury - combat injury, injury, wound - harm, hurt, injury, trauma - scrape, skin, stub - cutaneal, cutaneous, dermal - skinny - chafe, fray, fret, rub, scratch - chafe, excoriate - abrade, abrase, corrade, rub down, rub off - grate, scrape - scrape, scratch, scratch up - itch, rub, scratch - abrading, abrasive, scratchy[Dérivé]
skin (v. tr.)
pare, peel, skin[Dérivé]
plural, plural form[Domaine]
skin (v. tr.)
tige de la plante (fr)[DomainDescrip.]
skin (v. tr.)
alpinism; climbing; mountain climbing; mountaineering[ClasseHyper.]
promenade sportive (fr)[Classe]
passer un obstacle (fr)[Classe]
(ladder; stepladder)[termes liés]
skin (v. tr.)
|A diagram of human skin.|
Skin is the soft outer covering of vertebrates. Other animal coverings such as the arthropod exoskeleton or the seashell have different developmental origin, structure and chemical composition. The adjective cutaneous means "of the skin" (from Latin cutis, skin). In mammals, the skin is the largest organ of the integumentary system made up of multiple layers of ectodermal tissue, and guards the underlying muscles, bones, ligaments and internal organs. Skin of a different nature exists in amphibians, reptiles, and birds. All mammals have some hair on their skin, even marine mammals which appear to be hairless. The skin is one of the most important parts of the body because it interfaces with the environment and is the first line of defense from external factors. For example, the skin plays a key role in protecting the body against pathogens and excessive water loss. Its other functions are insulation, temperature regulation, sensation, and the production of vitamin D folates. Severely damaged skin may heal by forming scar tissue. This is sometimes discoloured and depigmented. The thickness of skin also varies from location to location on an organism. In humans for example, the skin located under the eyes and around the eyelids is the thinnest skin in the body at 0.5 mm thick, and is one of the first areas to show signs of aging such as "crows feet" and wrinkles. The skin on the palms and the soles of the feet is 4 mm thick and the thickest skin in the body.
Fur is dense hair. Primarily, fur augments the insulation the skin provides but can also serve as a secondary sexual characteristic or as camouflage. On some animals, the skin is very hard and thick, and can be processed to create leather. Reptiles and fish have hard protective scales on their skin for protection, and birds have hard feathers, all made of tough β-keratins. Amphibian skin is not a strong barrier to passage of chemicals and is often subject to osmosis. For example, a frog sitting in an anesthetic solution could quickly go to sleep.
Skin performs the following functions:
|The distribution of the bloodvessels in the skin of the sole of the foot. (Corium – TA alternate term for dermis – is labeled at upper right.)|
|A diagrammatic sectional view of the skin (click on image to magnify). (Dermis labeled at center right.)|
|Gray's||subject #234 1065|
Mammalian skin is composed of two primary layers:
The epidermis is composed of the outermost layers of the skin. It forms a protective barrier over the body's surface, responsible for keeping water in the body and preventing pathogens from entering, and is a stratified squamous epithelium, composed of proliferating basal and differentiated suprabasal keratinocytes. The epidermis also helps the skin regulate body temperature.
Keratinocytes are the major cells, constituting 95% of the epidermis, while Merkel cells, melanocytes and Langerhans cells are also present. The epidermis can be further subdivided into the following strata or layers (beginning with the outermost layer):
Keratinocytes in the stratum basale proliferate through mitosis and the daughter cells move up the strata changing shape and composition as they undergo multiple stages of cell differentiation to eventually become anucleated. During that process keratinocytes will become highly organized, forming cellular junctions (desmosomes) between each other and secreting keratin proteins and lipids which contribute to the formation of an extracellular matrix and provide mechanical strength to the skin. Keratinocytes from the stratum corneum are eventually shed from the surface (desquamation).
The epidermis and dermis are separated by a thin sheet of fibers called the basement membrane, and is made through the action of both tissues. The basement membrane controls the traffic of cells and molecules between the dermis and epidermis but also serves, through the binding of a variety of cytokines and growth factors, as a reservoir for their controlled release during physiological remodeling or repair processes.
The dermis is the layer of skin beneath the epidermis that consists of connective tissue and cushions the body from stress and strain. The dermis provides tensile strength and elasticity to the skin through an extracellular matrix composed of collagen fibrils, microfibrils, and elastic fibers, embedded in proteoglycans.
It harbors many Mechanoreceptors (nerve endings) that provide the sense of touch and heat. It also contains the hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, apocrine glands, lymphatic vessels and blood vessels. The blood vessels in the dermis provide nourishment and waste removal from its own cells as well as for the epidermis.
The dermis is tightly connected to the epidermis through a basement membrane and is structurally divided into two areas: a superficial area adjacent to the epidermis, called the papillary region, and a deep thicker area known as the reticular region.
The papillary region is composed of loose areolar connective tissue. This is named for its fingerlike projections called papillae, that extend toward the epidermis. The papillae provide the dermis with a "bumpy" surface that interdigitates with the epidermis, strengthening the connection between the two layers of skin.
The reticular region lies deep in the papillary region and is usually much thicker. It is composed of dense irregular connective tissue, and receives its name from the dense concentration of collagenous, elastic, and reticular fibers that weave throughout it. These protein fibers give the dermis its properties of strength, extensibility, and elasticity. Also located within the reticular region are the roots of the hair, sebaceous glands, sweat glands, receptors, nails, and blood vessels.
The hypodermis is not part of the skin, and lies below the dermis. Its purpose is to attach the skin to underlying bone and muscle as well as supplying it with blood vessels and nerves. It consists of loose connective tissue and elastin. The main cell types are fibroblasts, macrophages and adipocytes (the hypodermis contains 50% of body fat). Fat serves as padding and insulation for the body. Another name for the hypodermis is the subcutaneous tissue.
Microorganisms like Staphylococcus epidermidis colonize the skin surface. The density of skin flora depends on region of the skin. The disinfected skin surface gets recolonized from bacteria residing in the deeper areas of the hair follicle, gut and urogenital openings.
The epidermis of fish and of most amphibians consists entirely of live cells, with only minimal quantities of keratin in the cells of the superficial layer. It is generally permeable, and, in the case of many amphibians, may actually be a major respiratory organ. The dermis of bony fish typically contains relatively little of the connective tissue found in tetrapods. Instead, in most species, it is largely replaced by solid, protective bony scales. Apart from some particularly large dermal bones that form parts of the skull, these scales are lost in tetrapods, although many reptiles do have scales of a different kind, as do pangolins. Cartilaginous fish have numerous tooth-like denticles embedded in their skin, in place of true scales.
Sweat glands and sebaceous glands are both unique to mammals, but other types of skin gland are found in other vertebrates. Fish typically have a numerous individual mucus-secreting skin cells that aid in insulation and protection, but may also have poison glands, photophores, or cells that produce a more watery, serous fluid. In amphibians, the mucus cells are gathered together to form sac-like glands. Most living amphibians also possess granular glands in the skin, that secrete irritating or toxic compounds.
Although melanin is found in the skin of many species, in reptiles, amphibians, and fish, the epidermis is often relatively colourless. Instead, the colour of the skin is largely due to chromatophores in the dermis, which, in addition to melanin, may contain guanine or carotenoid pigments. Many species, such as chameleons and flounders may be able to change the colour of their skin by adjusting the relative size of their chromatophores.
The epidermis of birds and reptiles is closer to that of mammals, with a layer of dead keratin-filled cells at the surface, to help reduce water loss. A similar pattern is also seen in some of the more terrestrial amphibians, such as toads. However, in all of these animals there is no clear differentiation of the epidermis into distinct layers, as occurs in humans, with the change in cell type being relatively gradual. The mammalian epidermis always possesses at least a stratum germinativum and stratum corneum, but the other intermediate layers found in humans are not always distinguishable. Hair is a distinctive feature of mammalian skin, while feathers are (at least among living species) similarly unique to birds.
Birds and reptiles have relatively few skin glands, although there may be a few structures for specific purposes, such as pheromone-secreting cells in some reptiles, or the uropygial gland of most birds.
Skin has a soft tissue mechanical behavior when stretched. The intact skin is prestreched (i.e. has residual stress) like neoprene wetsuits around the diver's body. When deep cuts are made on the skin, it retracts, widening the slice hole.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Human skin|
|Look up skin in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
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