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definitions - Softball

softball (n.)

1.a ball game played with a bat and ball between two teams of nine players; teams take turns at bat trying to score runs"he played baseball in high school" "there was a baseball game on every empty lot" "there was a desire for National League ball ..."

2.a game closely resembling baseball that is played on a smaller diamond and with a ball that is larger and softer

3.ball used in playing softball

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softball (n.)

hardball

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-1997 Florida Gators softball season • 1998 Florida Gators softball season • 1999 Florida Gators softball season • 2000 Florida Gators softball season • 2001 Florida Gators softball season • 2002 Florida Gators softball season • 2003 Florida Gators softball season • 2004 Florida Gators softball season • 2004 SEC Softball Tournament • 2005 Florida Gators softball season • 2006 Florida Gators softball season • 2006 Holland Series in men's softball • 2006 Japan Softball Cup • 2006 SEC Softball Tournament • 2007 Florida Gators softball season • 2007 NCAA Division I Softball Tournament • 2007 SEC Softball Tournament • 2007 World Cup of Softball • 2008 Florida Gators softball season • 2008 NCAA Division I Softball Tournament • 2008 SEC Softball Tournament • 2009 Florida Gators softball season • 2009 NCAA Division I Softball Tournament • 2009 SEC Softball Tournament • 2010 Alabama Crimson Tide softball season • 2010 Florida Gators softball season • Aggie Softball Complex • Alabama Crimson Tide softball • Alberta B. Farrington Softball Stadium • Amateur Softball Association • Auburn Softball Complex • Australia women's national softball team • Australian Capital Territory Softball Association • Belinda Wright (softball) • Big 12 Softball Tournament • Big Apple Softball League • Canada Cup (softball) • Canada women's national softball team • Chen Hong (softball) • China women's national softball team • Chinese Softball Association • College Softball • College softball • Comparison of baseball and softball • Connecticut Huskies softball • Cougar Softball Stadium • Dusty Diamond's All-Star Softball • European Softball Federation • Fastpitch softball • Fengtai Softball Field • Florida Atlantic Owls softball • Florida Gators softball • Gaelic Senior Softball Doubles • Gaelic Senior Softball Singles • George Hancock (softball) • Guo Jia (softball player) • Guo Jia (softball) • Houston Cougars softball • I Love Softball • Independent Softball Association • International Softball Congress • International Softball Federation • Intramural softball • Japan women's national softball team • Jennifer Holliday (softball) • Julie Smith (softball) • Junior League World Series (softball) • Katie Seashole Pressly Softball Stadium • Kim Cooper (softball) • Koninklijke Nederlandse Baseball en Softball Bond • LSU Lady Tigers softball • Li Qi (softball player) • Li Qi (softball) • Li Qi (softball) (disambiguation) • List of Lowe's Senior CLASS Award softball winners • List of Olympic medalists in softball • List of softball clubs in Ireland • Michigan Wolverines softball • NAIA national softball championship • NCAA Division I Softball Championship • NCAA Division I Softball career strikeouts list • NCAA Division I Softball career wins list • NCAA Softball Championship (Philippines) • NSU Sharks Women's Softball • National Softball Association • National Softball Hall of Fame and Museum • National Softball League • Netherlands women's national softball team • New South Wales Softball Association • North Carolina Tar Heels softball • North Dakota Fighting Sioux softball • North Dakota State Bison softball • Northern Territory Softball Association • Northwestern Wildcats softball • Ohio Softball Field • Osceola County Softball Complex • PONY Baseball and Softball • Pacific Coast Softball Conference • Patrick Murphy (softball coach) • Pittsburgh Hardhats (softball) • Polish Baseball and Softball Federation • Portuguese Baseball and Softball Federation • Professional softball leagues • Queensland Softball Association • Ron Peterson (softball pitcher) • SEC Softball Tournament • Softball (band) • Softball Australia • Softball Tengoku • Softball at the 1996 Summer Olympics • Softball at the 1998 Asian Games • Softball at the 2000 Summer Olympics • Softball at the 2002 Asian Games • Softball at the 2004 Summer Olympics • Softball at the 2004 Summer Olympics – Team squads • Softball at the 2005 Southeast Asian Games • Softball at the 2006 Asian Games • Softball at the 2006 Central American and Caribbean Games • Softball at the 2007 Pan American Games • Softball at the 2007 Southeast Asian Games • Softball at the 2008 Summer Olympics • Softball at the 2008 Summer Olympics – Team squads • Softball at the Asian Games • Softball at the Pan American Games • Softball at the Summer Olympics • Softball at the World Games • Softball diamond • Softball in Ireland • South Australia Softball Association • South Carolina Gamecocks softball • Southern Miss Golden Eagles softball • Storks (softball team) • Sun Li (softball) • Taco Bell All-Star Legends and Celebrity Softball Game • Tai chi softball • Tan Ying (softball) • Tanya Harding (softball) • Tasmanian Softball Council • Texas Softball Hall of Fame • The Clan Softball Club • Travis Wilson (softball) • UAAP Season 69 softball tournaments • UAAP Softball Championship • UMass Softball Complex • United States women's national softball team • University of Alabama Softball Stadium • Victorian Softball Association • Vienna Girls Softball League • Virginia Tech Hokies softball • Wang Ying (softball) • Washington Huskies softball • Western Australia Softball Association • World Cup of Softball • Wu Di (softball) • Zhou Yan (softball) • Zhou Yi (softball)

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Wikipedia

Softball

                   
Softball
Highest governing body International Softball Federation
First played United States, 1887
Characteristics
Team members 2 teams of 9–10

Softball is bat-and-ball sport. It is a direct descendant of baseball although there are some key differences: softballs are bigger than baseballs, and the pitches are thrown underhand rather than overhand. Softball is played on a smaller diamond than in baseball; a softball field's average distances from home plate to the center, left and right field fences are 220 feet (67 meters) for women and 250 feet (75 meters) for men. The corresponding baseball field average distances are 410 for center field and 325 feet for left & right field 125 and 99 meters.

Contents

  History

  First photo of a Softball team, Chicago, 1897
  Indoor baseball player, 1907

The earliest known softball game was played in Chicago, Illinois on Thanksgiving Day, 1887. It took place at the Farragut Boat Club to hear the outcome of the Yale and Harvard football game.[1] When the score was announced and bets were settled, a Yale alumnus threw a boxing glove at a Harvard supporter. The other person grabbed a stick and swung at it. George Hancock called out "Play ball!" and the game began, with the boxing glove tightened into a ball, a broom handle serving as a bat. This first contest ended with a score of 41-40.[2] The ball, being soft, was fielded barehanded.[3][4]

George Hancock is credited as the game's inventor for his development of ball and an undersized bat in the next week. The Farragut Club soon set rules for the game, which spread quickly to outsiders. Envisioned as a way for baseball players to maintain their skills during the winter, the sport was called "Indoor Baseball".[5] Under the name of "Indoor-Outdoor", the game moved outside in the next year, and the first rules were published in 1889.[5]

In 1895 Lewis Rober, Sr. of Minneapolis organized outdoor games as exercise for firefighters; this game was known as kitten ball (after the first team to play it), lemon ball, or diamond ball.[2] Rober's version of the game used a ball 12 inches (305 mm) in circumference, rather than the 16-inch (406 mm) ball used by the Farragut club, and eventually the Minneapolis ball prevailed, although the dimensions of the Minneapolis diamond were passed over in favor of the dimensions of the Chicago one. Rober may not have been familiar with the Farragut Club rules. The first softball league outside the United States was organized in Toronto in 1897.

The name "softball" dates back to 1926. The name was coined by Walter Hakanson of the YMCA[2] at a meeting of the National Recreation Congress.[6] (In addition to "indoor baseball", "kitten ball", and "diamond ball", names for the game included "mush ball", and "pumpkin ball".[2]) The name softball had spread across the United States by 1930.[6] By the 1930s, similar sports with different rules and names were being played all over the United States and Canada. The formation of the Joint Rules Committee on Softball in 1934 standardized the rules and naming throughout the United States.[5]

Sixteen-inch softball, also sometimes referred to as "mushball" or "super-slow pitch", is a direct descendant of Hancock's original game. Defensive players are not allowed to wear fielding gloves. Sixteen-inch softball is played extensively in Chicago,[7] where devotees such as the late Mike Royko consider it the "real" game,[8] and New Orleans. In New Orleans, sixteen-inch softball is called "Cabbage Ball" and is a popular team sport in area elementary and high schools.

By the 1940s, fast pitching began to dominate the game. Although slow pitch was present at the 1933 World's Fair, the main course of action taken was to lengthen the pitching distance. Slow pitch achieved formal recognition in 1953 when it was added to the program of the Amateur Softball Association, and within a decade had surpassed fast pitch in popularity.[5]

The first British women's softball league was established in 1952.[5]

In 1991, women's fast-pitch softball was selected to debut at the 1996 Summer Olympics.[2] The 1996 Olympics also marked a key era in the introduction of technology in softball; the IOC funded a landmark biomechanical study on pitching during the games.

In 2002, sixteen-inch slow pitch was written out of the ISF official rules, although it is still played extensively in the United States under The Amateur Softball Association of America, or ASA rules.

The 117th meeting of the International Olympic Committee, held in Singapore in July 2005, voted to drop softball and baseball as Olympic sports for the 2012 Summer Olympic Games.[9]

Other sanctioning bodies of softball are AAU, NSA, PONY, ASA, ISC, USSSA, and ISA.

  Overview

Softball is played between two teams on a large field, with nine players from one team on the field at a time. The field is usually composed of a dirt or brickdust infield which contains the quadrilateral shape and running areas, and a grass outfield. However, the field also can consist of all dirt, grass, artificial turf, or, in areas such as New York City, asphalt . There are 4 bases on the infield (first base, second base, third base,and home plate); the bases are arranged in a square and are typically 45 to 65 feet (13,7 to 19,8 meters) apart. Near the center of this square is the pitcher's circle, and within the circle is the "rubber", a small flat rectangular piece of rubber about a foot and a half in length. The rubber can be 40 or 43 feet away from home plate, depending on age level and also the league one is playing in. The object of the game is to score more runs (points) than the other team by batting (hitting) a ball into play and running around the bases, touching each one in succession. The ball is a sphere of light material, covered with leather or synthetic material. It is 10 to 12 inches (or rarely, 16 inches[10]) (28 to 30.5 centimeters) in circumference. The game is officiated by one or more neutral umpires. Players and umpires are generally free to ask for a brief stoppage at any time when the ball is not in play, or immediately following a play once its outcome is clear.

The game is played in a series of innings, usually seven. Some play with a time limit(around 150 minutes). Youth leagues sometimes have 6 innings. An inning is one series of both teams playing offense and defense. Each inning is divided into a top half and a bottom half indicating which team is playing which role. The offense bats and attempts to score runs, while the defense occupies the field and attempts to record outs in a variety of ways. After the defense records 3 outs, the half inning is over and the teams switch roles.

To start play, the offense sends a batter to home plate. The batting order must be fixed at the start of the game, and players may not bat out of turn. The defense's pitcher stands atop the rubber and throws the ball towards home plate using an underhanded motion. The batter attempts to hit the pitched ball with a bat, a long, round, smooth stick made of wood, metal or composite. A pitch must fly over plate within an area known as the strike zone, which is the area between the knees, and the logo. The strike out zone therefore varies from batter to batter, and the umpire behind home plate is the sole arbiter of what is or is not a valid catch. A pitch which does not cross the strike zone is a ball, and if the batter reaches 4 balls, the batter is awarded the first base. A pitch which crosses the strike zone is a strike, and a batter who reaches 3 strikes is out (a strikeout), and the next batter in the order comes to bat. A strike is also recorded on any pitch that the batter swings at and misses entirely, and also on a pitch that is hit foul (out of play). A foul ball may or may not result in a strikeout dependent upon what association and local league rules. However, bunting a foul ball does result in a strikeout. In some associations and leagues, bunting is not allowed and results in an out.

The batter attempts to swing the bat and hit the ball fair (into the field of play). After a successful hit the batter becomes a baserunner (or runner) and must run to first base. The defense attempts to field the ball and may throw the ball freely between players, so one player can field the ball while another moves to a position to put out the runner. The defense can tag the runner, by touching the runner with the ball while the runner is not on a base. The defense can also touch first base while in possession of the ball; in this case it is sufficient to beat the batter to first base and an actual tag of the batter is unnecessary. A runner is said to be thrown out when the play involves two or more defensive players. Runners generally cannot be put out when touching a base, but only one runner may occupy a base at any time and runners may not pass each other. When a ball is batted into play, runners generally must attempt to advance if there are no open bases behind them; for example, a runner on first base must run to second base if the batter puts the ball in play. In such a situation, the defense can throw to the base that the lead runner is attempting to take (a force out), and the defense can then also throw to the previous base. This can result in a multiple-out play: a double play is two outs, while a triple play, a very rare occurrence, is three outs. Runners with an open base behind them are not forced to advance and do so at their own risk; the defense must tag such runners directly to put them out rather than tagging the base.

A ball which is hit in the air and caught before hitting the ground is an immediate out, regardless of whether the ball would have landed fair or foul. A fly ball is a ball hit high and deep, a pop fly is a ball hit high but short, and a line drive is a ball hit close to the horizontal. In any such situation, runners must remain on their bases until the ball is touched by a defensive player or hits the ground. If a runner leaves the base before a fly ball, pop fly, or line drive is touched or contacts the ground, the defense can throw the ball to that base, and if the base is tagged before the runner returns, the runner is out as well, resulting in a double play. If the runner remains on the base until the ball is touched, or returns to the base after the catch but before the defense can put him out, he is said to tag up and may attempt to advance to the next base at his own risk. If there are less than two batters out and runners on 1st and 2nd bases and the batter hits a pop fly in the infield, the batter is automatically out to prevent unfair play by the fielders. Unfair play may result from infielders deliberately dropping the ball to try and achieve a double play. This rule is called the infield fly rule.

Offensive strategy is fairly straight forward, revolving around hitting the ball to let the batter reach base safely and to advance the base runners towards home plate to score runs. Defensive strategy can be more complex, with particular situations calling for different positioning and tactical decision making. For both sides, there can be a trade-off between outs and runs: the offense can sacrifice a batter to advance runners, while the defense may allow a runner to score if the remaining runners can be put out in a double play.

  Game play

The playing field is divided into 'fair territory' and 'foul territory'. Fair territory is further divided into the 'infield', and the 'outfield', and the territory beyond the outfield fence.

The field is defined by 'foul lines' that meet at a right angle at 'home plate'. The minimum length of the baselines varies classification of play (see below for official measurements). A fence running between the baselines defines the limits of the field; this fence is equidistant from home plate at all points.

Behind home plate is a 'backstop'. It must be between 25 and 30 feet (7.62 and 9.14 meters) behind home plate depending on the type of division that is playing.

'Home Plate' is one corner of a diamond with 'bases' at each corner. The bases other than home plate are 15 in (38 cm) square, of canvas or a similar material, and not more than 5 in (13 cm) thick. The bases are usually securely fastened to the ground. The bases are numbered counter clockwise as first base, second base, and third base. Often, but not always, outside first base (that is, in foul territory) and adjacent and connected to it there is a contrast-colored "double base" or "safety base". It is intended to prevent collisions between the first baseman and the runner. The runner runs for the foul portion of the double base after hitting the ball while the fielding team tries to throw the ball to the regular first base before the runner reaches the safety base. However, not all softball diamonds have these safety bases and they are much more common in women's softball than in men's. The double base is required in ISF championships.

The infield consists of the diamond and the adjacent space in which the infielders (see below) normally play. The outfield is the remaining space between the baselines and between the outfield fence and the infield. The infield is usually "skinned" (dirt), while the outfield has grass in regulation competitions.

Near the center of the diamond is the pitching plate. In fast pitch, a skinned circle 16 feet (4.88 meters) in diameter known as the pitching circle is around the pitching plate.[11]

A field is officially supposed to have a warning track between 15 and 12 feet (5 and 4 meters) from the outfield fence. However, if the game is being played on a field larger than required, no warning track is required before the temporary outfield fencing.

Located in foul territory outside both baselines are two 'Coach's Boxes'. Each box is behind a line 15 feet (5 meters) long located 12 feet (3 meters) from each baseline.

  Official baseline dimensions

Fast Pitch Baselines Slow Pitch Baselines Wheelchair Baselines
60 feet (18.29 m) 70 feet (21.34 m) or 65 feet (19.81 m) or more depending on the association and level of play 50 feet (15.24 m)

  Fast pitch pitching distances

College and Adult Under 18 Under 16
Female Male Female Male Female Male
43 feet (13.11 m) 46 feet (14.02 m) 43 feet (13.11 m) or 40 feet (12.19 m) 46 feet (14.02 m) 43 feet (13.11 m) or 40 feet (12.19 m) or 35 feet (10.67 m) 46 feet (14.02 m)

There is a little league distance also...35 feet for minors, 40 feet for majors middle school is also 43 feet

  Slow pitch pitching distances[12]

Adult Youth Kids Wheelchair
15-19 years 15-16 yrs (Female) 12-14 years <12 years
50 feet (15.24 m) 50 feet (15.24 m) 46 feet (14.02 m) 40 feet (12.19 m) 35 feet (10.67 m) 28 feet (8.53 m)

  Equipment

Equipment required in softball includes a ball, a bat, gloves, uniforms and protective gear, including helmets for the offensive team and a helmet, shin guards, and chest protector for the defensive catcher. Also cleats, sliding shorts and knee sliders for when shorts are worn for softball.

  Ball

Despite the sport's name, softballs are not especially soft. The size of the ball varies according to the classification of play; the permitted circumferences in international play are 12±0.125 in (30.5±0.3 cm), in weight between 6.25 oz (178 g) and 7.0 oz (198.4 g) in fast pitch; 11±0.125 in (29.7±0.3 cm), weight between 5.875 oz (166.5 g) and 6.125 oz (173.6 g) in slow pitch. For comparison, under the current rules of Major League Baseball, a baseball weighs between 5 and 5+14 ounces (142 and 149 g), and is 9 to 9+14 inches (229–235 mm) in circumference (2+78–3 in or 73–76 mm in diameter). [13] A 12-inch circumference ball is generally used in slow pitch, although in rare cases some leagues (especially recreational leagues) do use a 14-inch circumference ball. Some balls have a raised seam, and others do not. The ball is most often covered in white or yellow leather in two pieces roughly the shape of a figure-8 and sewn together with red thread, although other coverings are permitted. The core of the ball may be made of long fiber kapok, or a mixture of cork and rubber, or a polyurethane mixture, or another approved material.[11]

In 2002, high-visibility yellow "optic" covering, long-used for restricted flight balls in co-ed recreational leagues, became standard for competitive play. Yellow is the color of official NCAA and NAIA softballs. Yellow softballs are fast becoming the standard for all levels of play for girls' and women's play in particular. White balls are also allowed, but are much more common in slow pitch than in fast pitch.

In Chicago, where softball was invented, it remains traditional to play with a ball 16 inches (41 centimeters) in circumference. The fielders do not wear gloves or mitts.[14] A 16" softball when new is rough and hard, with hand and finger injuries to fielders frequent if they do not "give" when receiving a ball,[15] but the ball "breaks in" slightly during a game and continues to soften over time with continued play. A well-broken-in ball is called a mush ball and is favoured for informal "pick-up" games and when playing in limited space, such as a city street (because the ball does not go as far). A 16-inch ball is also used for wheelchair softball.

  Bat

The bat used by the batter can be made of wood, aluminum, or composite materials such as carbon fiber. Sizes may vary but they may be no more than 34 inches (86 cm) long, 2.25 inches (6 cm) in diameter, or 38 oz. (1.2 kilograms) in weight.[16] In fastpitch softball, wooden bats are not allowed. The standard bat barrel diameter for both slowpitch and fastpitch softball is 214 inches. Many players prefer a smaller barrel, which reduces weight and allows higher swing speed.

  Gloves

All defensive players wear fielding gloves, made of leather or similar material. Gloves have webbing between the thumb and forefinger, known as the "pocket". The first baseman and the catcher may wear mitts; mitts are distinguished from gloves in that they have extra padding, and no fingers. No part of the glove is allowed to be the same color as that of the ball, including that of its seams.[11] Gloves used in softball are usually larger than the ones used in baseball. No glove larger than 14" (36 cm) can be used in ASA sanctioned play.

  Uniform

Each team wears a distinctive uniform. The uniform includes a cap or visor, a shirt (usually sleeveless), tight sliding undershorts, socks, and shorts or pants; these are the components for which standards are set.[11]

Caps, visors, and headbands are optional for female players, and have to be the same color. Caps are mandatory for male players. A fielder who chooses to wear a helmet (see below) is not required to wear a cap.[11]

Including for softball players, most female players use "sliding shorts" otherwise known as compression shorts for other sports like soccer, football etc. These shorts help to protect the upper thigh when sliding into a base. Other,additional sliding equipment used are "sliders". These are somewhat padded shinguards that extend usually from the ankle to the knee of the wearer and wrap all the way around the leg(s). They protect the shin, calf, etc. from getting bruised or damaged while sliding into homeplate and make it much more comfortable to slide into the plate. Most male players use long, baseball-style pants.

At the back of the uniform, an Arabic numeral from numbers 1 through 99 must be visible. Numbers such as 02 and 2 are considered identical. Also, on the back of the uniforms players' names are optional.[11]

Jewelry, excepting medic-alert-style bracelets and necklaces, can not be worn during a game. Those must be taped to players wearing them.[11]

All players are required to wear shoes. They may have cleats or spikes. The spikes must extend less than 0.75 inch (19 mm) away from the sole. Rounded metal spikes are illegal, as are ones made from hard plastic or other synthetic materials. High school athletes are sometimes permitted to wear metal cleats, such as in Ohio.[17]

Many recreational leagues prohibit the use of metal cleats or spikes to reduce the possible severity of injuries when a runner slides feet-first into a fielder. At all youth (under 15) levels, in co-ed (the official terminology for mixed teams) slow pitch, and in modified pitch, metal spikes are usually not allowed. All uniforms must be tucked in and look presentable.

  Protective equipment

A helmet must have two ear flaps, one on each side. Helmets and cages that are damaged or altered are forbidden. Helmets must be worn by batters and runners in fastpitch. Helmets are optional in slowpitch. In NCAA fastpitch softball you have the option to wear a helmet with or without a face mask. Most female travel ball teams for fast pitch softball require the batter to wear a helmet with a face mask. In male fastpitch masks are generally only used for medical reasons. In fast pitch, the catcher must wear a protective helmet with a face-mask and throat protector, shin guards and body protector. Shin guards also protect the kneecap.[11]

In slow pitch, the catcher must wear a helmet and mask at youth levels. At adult levels, there is no formal requirement for the catcher to wear a mask, although the official rules recommend it. A female catcher may optionally wear a body protector in slow pitch.[11]

In any form of softball, any player (other than fast pitch catchers on defense) can wear a protective face mask or face guard. As usual, it must be in proper condition and not damaged, altered, or the like.[11] This is intended to prevent facial injuries.[18]

  Umpires

Decisions about plays are made by umpires, similar to a referee in American football. The number of umpires on a given game can range from a minimum of one to a maximum of seven. There is never more than one "plate umpire"; there can be up to three "base umpires", and up to a further three umpires positioned in the outfield. Most fast pitch games use a crew of two umpires (one plate umpire, one base umpire).

  The plate umpire often uses an indicator (sometimes called a clicker or counter) to keep track of the game

Official umpires are often nicknamed "blue", because of their uniforms – in many jurisdictions, most significantly ISF, NCAA and ASA games, umpires wear navy blue slacks, a light powder blue shirt, and a navy baseball cap. Some umpires wear a variant of the uniform: some umpires in ASA wear heather gray slacks and may also wear a navy blue shirt; umpires from the USSSA wear red shirts with black shorts; National Softball Association (NSA) umpires wear an official NSA white-colored umpire shirt with black pants or black shorts; NSA Fast-Pitch umpires wear the white NSA umpires shirt and heather gray slacks. Regardless of what uniform is worn, all umpires in the same game are required to have matching clothing.

Decisions are usually indicated by both the use of hand signals, and by vocalizing the call. Safe calls are made by signaling with flat hands facing down moving away from each other, and a verbal call of "safe". Out calls are made by raising the right hand in a clenched fist, with a verbal call of "out". Strikes are called by the plate umpire, who uses the same motion as the out call with a verbal call of "strike". Balls are only called verbally, with no hand gesture. The umpire also has the option of not saying anything on a ball. It is understood that when he stands up, the pitch was not a strike. Foul balls are called by extending both arms up in the air with a verbal call of "foul ball", while fair balls are indicated only by pointing towards fair territory with no verbal call. No signal is given for balls that are obviously foul and for closer calls that are not borderline; a mere acknowledgement signal is given.

All decisions made by the umpire(s) are considered to be final. Only decisions where a rule might have been misinterpreted are considered to be protestable. At some tournaments there might be a rules interpreter or Tournament Chief Umpire (TCU) (also known as the Umpire In Chief, or UIC) available to pass judgment on such protests, but it is usually up to the league or association involved to decide if the protest would be upheld. Protests are never allowed on what are considered "judgment calls" – balls, strikes, and fouls.

  Gameplay

A softball game can last anywhere from 3 to 9 innings, depending on the league, rules, and type of softball; however 7 innings is the most common. In each inning, each team bats until three batters have been put out (see below). The teams take turns batting. Officially, which team bats first is decided by a coin toss,[11] although a league may decide otherwise at its discretion. The most common rule is that the home team bats second. Batting second is advantageous.

In the event of a tie, extra innings are usually played until the tie is broken except in certain tournaments and championships. If the home team is leading and the road team has just finished its half of the seventh inning, the game ends because it is not necessary for the home team to bat again. In all forms of softball, the defensive team is the fielding team; the offensive team is at bat or batting and is trying to score runs.

  Pitching

  Fastpitch pitcher Megan Gibson pitching the ball in the "windmill" motion

Play begins with the umpire saying "Play Ball". After the batter is ready and all fielders (except the catcher) are in fair territory, the pitcher stands at the pitching plate and attempts to throw the ball past the batter to the catcher behind home plate. The throw, or pitch, must be made with an underarm motion often called the "windmill" motion: the ball must be released below the hip when the hand is no farther from the hip than the elbow to get it in the strike zone.

A windmill motion is done by extending the throwing hand around the body and releasing the ball at about hip level at maximum speeds. In girls' fastpitch, 12u up to 18u level can throw between 30 mph and 60 mph, or more. Girls who can pitch at the faster speeds are mainly recruited to play Division 1 college softball. However, speed is not always the most important factor in fastpitch softball. Pitchers can throw balls that curve inwards (screwball) and outwards (curveball) on right-handed batters. There are also riseballs that move upwards and out of the strikezone (as an attempt to force the batter to swing or cause them to hit a weak pop-up), drop balls and drop curves (to cause the batter to hit groundballs; this is important at the higher levels where strikeouts occur less often). The other common pitches are change-up and fastballs. A change of pace (off-speed) is also very important, good pitchers will be able to throw all their pitches at varying speeds and possibly even different pitching motions. Pitchers use deception as a primary tactic for getting batters out as the reaction times are approximately half a second or less.

The pitcher tries to throw the ball so that it passes through the "strike zone". However, in advanced play a highly-skilled pitcher may deliberately pitch a ball outside the strike zone if she believes the batter is likely to swing. In other instances, such as when an extremely powerful hitter comes up to bat and they are followed by a weaker hitter, a pitcher may deliberately walk the first batter based on the calculation that the next batter will be an easy out. The strike zone is slightly different in different forms of softball. A pitch that passes through that zone is a "strike". A pitch that the batter swings at is also a strike, as is any hit ball that lands in foul territory.

A pitch which is not a strike and which the batter does not swing at what is a "ball". The number of balls and strikes is called the "count". The number of balls is always given first, as 2 and 1, 2 and 2, and so on. A count of 3 and 2 is a "full count", since the next ball or strike will end the batter's turn at the plate, unless the ball goes foul.

Various illegal acts done by the pitcher, such as "crow-hopping" are called an illegal pitch. "Crow hopping" consists of the pitcher not having her push-off foot on the ground before and during release. The umpire sticks his right arm out straight to the side and clenches his fist. This results in a ball being awarded to the batter, and any runners on base advancing to the next base. Image to the right demonstrates a legal pitch as the push-off foot has not left the ground. The ball must be released simultaneously with the lead leg step.

In 16-inch softball, the pitch is lobbed. Umpires will make calls based on where the ball lands behind the plate. A pitch in "the well" is considered a perfect pitch.

In fast pitch softball, there are various types of pitches. Some are: the fastball, changeup, dropball, riseball, screwball, curveball, dropcurve, dropchange.

At higher levels of play, pitchers aim for the inner and outer corners of the plate when throwing fastballs. Pitchers also vary throwing fastballs at different heights to make hitting the ball even harder for the individual up at bat. Similarly, both the dropball and the riseball are pitches that change heights. To the batter, the dropball appears to be coming in level but then as the ball reaches the plate, the pitch drops, trying to force the batter to hit the top of the ball. This should result in the batter hitting a groundball. When pitchers throw riseballs, batters see the ball coming in straight, but when the ball reaches the plate, it rises. The purpose of the riseball is to have the batter hit an easy pop-fly or strike out. Another pitch that breaks at the last minute is the curveball. When pitchers throw curveballs they snap their wrist and follow their arm across their body, making the ball curve to the outside of the plate. Pitchers can also make the ball curve to the inside of the plate by snapping their wrist the opposite direction (away from their body).The one pitch that drastically changes speed is the changeup, disrupting the batter’s timing.

Fast pitch pitches may reach high speeds; At the 1996 Summer Olympics one pitch reached 73.3;miles per hour (118 kilometers per hour).[19] Male pitching can reach speeds around 85 miles per hour (137 kilometers per hour).

  Batters

  A batter swings at a pitch

The offensive team sends one "batter" at a time to home plate to use the bat to try to hit the pitch forward into fair territory. The order the players bat in, known as the "batting order", must stay the same throughout the game. Substitutes and replacements must bat in the same position as the player they are replacing. In co-ed, male and female batters must alternate.

The batter stands facing the pitcher inside a "batter's box" (there is one on each side of the plate to compensate for either right or left handed batters). The bat is held with both hands, over the shoulder, and away from the pitcher (90 degree angle). The ball is usually hit with a full swinging motion in which the bat may move through more than 360  degrees. The batter usually steps forward with the front foot, the body weight shifts forward, as the batter simultaneously swings the bat. When swinging, the back foot should look like it is squishing a bug. A bunt (baseball) is another form of batting. There are different types, including a [sacrifice bunt], or [slap bunt]. There is also regular slapping in which a batter takes position on the left side of the plate and usually stands in the back of the box, but it is possible form anywhere. The batter takes a step back with their leading foot as the pitcher is in the middle of the windup, crosses over with their back foot and runs toward first base while they swing. There are many different types of slapping and they all vary depending on the batter and their strengths. There are half swing slaps, fake slaps, and full swing slaps. Each type of slap has a different purpose or goal. No matter what way the batter hits the ball, they must be inside the batter's box when the bat makes contact with the ball. If the batter steps out of the box while swinging, the batter is out.

Once the ball is hit into fair territory the runner must try to advance to first base or beyond. While running to first base, the batter is a "batter-runner". When she safely reaches first (see below) she becomes a "base-runner" or "runner".

A batted ball hit high in the air is a "fly ball". A fly ball hit upward at an angle greater than 45 degrees is a "pop fly". A batted ball driven in the air through the infield at a height at which an infielder could play it if in the right position is a "line drive". A batted ball which hits the ground within the diamond is a "ground ball". If a batted ball hits a player or a base, it is considered to have hit the ground.

A batter can also advance to first if hit by the pitch. If a batter is hit by the pitch it is a dead ball and she is rewarded first base. She must make an attempt to get out of the way and it is the umpire's judgmental call whether the batter attempted to move. If he feels the batter could have moved and avoided getting hit he or she will not reward the batter first base and the pitch will be recorded as a ball. If the batter is swinging and gets hit in the hands while doing so it is still a deal ball but counts as a strike, as your hands are considered part of the bat.

  Getting the batter out

  The Texas Longhorns softball team gets a strikeout against Penn State to end the game, February 15, 2008.

The batter is out if: three strikes are called (a "strikeout"); a ball hit by the batter is caught before touching the ground (a "flyout"); the batter goes to a base that is already tagged ("tagged" or "tag play"); a fielder holding the ball touches a base which is the only base towards which the batter may run before the batter arrives there (a "force out" or "force play"); or in certain special circumstances. There is also a not so common occurrence when the batter has 2 strikes and swings at strike three. If the catcher doesn't catch the ball, the batter has the chance to run to first base and the catcher can throw the batter out at first base.

  Advancing around the bases

  A player trying to avoid a tag at third base.

If the player hits the ball and advances to a base without a fielding error or an out being recorded, then that is called a "base hit". The bases must be reached in order counterclockwise, starting with first base. After hitting the ball the batter may advance as many bases as possible. An advance to first base on the one hit is a "single", to second base is a "double", to third base is a "triple", and to home plate is a "home run". Home runs are usually scored by hitting the ball over the outfield fence, but may be scored on a hit which does not go over the fence. A home run includes any ball that bounces off a fielder and goes over the fence in fair-territory (depending upon association and local league rules) or that hits the foul pole. If a batted ball bounces off a fielder (in fair territory) and goes over the fence in foul territory, or if it goes over the fence at a location that is closer than the official distance, the batter is awarded a double instead.

If a runner becomes entitled to the base where another runner is standing, the latter runner must advance to the next base. For example, if a player hits the ball and there is a runner on first, the runner on first must try to advance to second because the batter-runner is entitled to first base. If the batter reaches first base without being put out, then that player can then be forced to run towards second base the next time a ball is driven into fair territory. That is because the player must vacate first base to allow the next batter to reach it, and consequently can only go to second base, where a force out may be recorded.

Runners may advance at risk to be put out: on a hit by another player; after a fly ball has been caught, provided the player was touching a base at the time the ball was first touched or after; or (in fast pitch) automatically, when a pitch is delivered illegally.

Runners advance without liability to be put out: when a walk advances another player to the runner's current base; or automatically in certain special circumstances described below.

  Special circumstances

If there is a "wild throw" in which the ball goes out of the designated play area, each runner is awarded the base they were going to, plus one extra base.

In fast pitch, runners may try to get a "stolen base" by running to the next base on the pitch and reaching it before being tagged with the ball. The point at which a runner can steal a base varies. In fast pitch, the runner is allowed to begin stealing a base when the ball is released from the "windmill" pitching motion, but until recently, stealing was forbidden in slow pitch because a runner has the opportunity to get a larger head start while the slow pitch is making its way to the batter. As a result of rule changes initiated by the Independent Softball Association which later made its way to the Amateur Softball Association and the International Softball Federation in the 21st century, most levels of slow pitch permit stealing bases, provided the runner starts when the ball either touches the ground or crosses the plate. This rule encourages pitchers to be more responsible with the pitch and catchers to play defense, as balls which miss the catcher are now grounds to have stolen bases.

No matter what level of play, all baserunners must keep one foot on a base until the pitcher throws the ball or until the ball crosses the front edge of home plate (depends on association).

In fast pitch, if the catcher drops strike three (a "passed ball") with less than two outs, the batter can attempt to run to first base if first base is unoccupied. The catcher must then attempt to throw the ball to first base ahead of the runner. If he or she cannot, the runner is safe. With two outs, the batter can attempt to run to first whether or not it is already occupied.

Depending on the league in slow pitch only a foul ball with two strikes on the batter means the batter is out. Stealing in 16-inch softball is severely restricted, as a runner may only steal the base in front of them if it is open, and if they are thrown at, "à la" pickoff move or snap throw. This results in many inexperienced players being thrown or doubled off when they attempt to advance on a wild pickoff at another baserunner.

  Scoring runs

A "run" is scored when a player has touched all four bases in order, proceeding counterclockwise around them. They need not be touched on the same play; a batter may remain safely on a base while play proceeds and attempt to advance on a later play.

A run is not scored if the last out is a force out or occurs during the same play that the runner crosses home plate. For instance, if a runner is on third base prior to a hit, and he or she crosses home plate after an out is made, either on the batter or another runner, the run is not counted.

  Ending the game

The team with the most runs after seven innings wins the game. The last (bottom) half of the seventh inning or any remaining part of the seventh inning is not played if the team batting second is leading.

If the game is tied, play usually continues until a decision is reached, by using the international tie-breaker rule. Starting in the top of the eighth inning, the batting team starts with a base-runner on second base, which is the player who is the last available to bat (in other words, the batter who last took their position in the batter's box; regardless whether they were the last out or another runner was put out).

In games where one team leads by a large margin, the run ahead rule may come into play in order to avoid embarrassing weaker teams. In fast pitch and modified pitch, a margin of 15 runs after three innings, 10 after four, or 7 after five is sufficient for a win to be declared for the leading team. In slow pitch, the margin is 20 runs after four innings or 15 after five innings.[11] In the NCAA, the required margin after 5 innings is 8 runs. The mercy rule takes effect at the end of an inning. Thus, if the team batting first is ahead by enough runs for the rule to come into effect, the team batting second is given their half of the inning to try to narrow the margin.

A game may be lost due to a "forfeit". A score of 7-0 for the team not at fault is recorded (generally one run is awarded for each inning that would have been played). A forfeit may be called due to any of these circumstances: if a team does not show up to play; if one side refuses to continue play; if a team fails to resume play after a suspension of play ends; if a team uses tactics intended to unfairly delay or hasten the game; if a player removed from the game does not leave within one minute of being instructed to do so; if a player that cannot play enters the game and one pitch has been thrown; if a team does not have, for whatever reason, enough players to continue; or if after warning by the umpire, a player continues to intentionally break the rules of the game. This last rule is rarely enforced as players who break rules after being warned are usually removed.

The plate umpire may suspend play because of darkness or anything that puts players or spectators in danger. If five innings have been played, the game is recorded as it stands. This includes ties. If fewer than four innings have been played, the game is not considered a "regulation" game.

Games that are not regulation or are regulation ties are resumed from the point of suspension. If it is a championship game, it is replayed from the beginning. Team rosters may be changed.

  Positions

There are nine players out on the field at one time. Although the pitcher and catcher have the ball the most, each person has a specific job. In the infield there is the pitcher, catcher, first baseman, second baseman, shortstop, and third baseman. In the outfield there is left fielder, center fielder, and right fielder. In slow pitch softball there is an extra outfielder in the out field, who is specified as a roamer. Normally, the defensive team will play with four outfielders, meaning there is a left fielder, left-center fielder, right-center fielder, and right fielder.

  Pitcher

The pitcher is the individual who throws the ball from the middle of the diamond or the pitcher's mound. In baseball, the mound is elevated, but in softball the mound is not elevated. The pitcher usually throws the ball in the strike zone. In softball, the pitcher uses an underarm motion to pitch the ball towards the strike zone. As soon as the pitcher makes a throw, the fielders are ready to field balls that are hit in the middle of the diamond.[20] Pitchers usually tend to be tall, very flexible and have good upper body strength. Pitchers can be righthanded or lefthanded.

  Catcher

The catcher is always behind the hitter in semi-crouched position at home plate. The catcher recovers pitches from the pitcher. The catcher also throws balls to other bases to throw out runners. At home plate, the catcher is responsible for making some of the team's outs by retiring base runners attempting to score. In most games, catchers provide a visual or finger clue as to what the next pitch should be. Catchers are usually very strong, agile, think fast and possess fast reflexes. Catchers need a lot of muscle to make powerful and fast throws. They are one of the most important players in the game. Catchers rule the field; they control the plays and tell everyone where to be and when to be there. They are most likely the team captain or share the responsibility with the pitcher.[21]

  First baseman

The first baseman is the position to the right of the first base. The major role of the first baseman is to make fielding plays on all balls hit towards first base. The first base is usually involved in every hit that occurs on the playing field. Individuals at first base have quick hands, a good reach and are always on the lookout to catch the player off base. First basemen can be both left and right handed.

  Second baseman

The second baseman plays in between the first baseman and the gap at second. If the ball is hit to the left side of the field, second covers second base. If the ball is hit on their side of the field, they back up the fielder, cover first, or field the ball depending on where it is hit.The second baseman also is the cut off on balls hit to the right side of the outfield. The second baseman also throws directly to the catcher to prevent runners from scoring. Mostly, when the ball is hit to the left side of the field, the second basemen plays second for shortstop. Also, in the case of a bunt, the second baseman must cover second as the shortstop runs to cover third base, since the third baseman is running up for the bunt.[22]

  Shortstop

The shortstop fields all balls hit to the infield between the second and third bases. This individual also helps cover second base and is frequently involved in force plays, double plays and frequently throws the ball to the catcher to throw out runners at home plate. Most short stops are very quick, agile and think fast. Shortstops may play in a restricted zone but are faced with many types of hits and interact closely with the 2nd base, 3rd base and home plate. Often double plays are due to quick thinking by the short stop. Short stop also takes the cut off for the left field when the play is at second base. When the ball is hit to the right side of the outfield, the short stop then covers second base. [23] Shortstop is one of the most difficult positions to play due to the amount of balls being hit in that direction.

  Third baseman

The third baseman covers all hits to the third base and receives balls from the outfield. The third base person also frequently throws the ball to the catcher trying to throw out the runner at home plate. The individual at third base usually thinks fast because of the types of hits that commonly occur in that zone. Quick thinking can often stop runners from scoring or can result in double plays. [24]

  Outfielders

The outfielders are players that cover the grassy area behind the infield. Outfielders are named for their positions in the field relative to home plate. Traditional outfield positions include a left fielder, a center fielder, and a right fielder. These players usually back up the plays made by the infielders and make plays when the ball is hit past or over the infield. Because their positions cover a greater range than those of infielders, outfielders tend to have strong throwing arms. Outfielders are responsible for throwing fielded balls to a player known as a cut-off person (usually a second baseman or short stop). In this way, the outfielders more efficiently return the ball to the infield with the goal of preventing baserunners from advancing to additional bases. In some leagues/ organizations, four outfield players are utilized by each team, with the center field position being shared between two players known as the left-center fielder and the right-center fielder.

  Modification of rules

One reason for the popularity of softball is the ease of modification of its rules, thereby allowing the game to be adapted to a variety of skill levels. For example, in some slow pitch softball leagues a batter starts at bat with a count of one ball one strike. In some leagues, the number of home runs that can be hit by a team are limited. In other leagues, stealing of bases is prohibited. Some groups allow for a more defensive game by making home plate a force out for first base. This reduces scoring evenly on both sides, and allows for some margin of error.

Co-recreational leagues, where men and women play on the same team, often adopt rules intended to reduce gender inequality, under the assumption that men will be generally more powerful and/or skilled. For example rules may stipulate that there must be an equal number of men and women on the team, or that batting order alternate male and female batters.[25] One possible rule requires male batters to "switch hit".[26] Some leagues even use different balls for male and female batters.[27] While these modified rules are common, there are questions as to their place in modern adult sports.[28]

Some leagues require teams to use limited flight softballs. These softballs, when hit, will not go as far as regular softballs. Other leagues limit the number of runs which can be scored in an inning. Five is a common limit.

By allowing these and other modifications, softball can be enjoyed by children, teenagers, and adults. Senior leagues with players over the age of 60 are not uncommon.

An example of a rule modification is the "offensive pitcher" (or "self pitch") often found in informal games where the emphasis is on the social rather than the competitive aspects of the game. The pitcher aids the batter by attempting to give the easiest pitch to hit. There are no walks, and a batter is normally given a fixed number of pitches to attempt to hit (usually 3 or 4). The batter is considered to strike out if she fails to hit the ball into fair territory after the given number of pitches. The pitcher does not act as a fielder, and a rule is often made that if a batted ball touches the pitcher, the batter is out.

In some leagues the number of pitches to walk or strikeout can be reduced. For instance, one strike is an out, and two balls is a walk. This is common in leagues where doubleheaders are played, or in late season leagues when reduced daylight is an issue. It results in shorter games, as players are more apt to swing, even at marginal pitches, rather than risk striking out on one pitch.

Many leagues also include a second first base immediately adjacent to the main one. This is usually orange and the batter running through first base is supposed to run straight through it. This minimizes the chances of a collision. By the same token some leagues have an alternate home plate and rule that plays at home are always force plays. In these cases there is typically a white line drawn approximately 1/3 of the way down the baseline that is considered a point of no return. This is designed to reduce the "Pickle" which can put a great strain on the ankles and knees of older baserunners.

  Indoor play

Despite the fact that it was originally intended to be played indoors, softball is usually played outdoors. The indoor form is sometimes called Arena Softball. It is most similar to slow pitch. There are no "official" rules for the indoor form, but some general conventions are given below.

Only the wall behind the batter is considered foul territory. The other walls are considered fair. If a ball hits a wall and is caught before it lands, the batter flies out. Usually, there is a small area on one of the walls that results in a home run being awarded if the batted ball hits it.

Pitching is generally a little slower because of the indoor turf, or pitched through a pitching machine.

The placement of the fielders is different. The pitcher also acts as the second baseman. There is sometimes a catcher.

There is no limit to the number of batters a team may have available, although only so many can bat in one inning.

  International competition

The International Softball Federation holds world championships in several categories. The ISF is the international governing body. The Amateur Softball Association is the National Governing Body of Softball for the United States pursuant to the 1976 Amateur Sports Act. Due to the popularity of the sport, there are a multitude of governing bodies such as the United States Specialty Sports Association, International Softball Congress and the National Softball Association.

The ISF holds world championship tournaments in several categories. The tournament in each category is held every four years - 2 years from 2010. The most recent tournament was XII Women's World Championship in June, 2010. All World Championships use a Page playoff system[29] and are in fastpitch. There are also several World Cups held at 4 year intervals in different categories.[30][31]

Australia are the current Men's World Champions, having won the title in 2009. Prior to that, New Zealand had won the previous three tournaments.[32] The current Junior Men's World Champion is Australia, which has won the last four championships.[33] In the Women's World Championships the United States is the most dominant team, having won three of the past four Olympic tournaments and the past seven World Championships.[34][35] The current Junior Women's World Champion is the United States.[36]

Women's softball made its first Olympic appearance in 1996 and made its final Olympic appearance in the 2008 games.[37]

  Australia

Softball is played in all states and territories in Australia and at all levels of academic education. The game is widely promoted to maintain fitness, health, personal achievements and pleasure. Australia has excellent softball teams which are a reflection of its coaching, education and training system.[38]

  Japan

Japan has had a long tradition of softball which is played at all levels in the country. Almost every high school and college has a sports program which includes softball. Like baseball, softball in Japan is intensely competitive. Japan's win over the Americans at the 2008 olympics,[39] reflects the advanced level of play in this East Asian country.

  China

China is fast becoming the team to watch in softball. Since the silver medal in the Atlanta Olympics 14 years ago, the Chinese have now made softball a priority at all levels.[40] The game is played in most schools and with a 1.3 billion population; the number of great players is turning out to be a boon for China. The Chinese have frequently toured the USA and have now similar caliber coaching and training programs.

  Popularity and participation

Softball is the most popular participant sport in the United States,[5] as it is estimated that 40 million Americans will play at least one game of softball during a year. It is played by men and women both recreationally and competitively.

Softball is played, at some level, in over a hundred countries around the world.[41] The International Softball Federation has 113 member countries, (excluding dependent territories).[42]

In many US cities, adult softball teams are organized by bars and clubs, hence the popular term "beer-league softball". The teams can be men's, women's or co-ed, and skill levels can range from novice to elite, with league composition reflecting that. These leagues are almost exclusively slow-pitch.

Competitive fastpitch softball for girls is growing increasingly popular. All over the USA, there are thousands of teams that compete year-round at tournaments. During most of these tournaments the biggest goal is not winning the tournament, but attempting to get as many college coaches as possible to observe (a) particular player or players. Competitive teams are now beginning around eight years old, if not younger. Depending on the team they can travel all over the USA or even out of the country such as to Canada, the summer and fall for many weeks and days at a time.

There are many different sanctioning bodies of softball: USSSA, ASA, ISA, NSA, WSL, and SASL just to name a few. One of the biggest is the Amateur Softball Association, also known as ASA. It is known as the National Governing Body of Softball, was established in 1933 and has over 240,000 teams. The USSSA, founded in 1968 as the United States Slo-Pitch Softball Association, but renamed in 1997 to the United States Specialty Sports Association, is the only association that still has a men's major slowpitch program alive.

  See also

  References

  1. ^ Maag, Al. "Chicago 16 Inch Softball Hall of Fame / History". 16" Softball History - Chicago's Game. http://www.16inchsoftballhof.com/history.asp. Retrieved 2010-06-12. 
  2. ^ a b c d e "The History of Softball". International Softball Federation. http://www.internationalsoftball.com/english/the_isf/history_of_softball.asp. Retrieved 2006-12-31. 
  3. ^ Chicago History Museum, "Wait Til Next Year" display
  4. ^ "History of Softball". SoftballPerformance.com. http://www.softballperformance.com/softball-history/. Retrieved January 11, 2009. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f David Levinson & Karen Christensen, ed. (1996). Encyclopedia of World Sports. London & New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 371–73. ISBN 0-19-512778-1. 
  6. ^ a b Inventions and Discoveries 1993. Facts on File. p. 127. ISBN 0-8160-2865-6. 
  7. ^ "Chicago 16 Inch Softball Hall of Fame". http://www.16inchsoftballhof.com/. Retrieved 2010-06-12. 
  8. ^ Newman, Craig. [Mike Royko holds court at the Billy Goat on softball "Mike Royko holds court at the Billy Goat on softball"]. Mike Royko holds court at the Billy Goat on softball. Retrieved 2010-06-12. 
  9. ^ "The 117th IOC Session in Singapore - A Summary". Singapore National Olympic Council. http://www.singapore2005ioc.org.sg/. Retrieved 2008-08-24. 
  10. ^ Austen, Jacob (2005). "Softball, 16-Inch". http://www.encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org/pages/1163.html. Retrieved 2007-10-12. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l International Softball Federation Playing Rules Committee. "Official Rules of Softball" (Adobe Acrobat (pdf)). International Softball Federation. http://www.internationalsoftball.com/english/rules_standards/Rulebook_2002.pdf. Retrieved 2007-02-19. 
  12. ^ Herman, Al. "What is the Distance From Home to the Pitching Mound in Softball?". http://www.livestrong.com/article/362124-what-is-the-distance-from-home-to-the-pitching-mound-in-softball/. Retrieved 2012-06-01. 
  13. ^ Rules of Baseball. Objectives of the Game: Major League Baseball Enterprises. 1998. 
  14. ^ Wynne, Sharon Kennedy (2005-07-27). "A kinder, gentler softball". St. Petersburg Times. http://www.sptimes.com/2005/07/27/Neighborhoodtimes/A_kinder__gentler_sof.shtml. Retrieved 2007-02-19. 
  15. ^ Wolinsky, Howard (1991-06-23). "Softball's hard on the hands // Doctors treat variety of injuries from city's unique style of sport". Chicago Sun-Times. http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1P2-4060371.html. Retrieved 2010-06-12. 
  16. ^ [1], Softball-World.org
  17. ^ Ohio Rules & Regulations
  18. ^ "Addressing Eye and Facial Injuries". Market Wire. February 2008. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_pwwi/is_200302/ai_mark11051522. 
  19. ^ "Softball - About". International Olympic Committee. http://www.olympic.org/uk/sports/programme/index_uk.asp?SportCode=SO. Retrieved 2008-08-17. 
  20. ^ Softball player detailed information 2010-02-10
  21. ^ Softball Positions explained Retrieved on 2010-02-10
  22. ^ Hunch sports portal. "Which softball/baseball position is right for me?" 2010-02-10.
  23. ^ Buzzle sports web. "Softball rules and positions" 2010-02-10.
  24. ^ Guide to Softball Sports Spectator. Retrieved on 2010-02-10
  25. ^ http://recsports.tamu.edu/programs/intramurals/handbook_rules/rules/softball_coRec.stm
  26. ^ http://www.tulane.edu/~im_sport/softball.htm
  27. ^ http://recsports.gmu.edu/files/SoftballRulesASA.pdf 13.24
  28. ^ http://www.womentalksports.com/items/read/52/21422
  29. ^ "Technical & Venue Manual for Olympic, World Championships, Regional, and Multi-sport Competitions" (PDF). International Softball Federation. 1952–2003. p. 4. http://www.internationalsoftball.com/english/rules_standards/technical_venue_man.pdf. Retrieved 2007-03-18. 
  30. ^ "Past Results". International Softball Federation. http://www.internationalsoftball.com/english/events/past_results.asp. Retrieved 2007-03-18. 
  31. ^ "Events Calendar". International Softball Federation. http://www.internationalsoftball.com/english/events/calendar.asp. Retrieved 2007-03-18. 
  32. ^ Andrea Blackshaw (2004-02-09). "New Zealand Three-peats at Men's World Championships". International Softball Federation. http://www.internationalsoftball.com/english/events/04_02_09_mens_world.asp. Retrieved 2007-03-18. 
  33. ^ "Australia Claims Jr. Men's World Championships". International Softball Federation. 2008-07-01. http://www.internationalsoftball.com/english/events/jmwc08_results.asp. Retrieved 2009-10-01. 
  34. ^ "USA Wins 2006 Women's World Championship". International Softball Federation. 2006-09-05. http://www.internationalsoftball.com/english/events/06_09_05_wwc.asp. Retrieved 2007-03-18. 
  35. ^ "Four Teams Qualify for 2004 Olympic Games". International Softball Federation. 2002-08-04. http://www.internationalsoftball.com/english/events/02_08_04_womens_world.asp. Retrieved 2007-03-18. 
  36. ^ "Japan Dethroned as World Champs". International Softball Federation. 2007-06-30. http://www.internationalsoftball.com/english/latest_news/2007_jwwc_result.asp. Retrieved 2007-07-05. 
  37. ^ http://www.infoplease.com/spot/summer-olympics-softball.html
  38. ^ Australian Softball Official Australian softball association. Retrieved on 2010-02-09
  39. ^ International Softball Tournaments 2010-02-09
  40. ^ Chinese Softball general information Chinese Softball Foundation. Retrieved on 2010-02-09
  41. ^ "About Softball". Australian Softball Federation. http://www.softball.org.au/default.asp?Page=22259&MenuID=About/4215/0. Retrieved 2006-12-31. 
  42. ^ "Directory/Member Countries". International Softball Federation. http://www.internationalsoftball.com/english/the_isf/directory_member.asp. Retrieved 2006-12-31. 

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