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definitions - Smoking

smoke (n.)

1.(baseball) a pitch thrown with maximum velocity"he swung late on the fastball" "he showed batters nothing but smoke"

2.the act of smoking tobacco or other substances"he went outside for a smoke" "smoking stinks"

3.marijuana

4.slang: marijuana

5.street names for marijuana

6.tobacco leaves that have been made into a cylinder

7.something with no concrete substance"his dreams all turned to smoke" "it was just smoke and mirrors"

8.an indication of some hidden activity"with all that smoke there must be a fire somewhere"

9.a cloud of fine particles suspended in a gas

10.a hot vapor containing fine particles of carbon being produced by combustion"the fire produced a tower of black smoke that could be seen for miles"

11.finely ground tobacco wrapped in paper; for smoking

smoke (v.)

1.inhale and exhale smoke from cigarettes, cigars, pipes"We never smoked marijuana" "Do you smoke?"

2.emit a cloud of fine particles"The chimney was fuming"

smoking (adj.)

1.emitting smoke in great volume"a smoking fireplace"

smoking (n.)

1.the act of smoking tobacco or other substances"he went outside for a smoke" "smoking stinks"

2.a hot vapor containing fine particles of carbon being produced by combustion"the fire produced a tower of black smoke that could be seen for miles"

Smoking (n.)

1.(MeSH)Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of tobacco or something similar to tobacco.

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Merriam Webster

SmokeSmoke (smōk), n. [AS. smoca, fr. smeócan to smoke; akin to LG. & D. smook smoke, Dan. smög, G. schmauch, and perh. to Gr. ��� to burn in a smoldering fire; cf. Lith. smaugti to choke.]
1. The visible exhalation, vapor, or substance that escapes, or expelled, from a burning body, especially from burning vegetable matter, as wood, coal, peat, or the like.

☞ The gases of hydrocarbons, raised to a red heat or thereabouts, without a mixture of air enough to produce combustion, disengage their carbon in a fine powder, forming smoke. The disengaged carbon when deposited on solid bodies is soot.

2. That which resembles smoke; a vapor; a mist.

3. Anything unsubstantial, as idle talk. Shak.

4. The act of smoking, esp. of smoking tobacco; as, to have a smoke. [Colloq.]

Smoke is sometimes joined with other word. forming self-explaining compounds; as, smoke-consuming, smoke-dried, smoke-stained, etc.

Smoke arch, the smoke box of a locomotive. -- Smoke ball (Mil.), a ball or case containing a composition which, when it burns, sends forth thick smoke. -- Smoke black, lampblack. [Obs.] -- Smoke board, a board suspended before a fireplace to prevent the smoke from coming out into the room. -- Smoke box, a chamber in a boiler, where the smoke, etc., from the furnace is collected before going out at the chimney. -- Smoke sail (Naut.), a small sail in the lee of the galley stovepipe, to prevent the smoke from annoying people on deck. -- Smoke tree (Bot.), a shrub (Rhus Cotinus) in which the flowers are mostly abortive and the panicles transformed into tangles of plumose pedicels looking like wreaths of smoke. -- To end in smoke, to burned; hence, to be destroyed or ruined; figuratively, to come to nothing.

Syn. -- Fume; reek; vapor.

SmokeSmoke, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Smoked (?); p. pr. & vb n. Smoking.] [AS. smocian; akin to D. smoken, G. schmauchen, Dan. smöge. See Smoke, n.]
1. To emit smoke; to throw off volatile matter in the form of vapor or exhalation; to reek.

Hard by a cottage chimney smokes. Milton.

2. Hence, to burn; to be kindled; to rage.

The anger of the Lord and his jealousy shall smoke agains. that man. Deut. xxix. 20.

3. To raise a dust or smoke by rapid motion.

Proud of his steeds, he smokes along the field. Dryden.

4. To draw into the mouth the smoke of tobacco burning in a pipe or in the form of a cigar, cigarette, etc.; to habitually use tobacco in this manner.

5. To suffer severely; to be punished.

Some of you shall smoke for it in Rome. Shak.

SmokeSmoke, v. t.
1. To apply smoke to; to hang in smoke; to disinfect, to cure, etc., by smoke; as, to smoke or fumigate infected clothing; to smoke beef or hams for preservation.

2. To fill or scent with smoke; hence, to fill with incense; to perfume.Smoking the temple.” Chaucer.

3. To smell out; to hunt out; to find out; to detect.

I alone
Smoked his true person, talked with him.
Chapman.

He was first smoked by the old Lord Lafeu. Shak.

Upon that . . . I began to smoke that they were a parcel of mummers. Addison.

4. To ridicule to the face; to quiz. [Old Slang]

5. To inhale and puff out the smoke of, as tobacco; to burn or use in smoking; as, to smoke a pipe or a cigar.

6. To subject to the operation of smoke, for the purpose of annoying or driving out; -- often with out; as, to smoke a woodchuck out of his burrow.

SmokingSmok"ing, a. & n. from Smoke.

Smoking bean (Bot.), the long pod of the catalpa, or Indian-bean tree, often smoked by boys as a substitute for cigars. -- Smoking car, a railway car carriage reserved for the use of passengers who smoke tobacco.

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definition (more)

definition of Wikipedia

synonyms - Smoking

smoke (v.)

fume

smoke (v. intr.)

fume

smoking (n.)

smoke

see also - Smoking

smoke (n.)

filled with smoke, smokey, smoky fume

smoke (v.)

smoker, unsmokable

phrases

-Air Pollution, Tobacco Smoke • Assault by smoke, fire and flames • Assault by smoke, fire and flames | farm • Assault by smoke, fire and flames | home • Assault by smoke, fire and flames | industrial and construction area • Assault by smoke, fire and flames | other specified places • Assault by smoke, fire and flames | residential institution • Assault by smoke, fire and flames | school, other institution and public administrative area • Assault by smoke, fire and flames | sports and athletics area • Assault by smoke, fire and flames | street and highway • Assault by smoke, fire and flames | trade and service area • Assault by smoke, fire and flames | unspecified place • Environmental Smoke Pollution, Tobacco • Environmental Tobacco Smoke Pollution • Exposure to smoke, fire and flames • Exposure to smoke, fire and flames, undetermined intent • Exposure to smoke, fire and flames, undetermined intent | farm • Exposure to smoke, fire and flames, undetermined intent | home • Exposure to smoke, fire and flames, undetermined intent | industrial and construction area • Exposure to smoke, fire and flames, undetermined intent | other specified places • Exposure to smoke, fire and flames, undetermined intent | residential institution • Exposure to smoke, fire and flames, undetermined intent | school, other institution and public administrative area • Exposure to smoke, fire and flames, undetermined intent | sports and athletics area • Exposure to smoke, fire and flames, undetermined intent | street and highway • Exposure to smoke, fire and flames, undetermined intent | trade and service area • Exposure to smoke, fire and flames, undetermined intent | unspecified place • Exposure to unspecified smoke, fire and flames • Exposure to unspecified smoke, fire and flames | farm • Exposure to unspecified smoke, fire and flames | home • Exposure to unspecified smoke, fire and flames | industrial and construction area • Exposure to unspecified smoke, fire and flames | other specified places • Exposure to unspecified smoke, fire and flames | residential institution • Exposure to unspecified smoke, fire and flames | school, other institution and public administrative area • Exposure to unspecified smoke, fire and flames | sports and athletics area • Exposure to unspecified smoke, fire and flames | street and highway • Exposure to unspecified smoke, fire and flames | trade and service area • Exposure to unspecified smoke, fire and flames | unspecified place • Inhalation Injury, Smoke • Injury, Smoke Inhalation • Smoke Inhalation Injury • Tobacco Smoke Pollution • chain-smoke • cloud of smoke • column of smoke • drift of smoke • emission of smoke • filled with smoke • give off smoke • go up in smoke • go up in smoke/flames • gun smoke • holy smoke! • pall of smoke • plume of smoke • prairie smoke • production of smoke • puff of smoke • smoke alarm • smoke bomb • smoke bush • smoke detector • smoke grenade • smoke hole • smoke out • smoke outlet • smoke screen • smoke sensor • smoke shop • smoke tree • smoke-cured • smoke-dried • smoke-filled • smoke-free • thick smoke • trail of smoke • wisp of smoke

-Alex Smoke • All 'bout Smoke 'n Mirrors • Asheville Smoke • Aspirating smoke detector • Benjamin Smoke • Big Black Smoke • Big Smoke • Black smoke • Blood and Smoke • Blue Smoke • Blue Smoke (computer science) • Brantford Smoke • British Smoke Hood • Carlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball Company • Chief John Smoke Johnson • Cigarette Smoke Phantom • Clan Smoke Jaguar • Clouds of Smoke • Colored smoke • Dead Men Don't Smoke Marijuana • Digital Smoke • Don't Smoke in Bed • Extreme Smoke • Famous Smoke Shop • Fire and Smoke • Franklin Smoke • Gun Smoke • Gun.Smoke • Half smoke • Half-smoke • Heat and smoke vent • Her Smoke Rose Up Forever • Holy Smoke • Holy Smoke (Peter Murphy album) • Holy Smoke (album) • Holy Smoke (disambiguation) • Holy Smoke (song) • Holy Smoke! • I Smoke Every Weed • I Smoke, I Drank • Incense smoke • Incense-smoke • Jeffrey Smoke • John Smoke Johnson • Lazy Smoke • Liquid smoke • List of cigarette smoke constituents • Litigation before the judgment in Carlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball Company • Low smoke zero halogen • M243 smoke grenade launcher • MTV Makes Me Want to Smoke Crack • Magic smoke • Marcia Jones-Smoke • Moth Smoke • Mountain of Smoke • No Smoke Without Fire • No Smoke, No Mirrors • Prairie smoke • Princess Nicotine; or The Smoke Fairy • Princess Nicotine; or, The Smoke Fairy • Ringelmann smoke chart • Sea smoke • Second Hand Smoke (album) • Second-hand Smoke • Sha-Kon-O-Hey! Land of Blue Smoke (Dolly Parton album) • Shut Up and Smoke • Sidestream smoke • Smoke (Eskimo Joe song) • Smoke (White Williams album) • Smoke (album) • Smoke (band) • Smoke (comics) • Smoke (disambiguation) • Smoke (song) • Smoke Blanchard • Smoke Bombs • Smoke Camp Wildlife Management Area • Smoke City • Smoke Creek Desert • Smoke Creek Mountains • Smoke E. Digglera • Smoke Gets in Your CSI's • Smoke Gets in Your Eyes • Smoke Gets in Your Eyes (Mad Men) • Smoke Gets in Your Eyes (disambiguation) • Smoke Ghost (album) • Smoke Glacken • Smoke Hole Canyon • Smoke Hole Caverns • Smoke Jensen • Smoke Johnson • Smoke Jumpers • Smoke Lake (Alberta) • Smoke Machine (album) • Smoke N Mirrors • Smoke Radio • Smoke Rings in the Dark • Smoke Rings in the Dark (song) • Smoke Rise • Smoke Rise (band) • Smoke Rise (community) • Smoke Rise, Alabama • Smoke Rise, Georgia • Smoke Signals (MDC album) • Smoke Signals (disambiguation) • Smoke Signals (magazine) • Smoke Signals (movie) • Smoke Signals (smoking fetish magazine) • Smoke Some Kill • Smoke Soup • Smoke Squadron • Smoke Two Joints • Smoke and Mirrors (Lifehouse album) • Smoke and Mirrors (O.C. album) • Smoke and Mirrors (TV series) • Smoke and Mirrors (story collection) • Smoke and Strong Whiskey • Smoke and mirrors • Smoke and mirrors (disambiguation) • Smoke bomb • Smoke burn • Smoke composition • Smoke deflectors • Smoke detector • Smoke discharger • Smoke exhaust ductwork • Smoke flaps • Smoke flavor • Smoke grenade • Smoke hole • Smoke holes • Smoke hood • Smoke inhalation • Smoke of the Snake • Smoke on the Daughter • Smoke on the Water • Smoke on the Water (album) • Smoke or Fire • Smoke point • Smoke ring • Smoke rings • Smoke screen • Smoke screens • Smoke shell • Smoke signal • Smoke signals • Smoke smoke smoke • Smoke smoke smoke that cigarette • Smoke stack industries • Smoke stack industry • Smoke stacks • Smoke testing • Smoke! Smoke! Smoke! (That Cigarette) • Smoke-Free Air Act • Smoke-Free Illinois Act Public Act 095-0017 • Smoke-a-Lot Records • Smoke-bellied Rat • Smoke-developed index • Smoke-filled • Smoke-filled room • Smoke-free Environments Act 1990 • Smoke-free restaurant • Smoke-hole • Smoke-holes • Smoke-stack • Smoke-stacks • Southern Smoke • Summer and Smoke • Summer and Smoke (film) • Sweet Smoke • Sweet Smoke Live • The Man Who Went Up in Smoke • The Ruby in the Smoke • The Smoke (English band) • The Smoke House • The Smoke Ring • The Smoke Ring (band) • The Smoke Ring (disambiguation) • The Smoke Ring (novel) • The Smoke Screen (Yes, Prime Minister) • The Tiger in the Smoke • Theatrical smoke and fog • They Made Frogs Smoke 'til They Exploded • Tiger in the Smoke • Tobacco smoke enema • Traces of Smoke • Trail Smoke Eaters • Tree of Smoke • Up in Smoke • Up in Smoke (CSI) • Up in Smoke (album) • Up in Smoke (soundtrack) • Up in Smoke Tour • Where There's Smoke • Where There's Smoke There's Fired • Where There's Smoke... • Where There's Smoke... (SATC episode) • Wholly Smoke • William Smoke

-2 (Smoking Popes album) • Action on Smoking and Health • Agreement concerning the Suppression of Opium Smoking • Agreement for the Control of Opium Smoking in the Far East • Airspace Action on Smoking and Health • Alkaline Trio / Smoking Popes • Among Other Things, I've Taken Up Smoking • Ashley the Smoking Car • Blowback (smoking) • Bowl (smoking) • Canadian Council on Smoking and Health • Cannabis smoking • Cannabis smoking etiquette • Chain smoking • Comprehensive Smoking Education Act • Crack smoking • Drinkin' T.N.T. And Smoking' Dynamite • Dugout (smoking) • Effects of passive smoking • Effects of smoking during pregnancy • Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act • History of smoking • How I Quit Smoking • Inflight smoking • Laws to forbid smoking • Le Smoking • List of plants used for smoking • List of smoking bans • List of smoking bans in Australia • List of smoking related topics • Lock, Stock and Two Smoking Barrels • Lock, Stock, and Two Smoking Barrels • Musings of a Cigarette Smoking Man • National No Smoking Day • National Non-Smoking Week • No Smoking • No Smoking (1955 film) • No Smoking (2007 film) • No Smoking (short film) • No Smoking Day • No smoking • Passive smoking • Pipe smoking • Pot-smoking • Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act • Religious views on smoking • Schizophrenia and smoking • Second hand smoking • Smoke Signals (smoking fetish magazine) • Smoking (Public Health) Ordinance • Smoking (cooking) • Smoking (disambiguation) • Smoking / No Smoking • Smoking Acid • Smoking Blues • Smoking Car Productions • Smoking Hills • Smoking Joe • Smoking Popes • Smoking Popes discography • Smoking Popes/Groovy Love Vibes • Smoking age • Smoking and the Bandit • Smoking ban • Smoking ban in England • Smoking bans • Smoking bans in private vehicles • Smoking cap • Smoking ceremony • Smoking cessation • Smoking cessation programs in Canada • Smoking clover • Smoking concert • Smoking culture • Smoking fetish • Smoking fetishism • Smoking gun • Smoking in Argentina • Smoking in Japan • Smoking in Jewish law • Smoking in Taiwan • Smoking in Uruguay • Smoking in the People's Republic of China • Smoking in the United States • Smoking jacket • Smoking pipe • Smoking pipe (tobacco) • Smoking point • Smoking rolling papers • Smoking room • Smoking the Century Away • Smoking, Health and Social Care (Scotland) Act 2005 • Smoking/No Smoking • Thank You for Smoking • Thank You for Smoking (novel) • The Man Who Quit Smoking • The Party's Over (Smoking Popes album) • The Smoking Gun • The Smoking Gunns • The Smoking Man • The Smoking Peanut • The Smoking Room • Tobacco smoking • Tradable smoking pollution permits • Uk smoking ban • Viejo smoking • Women and smoking

analogical dictionary














 

fumer (fr)[Classe]

cheminée (fr)[Thème]

give off smoke[Classe]

cheminée (fr)[termes liés]

smoke (v. intr.)



smoky[Similaire]

smoking (adj.)




smoking (n.)


Wikipedia

Smoke

                   
  Smoke from a bee smoker, used in beekeeping

Smoke is a collection of airborne solid and liquid particulates and gases[1] emitted when a material undergoes combustion or pyrolysis, together with the quantity of air that is entrained or otherwise mixed into the mass. It is commonly an unwanted by-product of fires (including stoves, candles, oil lamps, and fireplaces), but may also be used for pest control (cf. fumigation), communication (smoke signals), defensive and offensive capabilities in the military (smoke-screen), cooking (smoked salmon), or smoking (tobacco, cannabis, etc.). Smoke is used in rituals, when incense, sage, or resin is burned to produce a smell for spiritual purposes. Smoke is sometimes used as a flavoring agent, and preservative for various foodstuffs. Smoke is also a component of internal combustion engine exhaust gas, particularly diesel exhaust.

Smoke inhalation is the primary cause of death in victims of indoor fires. The smoke kills by a combination of thermal damage, poisoning and pulmonary irritation caused by carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide and other combustion products.

Smoke particles are an aerosol (or mist) of solid particles and liquid droplets that are close to the ideal range of sizes for Mie scattering of visible light. This effect has been likened to three-dimensional textured privacy glass[citation needed] — a smoke cloud does not obstruct an image, but thoroughly scrambles it.

Contents

  Chemical composition

The composition of smoke depends on the nature of the burning fuel and the conditions of combustion.

Fires with high availability of oxygen burn at high temperature and with small amount of smoke produced; the particles are mostly composed of ash, or with large temperature differences, of condensed aerosol of water. High temperature also leads to production of nitrogen oxides. Sulfur content yields sulfur dioxide, or in case of incomplete combustion, hydrogen sulfide. Carbon and hydrogen are almost completely oxidized to carbon dioxide and water. Fires burning with lack of oxygen produce a significantly wider palette of compounds, many of them toxic. Partial oxidation of carbon produces carbon monoxide, nitrogen-containing materials can yield hydrogen cyanide, ammonia, and nitrogen oxides. Hydrogen gas can be produced instead of water. Content of halogens such as chlorine (e.g. in polyvinyl chloride or brominated flame retardants) may lead to production of e.g. hydrogen chloride, phosgene, dioxin, and chloromethane, bromomethane and other halocarbons. Hydrogen fluoride can be formed from fluorocarbons, whether fluoropolymers subjected to fire or halocarbon fire suppression agents. Phosphorus and antimony oxides and their reaction products can be formed from some fire retardant additives, increasing smoke toxicity and corrosivity. Pyrolysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), e.g. from burning older transformer oil, and to lower degree also of other chlorine-containing materials, can produce 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin, a potent carcinogen, and other polychlorinated dibenzodioxins. Pyrolysis of fluoropolymers, e.g. teflon, in presence of oxygen yields carbonyl fluoride (which hydrolyzes readily to HF and CO2); other compounds may be formed as well, e.g. carbon tetrafluoride, hexafluoropropylene, and highly toxic perfluoroisobutene (PFIB).[2]

  Emission of soot from a large diesel truck, without particle filters.

Pyrolysis of burning material, especially incomplete combustion or smoldering without adequate oxygen supply, also results in production of a large amount of hydrocarbons, both aliphatic (methane, ethane, ethylene, acetylene) and aromatic (benzene and its derivates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; e.g. benzo[a]pyrene, studied as a carcinogen, or retene), terpenes. Heterocyclic compounds may be also present. Heavier hydrocarbons may condense as tar; smoke with significant tar content is yellow to brown. Presence of such smoke, soot, and/or brown oily deposits during a fire indicates a possible hazardous situation, as the atmosphere may be saturated with combustible pyrolysis products with concentration above the upper flammability limit, and sudden inrush of air can cause flashover or backdraft.

Presence of sulfur can lead to formation of e.g. hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, sulfur dioxide, carbon disulfide, and thiols; especially thiols tend to get adsorbed on surfaces and produce a lingering odor even long after the fire. Partial oxidation of the released hydrocarbons yields in a wide palette of other compounds: aldehydes (e.g. formaldehyde, acrolein, and furfural), ketones, alcohols (often aromatic, e.g. phenol, guaiacol, syringol, catechol, and cresols), carboxylic acids (formic acid, acetic acid, etc.).

The visible particulate matter in such smokes is most commonly composed of carbon (soot). Other particulates may be composed of drops of condensed tar, or solid particles of ash. The presence of metals in the fuel yields particles of metal oxides. Particles of inorganic salts may also be formed, e.g. ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, or sodium chloride. Inorganic salts present on the surface of the soot particles may make them hydrophilic. Many organic compounds, typically the aromatic hydrocarbons, may be also adsorbed on the surface of the solid particles. Metal oxides can be present when metal-containing fuels are burned, e.g. solid rocket fuels containing aluminium. Depleted uranium projectiles after impacting the target ignite, producing particles of uranium oxides. Magnetic particles, spherules of magnetite-like ferrous ferric oxide, are present in coal smoke; their increase in deposits after 1860 marks the beginning of the Industrial Revolution.[3] (Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles can be also produced in the smoke from meteorites burning in the atmosphere.)[4] Magnetic remanence, recorded in the iron oxide particles, indicates the strength of Earth's magnetic field when they were cooled beyond their Curie temperature; this can be used to distinguish magnetic particles of terrestrial and meteoric origin.[5] Fly ash is composed mainly of silica and calcium oxide. Cenospheres are present in smoke from liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Minute metal particles produced by abrasion can be present in engine smokes. Amorphous silica particles are present in smokes from burning silicones; small proportion of silicon nitride particles can be formed in fires with insufficient oxygen. The silica particles have about 10 nm size, clumped to 70-100 nm aggregates and further agglomerated to chains.[2] Radioactive particles may be present due to traces of uranium, thorium, or other radionuclides in the fuel; hot particles can be present in case of fires during nuclear accidents (e.g. Chernobyl disaster) or nuclear war.

Smoke particulates have three modes of particle size distribution:

  • nuclei mode, with geometric mean radius between 2.5–20 nm, likely forming by condensation of carbon moieties.
  • accumulation mode, ranging between 75–250 nm and formed by coagulation of nuclei mode particles
  • coarse mode, with particles in micrometer range

Most of the smoke material is primarily in coarse particles. Those undergo rapid dry precipitation, and the smoke damage in more distant areas outside of the room where the fire occurs is therefore primarily mediated by the smaller particles.[6]

Aerosol of particles beyond visible size is an early indicator of materials in a preignition stage of a fire.[2]

Burning of hydrogen-rich fuel produces water; this results in smoke containing droplets of water vapor. In absence of other color sources (nitrogen oxides, particulates...), such smoke is white and cloud-like.

Smoke emissions may contain characteristic trace elements. Vanadium is present in emissions from oil fired power plants and refineries; oil plants also emit some nickel. Coal combustion produces emissions containing aluminium, arsenic, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, mercury, selenium, and uranium.

Traces of vanadium in high-temperature combustion products form droplets of molten vanadates. These attack the passivation layers on metals and cause high temperature corrosion, which is a concern especially for internal combustion engines. Molten sulfate and lead particulates also have such effect.

Some components of smoke are characteristic of the combustion source. Guaiacol and its derivatives are products of pyrolysis of lignin and are characteristic of wood smoke; other markers are syringol and derivates, and other methoxy phenols. Retene, a product of pyrolysis of conifer trees, is an indicator of forest fires. Levoglucosan is a pyrolysis product of cellulose. Hardwood vs softwood smokes differ in the ratio of guaiacols/syringols. Markers for vehicle exhaust include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, hopanes, steranes, and specific nitroarenes (e.g. 1-nitropyrene). The ratio of hopanes and steranes to elemental carbon can be used to distinguish between emissions of gasoline and diesel engines.[7]

Many compounds can be associated with particulates; whether by being adsorbed on their surfaces, or by being dissolved in liquid droplets. Hydrogen chloride is well absorbed in the soot particles.[6]

Inert particulate matter can be disturbed and entrained into the smoke. Of particular concern are particles of asbestos.

Deposited hot particles of radioactive fallout and bioaccumulated radioisotopes can be reintroduced into the atmosphere by wildfires and forest fires; this is a concern in e.g. the Zone of alienation containing contaminants from the Chernobyl disaster.

Polymers are a significant source of smoke. Aromatic side groups, e.g. in polystyrene, enhance generation of smoke. Aromatic groups integrated in the polymer backbone produce less smoke, likely due to significant charring. Aliphatic polymers tend to generate the least smoke, and are non-self-extinguishing. However presence of additives can significantly increase smoke formation. Phosphorus-based and halogen-based flame retardants decrease production of smoke. Higher degree of cross-linking between the polymer chains has such effect too.[8]

  Visible and invisible particles of combustion

  Smoke from a wildfire

Depending on particle size, smoke can be visible or invisible to the naked eye. This is best illustrated when toasting bread in a toaster. As the bread heats up, the products of combustion increase in size. The particles produced initially are invisible but become visible if the toast is burned.

Smoke from a typical house fire contains hundreds of different chemicals and fumes. As a result, the damage caused by the smoke can often exceed that caused by the actual heat of the fire. In addition to the physical damage caused by the smoke of a fire – which manifests itself in the form of stains – is the often even harder to eliminate problem of a smoky odor. Just as there are contractors that specialize in rebuilding/repairing homes that have been damaged by fire and smoke, fabric restoration companies specialize in restoring fabrics that have been damaged in a fire.

  Dangers of smoke

Smoke from oxygen-deprived fires contains a significant concentration of compounds that are flammable. A cloud of smoke, in contact with atmospheric oxygen, therefore has the potential of being ignited – either by another open flame in the area, or by its own temperature. This leads to effects like backdraft and flashover. Smoke inhalation is also a danger of smoke that can cause serious injury and death.

Many compounds of smoke from fires are highly toxic and/or irritating. The most dangerous is carbon monoxide leading to carbon monoxide poisoning, sometimes with the additive effects of hydrogen cyanide and phosgene. Smoke inhalation can therefore quickly lead to incapacitation and loss of consciousness. Sulfur oxides, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride in contact with moisture form sulfuric, hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acid, which are corrosive to both lungs and materials. When asleep the nose does not sense smoke nor does the brain, but the body will wake up if the lungs become enveloped in smoke and the brain will be stimulated and the person will be awoken. This does not work if the person is incapacitated or under the influence of Drugs and/or alcohol

Cigarette smoke is a major modifiable risk factor for lung disease, heart disease, and many cancers.

  Reduced visibility due to wildfire smoke in Sheremetyevo airport (Moscow, Russia) 7 August 2010.

Smoke can obscure visibility, impeding occupant exiting from fire areas. In fact, the poor visibility due to the smoke that was in the Worcester Cold Storage Warehouse fire in Worcester, Massachusetts was the exact reason why the trapped rescue firefighters couldn't evacuate the building in time. Because of the striking similarity that each floor shared, the dense smoke caused the firefighters to become disoriented.[9]

  Smoke corrosion

Smoke contains a wide variety of chemicals, many of them aggressive in nature. Examples are hydrochloric acid and hydrobromic acid, produced from halogen-containing plastics and fire retardants, hydrofluoric acid released by pyrolysis of fluorocarbon fire suppression agents, sulfuric acid from burning of sulfur-containing materials, nitric acid from high-temperature fires where nitrous oxide gets formed, phosphoric acid and antimony compounds from P and Sb based fire retardants, and many others. Such corrosion is not significant for structural materials, but delicate structures, especially microelectronics, are strongly affected. Corrosion of circuit board traces, penetration of aggressive chemicals through the casings of parts, and other effects can cause an immediate or gradual deterioration of parameters or even premature (and often delayed, as the corrosion can progress over long time) failure of equipment subjected to smoke. Many smoke components are also electrically conductive; deposition of a conductive layer on the circuits can cause crosstalks and other deteriorations of the operating parameters or even cause short circuits and total failures. Electrical contacts can be affected by corrosion of surfaces, and by deposition of soot and other conductive particles or nonconductive layers on or across the contacts. Deposited particles may adversely affect the performance of optoelectronics by absorbing or scattering the light beams.

Corrosivity of smoke produced by materials is characterized by the corrosion index (CI), defined as material loss rate (angstrom/minute) per amount of material gasified products (grams) per volume of air (m3). It is measured by exposing strips of metal to flow of combustion products in a test tunnel. Polymers containing halogen and hydrogen (polyvinyl chloride, polyolefins with halogenated additives, etc.) have the highest CI as the corrosive acids are formed directly with water produced by the combustion, polymers containing halogen only (e.g. polytetrafluoroethylene) have lower CI as the formation of acid is limited to reactions with airborne humidity, and halogen-free materials (polyolefins, wood) have the lowest CI.[6] However, some halogen-free materials can also release significant amount of corrosive products.[10]

Smoke damage to electronic equipment can be significantly more extensive than the fire itself. Cable fires are of special concern; low smoke zero halogen materials are preferable for cable insulation.

When smoke comes into contact with the surface of any substance or structure, the chemicals contained in it are transferred to it. The corrosive properties of the chemicals cause the substance or structure to decompose at a rapid rate. In some instances the chemicals are absorbed into the substance or structure that it comes into contact with, i.e clothing, unsealed surfaces, potable water piping, wood, etc., which is why in most cases dealing with a structure fire they are replaced.

  Secondhand smoke inhalation

Secondhand smoke is the combination of both sidestream and mainstream smoke emissions. These emissions contain more than 50 carcinogenic chemicals. According to the Surgeon General's latest report on the subject, "Short exposures to secondhand smoke can cause blood platelets to become stickier, damage the lining of blood vessels, decrease coronary flow velocity reserves, and reduce heart variability, potentially increasing the risk of a heart attack" [11] The American Cancer Society lists "heart disease, lung infections, increased asthma attacks, middle ear infections, and low birth weight" as ramifications of smoker's emission [12]

  Measurement of smoke

As early as the 15th Century Leonardo Da Vinci commented at length on the difficulty of assessing smoke, and distinguished between black smoke (carbonized particles) and white 'smoke' which is not a smoke at all but merely a suspension of harmless water droplets. Smoke from heating appliances is commonly measured in one of the following ways:

In-line capture. A smoke sample is simply sucked through a filter which is weighed before and after the test and the mass of smoke found. This is the simplest and probably the most accurate method, but can only be used where the smoke concentration is slight, as the filter can quickly become blocked.

Filter/dilution tunnel. A smoke sample is drawn through a tube where it is diluted with air, the resulting smoke/air mixture is then pulled through a filter and weighed. This is the internationally recognized method of measuring smoke from combustion.

Electrostatic precipitation. The smoke is passed through an array of metal tubes which contain suspended wires. A (huge) electrical potential is applied across the tubes and wires so that the smoke particles become charged and are attracted to the sides of the tubes. This method can over-read by capturing harmless condensates, or under-read due to the insulating effect of the smoke. However, it is the necessary method for assessing volumes of smoke too great to be forced through a filter, i.e., from bituminous coal.

Ringelmann scale. A measure of smoke color. Invented by Professor Maximilian Ringelmann in Paris in 1888, it is essentially a card with squares of black, white and shades of gray which is held up and the comparative grayness of the smoke judged. Highly dependent on light conditions and the skill of the observer it allocates a grayness number from 0 (white) to 5 (black) which has only a passing relationship to the actual quantity of smoke. Nonetheless, the simplicity of the Ringelmann scale means that it has been adopted as a standard in many countries.

Optical scattering. A light beam is passed through the smoke. A light detector is situated at an angle to the light source, typically at 90°, so that it receives only light reflected from passing particles. A measurement is made of the light received which will be lower as the concentration of smoke particles becomes higher.

Optical obscuration. A light beam is passed through the smoke and a detector opposite measures the light. The more smoke particles are present between the two, the less light will be measured.

Combined optical methods. There are various proprietary optical smoke measurement devices such as the 'nephelometer' or the 'aethalometer' which use several different optical methods, including more than one wavelength of light, inside a single instrument and apply an algorithm to give a good estimate of smoke.

Inference from carbon monoxide. Smoke is incompletely burned fuel, carbon monoxide is incompletely burned carbon, therefore it has long been assumed that measurement of CO in flue gas (a cheap, simple and very accurate procedure) will provide a good indication of the levels of smoke. Indeed, several jurisdictions use CO measurement as the basis of smoke control. However it is far from clear how accurate the correspondence is.

  Medicinal smoke

Throughout recorded history, humans have used the smoke of medicinal plants to cure illness. A sculpture from Persepolis shows Darius the Great (522–486 BC), the king of Persia, with two censers in front of him for burning Peganum harmala and/or sandalwood Santalum album, which was believed to protect the king from evil and disease. More than 300 plant species in 5 continents are used in smoke form for different diseases. As a method of drug administration, smoking is important as it is a simple, inexpensive, but very effective method of extracting particles containing active agents. More importantly, generating smoke reduces the particle size to a microscopic scale thereby increasing the absorption of its active chemical principles. However, the hazards of inhaling a particulate are unacceptable to some people.[13]

  See also

  References

  1. ^ Smoke Production and Properties - SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering
  2. ^ a b c National Research Council (U.S.). Task Force on Flammability, Smoke, Toxicity, and Corrosive Gases of Electric Cable Materials (1978). Flammability, smoke, toxicity, and corrosive gases of electric cable materials: report of the Task Force on Flammability, Smoke, Toxicity, and Corrosive Gases of Electric Cable Materials, National Materials Advisory Board, Commission on Sociotechnical Systems, National Research Council. National Academies. pp. 107–. NAP:15488. http://books.google.com/books?id=6WYrAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA107. Retrieved 14 June 2012. 
  3. ^ F. Oldfield, K. Tolonen and R. Thompson (1981). "History of Particulate Atmospheric Pollution from Magnetic Measurements in Dated Finnish Peat Profiles". Ambio 10 (4): 185. JSTOR 4312673. 
  4. ^ Lanci, L.; Kent, D. V. (2006). "Meteoric smoke fallout revealed by superparamagnetism in Greenland ice". Geophys. Res. Lett. 33 (13): L13308. Bibcode 2006GeoRL..3313308L. DOI:10.1029/2006GL026480. http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/2006/2006GL026480.shtml. 
  5. ^ Suavet, C.; Gattacceca, J.; Rochette, P.; Perchiazzi, N.; Folco, L.; Duprat, J.; Harvey, R. P. (2009). "Magnetic properties of micrometeorites". J. Geophys. Res. 114: B04102. Bibcode 2009JGRB..11404102S. DOI:10.1029/2008JB005831. http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/2009/2008JB005831.shtml. 
  6. ^ a b c James E. Mark (2006). corrosion&f=false Physical properties of polymers handbook. Springer. ISBN 0-387-31235-8. http://books.google.com/?id=fZl7q7UgEXkC&pg=PA909&dq=smoke+corrosion&cd=23#v=onepage&q=smoke corrosion&f=false. 
  7. ^ "Organic Speciation International Workshop Synthesis_topic7". Wrapair.org. http://www.wrapair.org/APACE/SPECIATION/Synopsis_topic7.htm. Retrieved 2010-02-19. 
  8. ^ D.W. van Krevelen, Klaas te Nijenhuis (2009). Properties of Polymers: Their Correlation with Chemical Structure; Their Numerical Estimation and Prediction from Additive Group Contributions. Elsevier. p. 864. ISBN 0-08-054819-9. http://books.google.com/?id=bzRKwjZeQ2kC&pg=PA864&dq=smoke+corrosion&cd=51#v=onepage&q=smoke%20corrosion&f=false. 
  9. ^ telegram.com - Warehouse Tragedy
  10. ^ Ronald C. Lasky, Ronald Lasky, Ulf L. Österberg, Daniel P. Stigliani (1995). Optoelectronics for data communication. Academic Press. p. 43. ISBN 0-12-437160-4. http://books.google.com/?id=Sj4vSgMdimAC&pg=PA43&dq=smoke+corrosion&cd=63#v=onepage&q=smoke%20corrosion&f=false. 
  11. ^ General, Surgeon. "The Health Consequences of Invlountary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: A Report of the Surgeon General". U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health. 
  12. ^ "Secondhand Smoke". American Cancer Society. http://www.cancer.org/Cancer/CancerCauses/TobaccoCancer/secondhand-smoke. Retrieved 11/1/11. 
  13. ^ Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali; Faridi, Pouya; Shams-Ardakani, Mohammadreza; Ghasemi, Younes (2006). "Medicinal smokes". Journal of Ethnopharmacology 108 (2): 161–84. DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2006.09.005. PMID 17030480. 

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Smoking

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Smoking is a practice in which a substance, most commonly tobacco, is burned and the smoke tasted or inhaled. This is primarily practised as a route of administration for recreational drug use, as combustion releases the active substances in drugs such as nicotine and makes them available for absorption through the lungs. It can also be done as a part of rituals, to induce trances and spiritual enlightenment. The most common method of smoking today is through cigarettes, primarily industrially manufactured but also hand-rolled from loose tobacco and rolling paper. Other smoking tools includes pipes, cigars, hookahs and bongs.

Smoking is one of the most common forms of recreational drug use. Tobacco smoking is today by far the most popular form of smoking and is practiced by over one billion people in the majority of all human societies. Less common drugs for smoking include cannabis and opium. Some of the substances are classified as hard narcotics, like heroin and crack cocaine, but the use of these is very limited as they are often not commercially available.

The history of smoking can be dated to as early as 5000 BC, and has been recorded in many different cultures across the world. Early smoking evolved in association with religious ceremonies; as offerings to deities, in cleansing rituals or to allow shamans and priests to alter their minds for purposes of divination or spiritual enlightenment. After the European exploration and conquest of the Americas, the practice of smoking tobacco quickly spread to the rest of the world. In regions like India and Subsaharan Africa, it merged with existing practices of smoking (mostly of cannabis). In Europe, it introduced a new type of social activity and a form of drug intake which previously had been unknown.

Perception surrounding smoking has varied over time and from one place to another; holy and sinful, sophisticated and vulgar, a panacea and deadly health hazard. Only recently, and primarily in industrialized Western countries, has smoking come to be viewed in a decidedly negative light. Today medical studies have proven that smoking tobacco is among the leading causes of many diseases such as lung cancer, heart attacks, erectile dysfunction and can also lead to birth defects. The well-proven health hazards of smoking have caused many countries to institute high taxes on tobacco products and anti-smoking campaigns are launched every year in an attempt to curb tobacco smoking.

Contents

History

Early uses

Aztec women are handed flowers and smoking tubes before eating at a banquet, Florentine Codex, 1500s

The history of smoking dates back to as early as 5000 BC in shamanistic rituals.[1] Many ancient civilizations, such as the Babylonians, Indians and Chinese, burnt incense as a part of religious rituals, as did the Israelites and the later Catholic and Orthodox Christian churches. Smoking in the Americas probably had its origins in the incense-burning ceremonies of shamans but was later adopted for pleasure or as a social tool.[2] The smoking of tobacco and various other hallucinogenic drugs was used to achieve trances and to come into contact with the spirit world.

Substances such as Cannabis, clarified butter (ghee), fish offal, dried snake skins and various pastes molded around incense sticks dates back at least 2000 years. Fumigation (dhupa) and fire offerings (homa) are prescribed in the Ayurveda for medical purposes and have been practiced for at least 3,000 years while smoking, dhumrapana (literally "drinking smoke"), has been practiced for at least 2,000 years. Before modern times these substances have been consumed through pipes, with stems of various lengths or chillums.[3]

Cannabis smoking was common in the Middle East before the arrival of tobacco, and was early on a common social activity that centered around the type of water pipe called a hookah. Smoking, especially after the introduction of tobacco, was an essential component of Muslim society and culture and became integrated with important traditions such as weddings, funerals and was expressed in architecture, clothing, literature and poetry.[4]

Cannabis smoking was introduced to Sub-Saharan Africa through Ethiopia and the east African coast by either Indian or Arab traders in the 1200s or earlier and spread on the same trade routes as those that carried coffee, which originated in the highlands of Ethiopia.[5] It was smoked in calabash water pipes with terra cotta smoking bowls, apparently an Ethiopian invention which was later conveyed to eastern, southern and central Africa.

At the time of the arrivals of Reports from the first European explorers and conquistadors to reach the Americas tell of rituals where native priests smoked themselves into such high degrees of intoxication that it is unlikely that the rituals were limited to just tobacco.[6]

Popularization

A Persian girl smoking by Muhammad Qasim. Isfahan, 1600s

In 1612, six years after the settlement of Jamestown, John Rolfe was credited as the first settler to successfully raise tobacco as a cash crop. The demand quickly grew as tobacco, referred to as "golden weed", reviving the Virginia join stock company from its failed gold expeditions.[7] In order to meet demands from the old world, tobacco was grown in succession, quickly depleting the land. This became a motivator to settle west into the unknown continent, and likewise an expansion of tobacco production.[8] Indentured servitude became the primary labor force up until Bacon's Rebellion, from which the focus turned to slavery.[9] This trend abated following the American revolution as slavery became regarded as unprofitable. However the practice was revived in 1794 with the invention of the cotton gin.[10]

A Frenchman named Jean Nicot (from whose name the word nicotine is derived) introduced tobacco to France in 1560. From France tobacco spread to England. The first report of a smoking Englishman is of a sailor in Bristol in 1556, seen "emitting smoke from his nostrils".[11] Like tea, coffee and opium, tobacco was just one of many intoxicants that was originally used as a form of medicine.[12] Tobacco was introduced around 1600 by French merchants in what today is modern-day Gambia and Senegal. At the same time caravans from Morocco brought tobacco to the areas around Timbuktu and the Portuguese brought the commodity (and the plant) to southern Africa, establishing the popularity of tobacco throughout all of Africa by the 1650s.

Soon after its introduction to the Old World, tobacco came under frequent criticism from state and religious leaders. Murad IV, sultan of the Ottoman Empire 1623-40 was among the first to attempt a smoking ban by claiming it was a threat to public moral and health. The Chinese emperor Chongzhen issued an edict banning smoking two years before his death and the overthrow of the Ming dynasty. Later, the Manchu of the Qing dynasty, who were originally a tribe of nomadic horse warriors, would proclaim smoking "a more heinous crime than that even of neglecting archery". In Edo period Japan, some of the earliest tobacco plantations were scorned by the shogunate as being a threat to the military economy by letting valuable farmland go to waste for the use of a recreational drug instead of being used to plant food crops.[13]

Bonsack's cigarette rolling machine, as shown on U.S. patent 238,640.

Religious leaders have often been prominent among those who considered smoking immoral or outright blasphemous. In 1634 the Patriarch of Moscow forbade the sale of tobacco and sentenced men and women who flaunted the ban to have their nostrils slit and their backs whipped until skin came off their backs. The Western church leader Urban VII likewise condemned smoking in a papal bull of 1590. Despite many concerted efforts, restrictions and bans were almost universally ignored. When James I of England, a staunch anti-smoker and the author of a A Counterblaste to Tobacco, tried to curb the new trend by enforcing a whopping 4000% tax increase on tobacco in 1604, it proved a failure, as London had some 7,000 tobacco sellers by the early 1600s. Later, scrupulous rulers would realise the futility of smoking bans and instead turned tobacco trade and cultivation into lucrative government monopolies.[14]

By the mid-1600s every major civilization had been introduced to tobacco smoking and in many cases had already assimilated it into the native culture, despite the attempts of many rulers to stamp the practice out with harsh penalties or fines. Tobacco, both product and plant, followed the major trade routes to major ports and markets, and then on into the hinterlands. The English language term smoking was coined in the late 1700s, before then the practice was referred to as drinking smoke.[11]

Tobacco and cannabis were used in Sub-Saharan Africa, much like elsewhere in the world, to confirm social relations, but also created entirely new ones. In what is today Congo, a society called Bena Diemba ("People of Cannabis") was organized in the late 1800s in Lubuko ("The Land of Friendship"). The Bena Diemba were collectivist pacifists that rejected alcohol and herbal medicines in favor of cannabis.[15]

The growth remained stable until the American Civil War in 1860s, from which the primary labor force transition from slavery to share cropping. This compounded with a change in demand, lead to the industrialization of tobacco production with the cigarette. James Bonsack, a craftsman, in 1881 produce a machine to speed the production in cigarettes.[16]

Opium

An illustration of an opium den on the cover of Le Petit Journal, July 5, 1903.

In the 1800s the practice of smoking opium became common. Previously it had only been eaten, and then primarily for its medical properties. A massive increase in opium smoking in China was more or less directly instigated by the British trade deficit with Qing dynasty China. As a way to amend this problem, the British began exporting large amounts of opium grown in the Indian colonies. The social problems and the large net loss of currency led to several Chinese attempts to stop the imports which eventually culminated in the Opium Wars.[17]

Opium smoking later spread with Chinese immigrants and spawned many infamous opium dens in China towns around South and Southeast Asia and Europe. In the latter half of the 1800s, opium smoking became popular in the artistic community in Europe, especially Paris in artists' neighborhoods such as and Montparnasse and Montmartre being virtual "opium capitals". While opium dens that catered primarily to emigrant Chinese continued to exist in China Towns around the world, the trend among the European artists largely abated after the outbreak of World War I.[17] The consumption of Opium abated in China during the Cultural revolution in the 1960s and 1970s.

Social stigma

File:German anti-smoking ad.jpeg
A Nazi anti-smoking ad titled "The chain-smoker" saying "He does not devour it [the cigarette], it devours him"

With the modernization of cigarette production compounded with the increased life expectancies during the 1920s, adverse health effects began to become more prevalent. In Germany, anti-smoking groups, often associated with anti-liquor groups,[18] first published advocacy against the consumption of tobacco in the journal Der Tabakgegner (The Tobacco Opponent) in 1912 and 1932. In 1929, Fritz Lickint of Dresden, Germany, published a paper containing formal statistical evidence of a lung cancer–tobacco link. During the Great depression Adolf Hitler condemned his earlier smoking habit as a waste of money,[19] and later with stronger assertions. This movement was further strengthened with Nazi reproductive policy as women who smoked were viewed as unsuitable to be wives and mothers in a German family.[20]

The movement in Nazi Germany did reach across enemy lines during the Second World War, as anti-smoking groups quickly lost popular support. By the end of the Second World War, American cigarette manufactures quickly reentered the German black market. Illegal smuggling of tobacco became prevalent,[21] and leaders of the Nazi anti-smoking campaign were assassinated.[22] As part of the Marshall Plan, the United States shipped free tobacco to Germany; with 24,000 tons in 1948 and 69,000 tons in 1949.[21] Per capita yearly cigarette consumption in post-war Germany steadily rose from 460 in 1950 to 1,523 in 1963.[23] By the end of the 1900s, anti-smoking campaigns in Germany were unable to exceed the effectiveness of the Nazi-era climax in the years 1939–41 and German tobacco health research was described by Robert N. Proctor as "muted".[23]

A lengthy study conducted in order to establish the strong association necessary for legislative action.

Richard Doll in 1950 published research in the British Medical Journal showing a close link between smoking and lung cancer.[24] Four years later, in 1954 the British Doctors Study, a study of some 40 thousand doctors over 20 years, confirmed the suggestion, based on which the government issued advice that smoking and lung cancer rates were related.[25] In 1964 the United States Surgeon General's Report on Smoking and Health likewise began suggesting the relationship between smoking and cancer, which confirmed its suggestions 20 years later in the 1980s.

As scientific evidence mounted in the 1980s, tobacco companies claimed contributory negligence as the adverse health effects were previously unknown or lacked substantial credibility. Health authorities sided with these claims up until 1998, from which they reversed their position. The Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement, originally between the four largest US tobacco companies and the Attorneys General of 46 states, restricted certain types of tobacco advertisement and required payments for health compensation; which later amounted to the largest civil settlement in United States history.[26]

From 1965 to 2006, rates of smoking in the United States have declined from 42% to 20.8%.[27] A significant majority of those who quit were professional, affluent men. Despite this decrease in the prevalence of consumption, the average number of cigarettes consumed per person per day increased from 22 in 1954 to 30 in 1978. This paradoxical event suggests that those who quit smoked less, while those who continued to smoke moved to smoke more light cigarettes.[28] This trend has been paralleled by many industrialized nations as rates have either leveled-off or declined. In the developing world, however, tobacco consumption continues to rise at 3.4% in 2002.[29] In Africa, smoking is in most areas considered to be modern, and many of the strong adverse opinions that prevail in the West receive much less attention.[30] Today Russia leads as the top consumer of tobacco followed by Indonesia, Laos, Ukraine, Belarus, Greece, Jordan, and China.[31] The World Health Organization has begun a program known as the Tobacco Free Initiative (TFI) in order to reduce rates of consumption in the developing world.

Other substances

In the early 1980s, organized international drug trafficking grew. However, compounded with overproduction and tighter legal enforcement for the illegal product, drug dealers decided to convert the powder to "crack" - a solid, smoke-able form of cocaine, that could be sold in smaller quantities, to more people.[32] This trend abated in the 1990s as increased police action coupled with a robust economy deterred many potential candidates to forfeit or fail to take up the habit.[33]

Recent years shows an increase in the consumption of vaporized heroin, methamphetamine and Phencyclidine (PCP). Along with a smaller number of psychedelic drugs such as DMT, 5-Meo-DMT, and Salvia divinorum.[citation needed]

Substances and equipment

The most popular type of substance that is smoked is tobacco. There are many different tobacco cultivars which are made into a wide variety of mixtures and brands. Tobacco is often sold flavored, often with various fruit aromas, something which is especially popular for use with water pipes, such as hookahs. The second most common substance that is smoked is cannabis, made from the flowers or leaves of Cannabis sativa. The substance is considered illegal in most countries in the world and in those countries that tolerate public consumption, it is usually only pseudo-legal. Despite this, a considerable percentage of the adult population in many countries have tried it with smaller minorities doing it on a regular basis. Since cannabis is illegal or only tolerated in most jurisdictions, there is no industrial mass-production of cigarettes, meaning that the most common form of smoking is with hand-rolled cigarettes (often called joints) or with pipes. Water pipes are also fairly common, and when used for cannabis are called bongs.

A few other recreational drugs are smoked by smaller minorities. Most of these substances are controlled, and some are considerably more intoxicating than either tobacco or cannabis. These include crack cocaine, heroin, methamphetamine and PCP. A small number of psychedelic drugs are also smoked, including DMT, 5-Meo-DMT, and Salvia divinorum.

File:Fangspipe ubt.jpeg
An elaborately decorated pipe.

Even the most primitive form of smoking requires tools of some sort to perform. This has resulted in a staggering variety of smoking tools and paraphernalia from all over the world. Whether tobacco, cannabis, opium or herbs, some form of receptacle is required along with a source of fire to light the mixture. The most common today is by far the cigarette, consisting of a tightly rolled tube of paper, which is usually manufactured industrially or rolled from loose tobacco, rolling papers which can include a filter. Other popular smoking tools are various pipes and cigars. A less common but increasingly popular form is through vaporizers, which operate using hot air convection by heating and delivering the substance without combustion; thereby decreasing health risks to the lungs.

Other than the actual smoking equipment, many other items are associated with smoking; cigarette cases, cigar boxes, lighters, matchboxes, cigarette holders, cigar holders, ashtrays, pipe cleaners, tobacco cutters, match stands, pipe tampers, cigarette companions and so on. Many of these have become valuable collector items and particularly ornate and antique items can fetch high prices at the finest auction houses.

An allegedly healthier alternative to smoking appeared in 2004 with the introduction of electronic cigarettes. These battery-operated, cigarette-like devices produce an aerosol intended to mimic the smoke from burning tobacco, delivering nicotine to the user without many of the other harmful substances released in tobacco smoke. Claims that electronic cigarettes are overall less harmful to use than real cigarettes are, however, disputed, as is their legal status in many countries.

Physiology

A graph that shows the efficiency of smoking as a way to absorb nicotine compared to other forms of intake.

Inhaling the vaporized gas form of substances into the lungs is a quick and very effective way of delivering drugs into the bloodstream (as the gas diffuses directly into the pulmonary vein, then into the heart and from there to the brain) and affects the user within less than a second of the first inhalation. The lungs consist of several million tiny bulbs called alveoli that altogether have an area of over 70 m² (about the area of a tennis court). This can be used to administer useful medical as well as recreational drugs such as aerosols, consisting of tiny droplets of a medication, or as gas produced by burning plant material with a psychoactive substance or pure forms of the substance itself. Not all drugs can be smoked, for example the sulphate derivative that is most commonly inhaled through the nose, though purer free base forms of substances can, but often require considerable skill in administering the drug properly. The method is also somewhat inefficient since not all of the smoke will be inhaled.[34] The inhaled substances trigger chemical reactions in nerve endings in the brain due to being similar to naturally occurring substances such as endorphins and dopamines, which are associated with sensations of pleasure. The result is what is usually referred to as a "high" that ranges between the mild stimulus caused by nicotine to the intense euphoria caused by heroin, cocaine and methamphetamines.[35]

Inhaling smoke into the lungs, no matter the substance, has adverse effects on one's health. The incomplete combustion produced by burning plant material, like tobacco or cannabis, produces carbon monoxide, which impairs the ability of blood to carry oxygen when inhaled into the lungs. There are several other toxic compounds in tobacco that constitute serious health hazards to long-term smokers from a whole range of causes; vascular abnormalities such as stenosis, lung cancer, heart attacks, strokes, impotence, low birth weight of infants born by smoking mothers. 8% of long-term smokers develop the characteristic set of facial changes known to doctors as smoker's face.

Psychology

Most tobacco smokers begin during adolescence or early adulthood. Smoking has elements of risk-taking and rebellion, which often appeal to young people. The presence of high-status models and peers may also encourage smoking. Because teenagers are influenced more by their peers than by adults,[36] attempts by parents, schools, and health professionals at preventing people from trying cigarettes are often unsuccessful.

Psychologists such as Hans Eysenck have developed a personality profile for the typical smoker. Extraversion is the trait that is most associated with smoking, and smokers tend to be sociable, impulsive, risk taking, and excitement-seeking individuals.[37] Although personality and social factors may make people likely to smoke, the actual habit is a function of operant conditioning. During the early stages, smoking provides pleasurable sensations (because of its action on the dopamine system) and thus serves as a source of positive reinforcement. After an individual has smoked for many years, the avoidance of withdrawal symptoms and negative reinforcement become the key motivations. Although smoking tobacco has long been seen as a universally addictive trait, it has been proven statistically that people take a varying amount of time to become dependent on the drug nicotine. In fact, the graph showing percentage of the "population showing addictive behaviour" vs "amount of nicotine taken" levels off before reaching 100% of the population, showing that a proportion of people never become dependant on nicotine at all.

However, because people who smoke are engaging in an activity that has negative effects on health, they tend to rationalize their behavior. In other words, they develop convincing, if not necessarily logical, reasons why smoking is acceptable for them to do. For example, a smoker could justify his or her behavior by concluding that everyone dies and so cigarettes do not actually change anything. Or a person could believe that smoking relieves stress or has other benefits that justify its risks. Smokers who need a cigarette first thing in the morning will often quote the positive effects, but will not accept that they awake feeling below normal levels of happiness (lower levels of dopamine) and merely smoke to return themselves to a "normal" level of happiness ("normal" level of dopamine).

Social effects

Smoking any tobacco product, %, Males[38]

Smoking, primarily of tobacco, is an activity that is practiced by some 1.1 billion people, and up to 1/3 of the adult population.[39] The image of the smoker can vary considerably, but is very often associated, especially in fiction, with individuality and aloofness. Even so, smoking of both tobacco and cannabis can be a social activity which serves as a reinforcement of social structures and is part of the cultural rituals of many and diverse social and ethnic groups. Many smokers begin smoking in social settings and the offering and sharing of a cigarette is often an important rite of initiation or simply a good excuse to start a conversation with strangers in many settings; in bars, night clubs, at work or on the street. Lighting a cigarette is often seen as an effective way of avoiding the appearance of idleness or mere loitering. For adolescents, it can function as a first step out of childhood or as an act of rebellion against the adult world. Also, smoking can be seen as a sort of camaraderie. It has been shown that even opening a packet of cigarettes, or offering a cigarette to other people, can increase the level of dopamine (the "happy feeling") in the brain, and it is doubtless that people who smoke form relationships with fellow smokers, in a way that only proliferates the habit, particularly in countries where smoking inside public places has been made illegal. Other than recreational drug use, it can be used to construct identity and a development of self-image by associating it with personal experiences connected with smoking. The rise of the modern anti-smoking movement in the late 19th century did more than create awareness of the hazards of smoking; it provoked reactions of smokers against what was, and often still is, perceived as an assault on personal freedom and has created an identity among smokers as rebels or outcasts, apart from non-smokers:

There is a new Marlboro land, not of lonesome cowboys, but of social-spirited urbanites, united against the perceived strictures of public health.[40]

The importance of tobacco to soldiers was early on recognized as something that could not be ignored by commanders. By the 17th century allowances of tobacco were a standard part of the naval rations of many nations and by World War I cigarette manufacturers and governments collaborated in securing tobacco and cigarette allowances to soldiers in the field. It was asserted that regular use of tobacco while under duress would not only calm the soldiers, but allow them to withstand greater hardship.[41] Until the mid-20th century, the majority of the adult population in many Western nations were smokers and the claims of anti-smoking activists were met with much skepticism, if not outright contempt. Today the movement has considerably more weight and evidence of its claims, but a considerable proportion of the population remains steadfast smokers.[42]

Health effects of tobacco

Tobacco-related diseases are some of the biggest killers in the world today and are cited as one of the biggest causes of premature death in industrialized countries. In the United States some 500,000 deaths per year are attributed to smoking-related diseases and a recent study estimated that as much as 1/3 of China's male population will have significantly shortened life-spans due to smoking.[43]

Male and female smokers lose an average of 13.2 and 14.5 years of life, respectively.[44]

At least half of all lifelong smokers die earlier as a result of smoking.[45][46]

The risk of dying from lungcancer before age 85 is 22.1% for a male smoker and11.9% for a female current smoker, in the absence ofcompeting causes of death. The corresponding estimates forlifelong nonsmokers are a 1.1% probability of dying fromlung cancer before age 85 for a man of European descent, anda 0.8% probability for a woman[47].

Smoking one cigarette a day results in a risk of heart disease that is halfway between that of a smoker and a non-smoker. The non-linear dose response relationship is explained by smoking's effect on platelet aggregation.[48]

Among the diseases and afflictions that can be caused by smoking are vascular stenosis, lung cancer[49], heart attacks[50] and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease[51].

Many governments are trying to deter people from smoking with anti-smoking campaigns in mass media stressing the harmful long-term effects of smoking. Passive smoking, or secondhand smoking, which affects people in the immediate vicinity of smokers, is a major reason for the enforcement of smoking bans. This is a law enforced to stop individuals smoking in indoor public places, such as bars, pubs and restaurants. The idea behind this is to discourage smoking by making it more inconvenient, and to stop harmful smoke being present in enclosed public spaces. A common concern among legislators is to discourage smoking among minors and many states have passed laws against selling tobacco products to underage customers. Many developing countries have not adopted anti-smoking policies, leading some to call for anti-smoking campaigns and further education to explain the negative effects of ETS (Environmental Tobacco Smoke) in developing countries.[citation needed]

Despite the many bans, European countries still hold 18 of the top 20 spots, and according to the ERC, a market research company, the heaviest smokers are from Greece, averaging 3,000 cigarettes per person in 2007.[52] Rates of smoking have leveled off or declined in the developed world but continue to rise in developing countries. Smoking rates in the United States have dropped by half from 1965 to 2006, falling from 42% to 20.8% in adults.[53]

The effects of addiction on society vary considerably between different substances that can be smoked and the indirect social problems that they cause, in great part because of the differences in legislation and the enforcement of narcotics legislation around the world. Though nicotine is a highly addictive drug, its effects on cognition are not as intense, noticeable or debilitating as cannabis, cocaine, amphetamines or any of the opiates. As tobacco is also not an illegal drug, there is no black market with high risks and high prices for consumers.

Economics

Estimates from the Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids claim that smokers cost the U.S. economy $97.6 billion a year in lost productivity, and that an additional $96.7 billion is spent on public and private health care combined.[54] This is over 1% of the gross domestic product. A male smoker in the United States that smokes more than one pack a day can expect an average increase of $19,000 just in medical expenses over the course of his lifetime. A U.S. female smoker that also smokes more than a pack a day can expect an average of $25,800 additional healthcare costs over her lifetime.[55] These costs must be offset against the extra tax revenue that smoking provides.

Smoking in culture

Smoking has been accepted into culture, in various art forms, and has developed many distinct, and often conflicting or mutually exclusive, meanings depending on time, place and the practitioners of smoking. Pipe smoking, until recently one of the most common forms of smoking, is today often associated with solemn contemplation, old age and is often considered quaint and archaic. Cigarette smoking, which did not begin to become widespread until the late 19th century, has more associations of modernity and the faster pace of the industrialized world. Cigars have been, and still are, associated with masculinity, power and is an iconic image associated with the stereotypical capitalist. Smoking in public has for a long time been something reserved for men and when done by women has been associated with promiscuity. In Japan during the Edo period, prostitutes and their clients would often approach one another under the guise of offering a smoke and the same was true for 19th century Europe.[13]

Art

An Apothecary Smoking in an Interior by Adriaen van Ostade, oil on panel, 1646.

The earliest depictions of smoking can be found on Classical Mayan pottery from around the 9th century. The art was primarily religious in nature and depicted deities or rulers smoking early forms of cigarettes.[56] Soon after smoking was introduced outside of the Americas it began appearing in painting in Europe and Asia. The painters of the Dutch Golden Age were among the first to paint portraits of people smoking and still lifes of pipes and tobacco. For southern European painters of the 17th century, a pipe was much too modern to include in the preferred motifs inspired by mythology from Greek and Roman antiquity. At first smoking was considered lowly and was associated with peasants.[57] Many early paintings were of scenes set in taverns or brothels. Later, as the Dutch Republic rose to considerable power and wealth, smoking became more common amongst the affluent and portraits of elegant gentlemen tastefully raising a pipe appeared. Smoking represented pleasure, transience and the briefness of earthly life as it, quite literally, went up in smoke. Smoking was also associated with representations of both the sense of smell and that of taste.

In the 18th century smoking became far more sparse in painting as the elegant practice of taking snuff became popular. Smoking a pipe was again relegated to portraits of lowly commoners and country folk and the refined sniffing of shredded tobacco followed by sneezing was rare in art. When smoking appeared it was often in the exotic portraits influenced by Orientalism. Many proponents of post-colonial theory controversially believe this portrayal was a means of projecting an image of European superiority over its colonies and a perception of the male dominance of a feminized Orient.[citation needed] They believe the theme of the exotic and alien "Other" escalated in the 19th century, fueled by the rise in popularity of ethnology during the Enlightenment.[58]

Skull with a Burning Cigarette by Vincent van Gogh, oil on canvas, 1885.

In the 19th century smoking was common as a symbol of simple pleasures; the pipe smoking "noble savage", solemn contemplation by Classical Roman ruins, scenes of an artists becoming one with nature while slowly toking a pipe. The newly empowered middle class also found a new dimension of smoking as a harmless pleasure enjoyed in smoking saloons and libraries. Smoking a cigarette or a cigar would also become associated with the bohemian, someone who shunned the conservative middle class values and displayed his contempts for conservatism. But this was a pleasure that was to be confined to a male world; women smokers were associated with prostitution and was not considered an activity in which proper ladies should involve themselves.[59] It was not until the turn of the century that smoking women would appear in paintings and photos, giving a chic and charming impression. Impressionists like Vincent van Gogh, who was a pipe smoker himself, would also begin to associate smoking with gloom and fin-du-siècle fatalism.

While the symbolism of the cigarette, pipe and cigar respectively were consolidated in the late 19th century, it was not until the 20th century that artists began to use it fully; a pipe would stand for thoughtfulness and calm; the cigarette symbolized modernity, strength and youth, but also nervous anxiety; the cigar was a sign of authority, wealth and power. The decades following World War II, during the apex of smoking when the practice had still not come under fire by the growing anti-smoking movement, a cigarette casually tucked between the lips represented the young rebel, epitomized in actors like Marlon Brando and James Dean or mainstays of advertising like the Marlboro Man. It was not until the 1970s when the negative aspects of smoking began to appear; the unhealthy lower-class loser, reeking of cigarette smoke and lack of motivation and drive, especially in art inspired or commissioned by anti-smoking campaigns.[60]

Film

Film star and iconic smoker Humphrey Bogart.

Ever since the era of silent films, smoking has had a major part in film symbolism. In the hard boiled film noir crime thrillers, cigarette smoke often frames characters and is frequently used to add an aura of mystique or even nihilism. One of the forerunners of this symbolism can be seen in Fritz Lang's Weimar era Dr Mabuse, der Spieler, 1922 (Dr Mabuse, the Gambler), where men mesmerized by card playing smoke cigarettes while gambling. Women smokers in film were also early on associated with a type of sensuous and seductive sexuality, most notably personified by German film star Marlene Dietrich. Similarly, actors like Humphrey Bogart and Audrey Hepburn have been closely identified with their smoker persona and some of their most famous portraits and roles have involved a thick mist of cigarette smoke. Hepburn often enhanced the glamour with a cigarette holder, most notably in the film Breakfast at Tiffany's. Smoking could also be used as a means to subvert censorship, as two cigarettes burning unattended in an ashtray was often used to 'suggest' sexual activity.

Since World War II, smoking has gradually become less frequent on screen as the obvious health hazards of smoking have become more widely known. With the anti-smoking movement gaining greater respect and influence, conscious attempts not to show smoking on screen are now undertaken in order to avoid encouraging smoking or giving it positive associations, particularly for family films. Smoking on screen is more common today among characters who are portrayed as anti-social or even criminal.[61]

Literature

Just as in other types of fiction, smoking has had an important place in literature and smokers are often portrayed as characters with great individuality, or outright eccentrics, something typically personified in one of the most iconic smoking literary figures of all, Sherlock Holmes. Other than being a frequent part of short stories and novels, smoking has spawned endless eulogies, praising its qualities and affirming the author's identity as a devoted smoker. Especially during the late 19th century and early 20th century, a panoply of books with titles like Tobacco: Its History and associations (1876), Cigarettes in Fact and Fancy (1906) and Pipe and Pouch: The Smokers Own Book of Poetry (1905) were written in the UK and the US. The titles were written by men for other men and contained general tidbits and poetic musings about the love for tobacco and all things related to it, and frequently praised the refined bachelor's life. The Fragrant Weed: Some of the Good Things Which Have been Said or Sung about Tobacco, published in 1907, contained, among many others, the following lines from the poem A Bachelor's Views by Tom Hall that were typical of the attitude in many of the books:

The cover of My Lady Nicotine: A Study in Smoke (1896) by J.M. Barrie, otherwise best known for his play Peter Pan.
So let us drink
To her, – but think
Of him who has to keep her;
And sans a wife
Let's spend our life
In bachelordom, – it's cheaper.

—Eugene Umberger[62]

These works were all published in an era before the cigarette had become the dominant form of tobacco consumption and pipes, cigars and chewing tobacco were still commonplace. Many of the books were published in novel packaging that would attract the learned smoking gentleman. Pipe and Pouch came in a leather bag resembling a tobacco pouch and Cigarettes in Fact and Fancy (1901) came bound in leather, packaged in an imitation cardboard cigar box. By the late 1920s, the publication of this type of literature largely abated and was only sporadically revived in the later 20th century.[63]

Music

There have been few examples of tobacco in music in early modern times, though there are occasional signs of influence in pieces such as Johann Sebastian Bach's Edifying Thoughts of a Tobacco-Smoker.[64] However, from the early 20th century and onwards smoking has been closely associated with popular music. Jazz was from early on closely intertwined with the smoking that was practiced in the venues where it was played, such as bars, dance halls, jazz clubs and even brothels. The rise of jazz coincided with the expansion of the modern tobacco industry, and in the United States also contributed to the spread of cannabis. The latter went under names like "tea", "muggles" and "reefer" in the jazz community and was so influential in the 1920s and 30s that it found its way into songs composed at the time such as Louis Armstrong's Muggles Larry Adler's Smoking Reefers and Don Redman's Chant of The Weed. The popularity of marijuana among jazz musicians remained high until the 1940s and 50s, when it was partially replaced by the use of heroin.[65]

Another form of modern popular music that has been closely associated with cannabis smoking is reggae, a style of music that originated in Jamaica in the late 1950s and early 60s. Cannabis, or ganja, is believed to have been introduced to Jamaica in the mid-19th century by Indian immigrant labor and was primarily associated with Indian workers until it was appropriated by the Rastafari movement in the middle of the 20th century.[66] The Rastafari considered cannabis smoking to be a way to come closer to God, or Jah, an association that was greatly popularized by reggae icons such as Bob Marley and Peter Tosh in the 1960s and 70s.[67]

See also

Medicine portal

Notes

  1. See Gately; Wilbert
  2. Robicsek (1978), p. 30
  3. P. Ram Manohar, "Smoking and Ayurvedic Medicine in India" in Smoke, pp. 68–75
  4. Sander L. Gilman and Zhou Xun, "Introduction" in Smoke, p. 20–21
  5. Phillips, pp. 303–319
  6. Coe, pp. 74–81
  7. Jamestown, Virginia: An Overview
  8. Kulikoff, pp. 38–39.
  9. Cooper, William J, Liberty and Slavery: Southern Politics to 1860, Univ of South Carolina Press, 2001, p. 9.
  10. The People's Chronology, 1994 by James Trager
  11. 11.0 11.1 Lloyd & Mitchinson
  12. Tanya Pollard, "The Pleasures and Perils of Smoking in Early Modern England" in Smoke, p. 38
  13. 13.0 13.1 Timon Screech, "Tobacco in Edo Period Japan" in Smoke, pp. 92-99
  14. Sander Gilman and Zhou Xun, "Introduction" in Smoke, p. 15-16
  15. Allen F. Roberts, "Smoking in Sub-Saharan Africa" in Smoke, pp. 53–54
  16. Burns, pp. 134–135.
  17. 17.0 17.1 Jos Ten Berge, "The Belle Epoque of Opium"in Smoke, p. 114
  18. Proctor 2000, p. 178
  19. Proctor 2000, p. 219
  20. Proctor 2000, p. 187
  21. 21.0 21.1 Proctor 2000, p. 245
  22. Proctor, Robert N. (1996). Nazi Medicine and Public Health Policy. Dimensions, Anti-Defamation League. http://www.adl.org/Braun/dim_14_1_nazi_med.asp. Retrieved 2008-06-01. 
  23. 23.0 23.1 Proctor 2000, p. 228
  24. Doll, Rich; and Hilly, A. Bradford (September 30, 1950). [Expression error: Missing operand for > "Smoking and carcinoma of the lung. Preliminary report"]. British Medical Journal 2 (4682): 739–48. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.4682.739. PMID 14772469. 
  25. Doll Richard, Bradford Hilly A (June 26, 1954). "The mortality of doctors in relation to their smoking habits. A preliminary report". British Medical Journal 328 (4877): 1451–55. doi:10.1136/bmj.328.7455.1529. PMID 13160495. PMC 2085438. http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/reprint/328/7455/1529. 
  26. Milo Geyelin (November 23, 1998). "Forty-Six States Agree to Accept $206 Billion Tobacco Settlement". Wall Street Journal. 
  27. VJ Rock, MPH, A Malarcher, PhD, JW Kahende, PhD, K Asman, MSPH, C Husten, MD, R Caraballo, PhD (2007-11-09). "Cigarette Smoking Among Adults --- United States, 2006". United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5644a2.htm. Retrieved 2009-01-01. "[...]In 2006, an estimated 20.8% (45.3 million) of U.S. adults[...]" 
  28. Hilton, Matthew (2000-05-04). Smoking in British Popular Culture, 1800-2000: Perfect Pleasures. Manchester University Press. pp. 229–241. ISBN 978-0719052576. http://books.google.com/books?id=UjM8t6Ul73YC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Smoking+in+British+Popular+Culture#PPA229,M1. Retrieved 2009-03-22. 
  29. "WHO/WPRO-Smoking Statistics". World Health Organization Regional Office for the Western Pacific. 2002-05-28. http://www.wpro.who.int/media_centre/fact_sheets/fs_20020528.htm. Retrieved 2009-01-01. 
  30. Gilman & Xun 2004, pp. 46–57
  31. WHO REPORT on the global TOBACCO epidemic 2008, pp. 267–288
  32. DoJ-DEA-History-1985-1990
  33. Cracked up.
  34. Leslie Iverson, "Why do We Smoke?: The Physiology of Smoking" in Smoke, p. 318
  35. Leslie Iverson, "Why do We Smoke?: The Physiology of Smoking" in Smoke, pp. 320–321
  36. Harris, J. R. (1998). The nurture assumption: Why children turn out the way they do. New York: Free Press.
  37. Eysenck, H. J. (1965). Smoking, health and personality. New York: Basic Books.
  38. WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic, 2008
  39. Saner L. Gilman and Zhou Xun, "Introduction" in Smoke; p. 26
  40. Matthew Hilton, "Smoking and Sociability" in Smoke, p. 133
  41. Sollmann, Torald. (1906) A Text-book of Pharmacology and Some Allied Sciences. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia and London. pp. 265.
  42. Matthew Hilton, "Smoking and Sociability" in Smoke, pp. 126–133
  43. Leslie Iverson, "Why do We Smoke?: The Physiology of Smoking" in Smoke, p. 320
  44. MMWR April 12, 2002 / 51(14);300-3
  45. BMJ, Am J Public Health 1995:1223-1230 doi:10.1136/bmj.38142.554479.AE (published 22 June 2004)File:50 ycs.pdf
  46. Am J Public Health 1995:1223-1230
  47. Thun MJ, Hannan LM, Adams-Campbell LL, Boffetta P, Buring JE, et al.(2008) Lung cancer occurrence innever-smokers: An analysis of 13cohorts and 22 cancer registry studies.PLoS Med 5(9): e185. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0050185
  48. BMJ 1997;315:973–80
  49. American Legacy Foundation factsheet on lung cancer; their cited source is: CDC (Centers for Disease Control) The Health Consequences of Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General. 2004.
  50. Nyboe J, Jensen G, Appleyard M, Schnohr P. (1989). [Expression error: Missing operand for > "Risk factors for acute myocardial infarction in Copenhagen. I: Hereditary, educational and socioeconomic factors. Copenhagen City Heart Study."]. Eur Heart J 10 (10): 910–6. PMID 2598948. 
  51. Devereux G. ABC of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Definition, epidemiology, and risk factors. BMJ 2006;332:1142-1144. PMID 16690673
  52. http://www.gadling.com/2008/05/12/which-country-smokes-the-most/
  53. "Cigarette Smoking Among Adults - United States, 2006". Cdc.gov. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5644a2.htm#fig. Retrieved 2008-09-18. 
  54. Smith, Hilary. "The high costs of smoking". MSN money. Retrieved 10 September 2008 from http://articles.moneycentral.msn.com/Insurance/InsureYourHealth/HighCostOfSmoking.aspx
  55. U.S. Department of Treasury. "The Economic Costs of Smoking in the United States and the Benefits of Comprehensive Tobacco Legislation". Retrieved 10 September 2008 from http://www.treas.gov/press/releases/reports/tobacco.pdf
  56. Robicsek (1978)
  57. Ashes to Ashes pp. 78–81
  58. Ivan Davidson Kalmar, "The Houkah in the Harem: On Smoking and Orientalist Art" in Smoke, pp. 218–229
  59. Greaves, p. 266
  60. Benno Tempel, "Symbol and Image: Smoking in Art since the Seventeenth Century" in Smoke, pp. 206–217
  61. Noah Iserberg, "Cinematic Smoke: From Weimar to Hollywood" in Smoke, pp. 248–255
  62. Eugene Umberger, "In Praise of Lady Nicotine: A Bygone Era of Prose, Poetry... and Presentation" in Smoke, p. 241
  63. Eugene Umberger, "In Praise of Lady Nicotine: A Bygone Era of Prose, Poetry... and Presentation" in Smoke, pp. 236–247
  64. Ashes to Ashes, The Independent, November 27, 2004. Accessed 2008.
  65. Stephen Cottrell, "Smoking and All That Jazz" in Smoke, pp. 154-59
  66. J. Edward Chamberlin & Barry Chevannes, "Ganja in Jamaica" in Smoke, pp. 148
  67. J. Edward Chamberlin & Barry Chevannes, "Ganja in Jamaica" in Smoke, pp. 144-53

References

  • Ashes to Ashes: The History of Smoking and Health (1998) edited by S. Lock, L.A. Reynolds and E.M. Tansey 2nd ed. Rodopi. ISBN 9042003960
  • Coe, Sophie D. (1994) America's first cuisines ISBN 0-292-71159-X
  • Gately, Iain (2003) Tobacco: A Cultural History of How an Exotic Plant Seduced Civilization ISBN 0-80213-960-4
  • Goldberg, Ray (2005) Drugs Across the Spectrum. 5th ed. Thomson Brooks/Cole. ISBN 0495013455
  • Greaves, Lorraine (2002) High Culture: Reflections on Addiction and Modernity. edited by Anna Alexander and Mark S. Roberts. State University of New York Press. ISBN 079145553X
  • James I of England, A Counterblaste to Tobacco
  • Lloyd, J & Mitchinson, J: "The Book of General Ignorance". Faber & Faber, 2006
  • Marihuana and Medicine (1999), editor: Gabriel Nahas ISBN 0-89603-593-X
  • Phillips, J. E. African Smoking and Pipes,The Journal of African History, Vol. 24, No. 3.
  • Robicsek, Francis (1978) The Smoking Gods: Tobacco in Maya Art, History, and Religion ISBN 0-80611-511-4
  • Gilman, Sander L.; Xun, Zhou (2004-08-15). Smoke: A Global History of Smoking. Reaktion Books. ISBN 978-1861892003. http://books.google.com/books?id=mM5bYb_uVcwC&printsec=frontcover&dq=smoke. Retrieved 2009-03-22. 
  • Wilbert, Johannes (1993) Tobacco and Shamanism in South America ISBN 0300057903
  • Burns, Eric. The Smoke of the Gods: A Social History of Tobacco. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2007.
  • Kulikoff, Allan. Tobacco & Slaves: The Development of Southern Cultures in the Chesapeake. North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press, 1986.
  • Proctor, Robert N. (2000-11-15). The Nazi War on Cancer. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0691070513. http://books.google.com/books?id=02NGyKTwko0C&printsec=frontcover&dq=The+Nazi+War+on+Cancer. Retrieved 2009-03-22. 

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