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definition - Southern_Cone

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Southern Cone

                   
Southern Cone
Southern cone.png
Area 4,944,081 square kilometres (1,908,920 sq mi)
Population 135,707,204 (July 2010 est.)
Density 27.45 /km2 (71.1 /sq mi)[1]
Countries 3, 4 or 5
Dependencies 18
Demonym South American
Languages Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, and many others
Largest
urban
agglomerations
(2005)
Brazil São Paulo
Argentina Buenos Aires
Chile Santiago de Chile
Brazil Porto Alegre
Brazil Curitiba
Uruguay Montevideo
Paraguay Asunción

Southern Cone (Spanish: Cono Sur, Portuguese: Cone Sul) is a geographic region composed of the southernmost areas of South America, south of the Tropic of Capricorn. Although geographically this includes part of Southern and Southeast (São Paulo) of Brazil, in terms of political geography the Southern cone has traditionally comprised Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay. In the narrowest sense, it only covers Argentina, Chile and Uruguay, bounded on the north by the states of Brazil, Paraguay, Bolivia and Peru, on the west by the Pacific Ocean, and south to the junction between the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, which it is the closest continental area of Antarctica (1000 km).[2]

The main language spoken in the region is Spanish owing to the Spanish colonization from the 16th to the 19th century; Brazilians speak Portuguese.

High life expectancy, the highest Human Development Index of Latin America, high standard of living, significant participation in the global markets and the emerging economy[3] of its members make the Southern Cone the most prosperous macro-region in South America.[2][4][5]

Contents

  Geography and extent

  Satellite images of the Southern Cone month by month
  Landforms in the Monte Desert at Ischigualasto, Argentina. Much of the southern cone is covered by the Atacama, Patagonian and Monte deserts.

The climates are mostly temperate, but include humid subtropical, Mediterranean, highland tropical, maritime temperate, sub-Antarctic temperate, highland cold, desert and semi-arid temperate regions. Except for northern regions of Argentina (thermal equator in January), the whole country of Paraguay, the Argentina-Brazil border and the interior of the Atacama desert, the region rarely suffers from heat. In addition to that, the winter presents mostly cool temperatures. Strong and constant wind and high humidity is what brings low temperatures in the winter. The Atacama is the driest place on Earth.

One of the most peculiar plants of the region is the Araucaria tree which can be found in southern Brazil, Chile and Argentina. The only native group of conifers found in the southern hemisphere had its origin in the Southern Cone. Araucaria angustifolia, once widespread in Southern Brazil, is now a critically endangered species, protected by law. The steppe region, situated in central Argentina, Uruguay and southern Brazil is known as the Pampas, and the typical people of the region are a mixture of Spanish and some Amerindian blood, and are called Gauchos. Maritime tropical trees, cold steppes, Mediterranean vegetation and desert plants are also natural occurrences.

  Culture

  Mate, as shown in the picture, is a typical beverage from the Southern Cone

Besides languages and colonial heritage, the states of the Southern Cone share some common cultural traits such as high football popularity and relatively good performance in that sport. Argentina and Uruguay have both won the FIFA World Cup twice, and Brazil five times; they are the only national teams outside Europe to have won the cup. Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Uruguay have all hosted the World Cup.

Other cultural expressions associated with the Southern Cone is the social and culinary practice of the asado barbecue. The asado developed from the horsemen and cattle culture of the region, more specifically from the gauchos of Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay (and southern Chile) and the huasos of Chile. In the Southern Cone horsemen are considered figures of national identity and are as such embodied in the epic poem Martín Fierro. Mate is popular throughout the Southern Cone, especially in Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay and the state of Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil. In Chile mate is popular in the southern regions and in rural areas of south-central Chile.

In the countries of the Southern Cone, 19th- and 20th-century European immigrants have had strong influence on the countries' culture, social life and politics.

  Language

The overwhelming majority, including those of recent immigrant background, speak Spanish (in Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay) or Portuguese in the case of Brazil. The Spanish-speaking countries of the Southern Cone are divided into three main dialects:

  • Paraguayan Spanish, which is highly influenced by the Guarani language that is spoken alongside Spanish;
  • Rioplatense Spanish, spoken in Argentina and Uruguay, where the accent and daily language is heavily influenced by the Italian of 19th-20th century immigrants; and
  • Chilean Spanish. These dialects share common traits, such as a number of Quechua loanwords and Lunfardo words.

Other minor languages and dialects includes Portuñol, a hybrid between Uruguayan Rioplatense and Portuguese, Cuyano, originally a variant of Chilean Spanish now infused with Rioplantense.

  Rioplatense Spanish

Preliminary research has shown that Rioplatense Spanish, and particularly the speech of the city of Buenos Aires, has intonation patterns that resemble those of Italian dialects and differ markedly from the patterns of other forms of Spanish.[6] Argentina, and particularly Buenos Aires, had huge numbers of Italian immigrant settlers since the 19th century. The researchers note that the development of this dialect is a relatively recent phenomenon, developing since the beginning of the 20th century and the main wave of Southern Italian immigration.[7]

  Native American languages

Autochthonous languages, spoken by some Native American groups include Mapudungun (also known as Mapuche), Quechua, Aymara and Guarani. The first one is primarily spoken in Araucanía and adjacent areas of Patagonia, in southern Argentina and Chile. Guarani is an official language of Paraguay. It is also spoken in the northeastern Argentine provinces of Corrientes and Misiones, where it is an official language along with Spanish.[8]

  Non-Iberian European languages

English is spoken in the Falkland Islands, a disputed territory between the U.K. and Argentina (presently inhabited by British subjects). Welsh is spoken by descendants of immigrants in the Patagonia region of Argentina. Portuñol, Portunhol in Portuguese, is a pidgin language of Brazilian Portuguese and Spanish that is spoken on the border with Brazil. Italian (mostly its Northern dialects, such as Venetian) is spoken in rural communities across Argentina and Southern Brazil. German in some dialects is mostly spoken in Southern Chile and Southern Brazil. Croatian and other Slavic languages are also spoken in the southernmost areas of Chilean Patagonia.

  Religion

The majority of residents are Roman Catholic, but there are Jewish and Protestants as well (mostly in Argentina and Chile). Religions include Islam, Anglican, Lutheran, Eastern Orthodox, Buddhism and Dao. Jewish communities have thrived in Argentina and Uruguay. A large proportion of the Argentine Jewish community emigrated to Israel in the aftermath of the Argentine economic crisis at the beginning of the 21st century.[citation needed]

  A history of Catholicism have left landmarks like the Churches of Chiloé (in picure) in the Southern Cone.

While the Southern Cone has been conservative in some aspects of religion, it has had a tradition of social reform. Uruguay, where agnosticism and atheism is common, has a strong church and state separation policy. It is one of the most secular countries in the Americas.[9] Uruguay, Argentina and Chile, in that order, are the least religious countries in South America. According to a Gallup poll, 51% of Uruguayans, 56% of Argentines, and 60% of Chileans think of religion as something important in their lives, contrasting with the higher values given by the residents of countries such as Brazil (87%), Bolivia (89%) and Paraguay (92%). The following percentages of residents in Uruguay (69%), Argentina (58%) and Chile (52%) think their countries are good places for gay or lesbian people to live. By contrast, lower percentages in the following countries agree with this: Bolivia (24%), Ecuador (31%) and Peru (32%).[10]

  Countries and territories

Country or
territory
Area
(km²)[11]
Population
(2011)[11]
Population density
(per km²)
Capital or most important city
Argentina Argentina &100000000027804000000002,780,400 &1000000004009135900000040,091,359 14.42 Buenos Aires
Chile Chile &10000000000756096000000756,096 &1000000001709427500000017,094,275 22.60 Santiago
Brazil São Paulo and Southern Brazil &10000000000824618000000824,618 &1000000006863697500000068,636,975 83.23 São Paulo
Uruguay Uruguay &10000000000176215000000176,215 &100000000034245950000003,424,595 19.43 Montevideo
Paraguay Paraguay &10000000000406752000000406,752 &100000000064600000000006,460,000 15.88 Asunción
Total &100000000049440810000004,944,081 &10000000135707204000000135,707,204 27.45

  Demography

  Population density of the Southern Cone by first level national administrative divisions. Population/km²

The population of Argentina, Chile and Uruguay is 40, 16.8 and 3.6 million respectively. Buenos Aires is the largest metropolitan area at 13.1 million and Santiago, Chile has 6.4 million. When part of Southeastern Brazil is included, São Paulo is the largest city, with 19.8 million; in the Southern Brazil, the largest metropolitan area is Porto Alegre, with more than 4 million. Uruguay's capital and largest city, Montevideo, has 1.8 million, and it receives many visitors on ferry boats across the Río de la Plata from Buenos Aires, 50 km (31 mi) away. Asunción, Paraguay's capital city has a population of 2.1 million.

  Ethnicity

As far as ethnicity is concerned, the population of the Southern Cone has been strongly influenced by waves of immigration from Europe in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. People of European descent, called whites make up 80% of the total population of Argentina, Chile,[12][13] Uruguay and Southern Brazil.[14][15][16] Mestizos make up 15.8% of the population, and are a majority in Paraguay.[17] Native Americans make up 3% of the population, mulattoes (people of African descent) (0.2%) and Asians (1.0%), mostly in Southern Brazil and Uruguay, the remaining 1.2%.[18]

Different ethnic groups have contributed to the composition of the population of the Southern Cone. The original population, the Amerindians, became extinct in some areas and in others intermarried with colonists and later settlers to become part of the mestizo populations. As in the rest of South America, in the first centuries of colonization, the region was settled by Spanish and Portuguese colonizers, mostly men who had unions with the local Amerindian women. Their descendants were called mestizo in Hispanophone countries and caboclo or mameluco in Brazil. Amerindian ancestry is widespread in the region, mostly through the maternal line, while European ancestry is mostly found on the paternal line. African ancestry is mostly found in Brazil, which had a larger enslaved population during the colonial period.

  Genetic classification & Whiten ideology

Since interethnic marriages are widespread in Latin America, complex ethnic classifications emerged, including 16 "racial" categories created in 18th century Hispanic America, including terms like castizo, morisco, cambujo and ahí te estás. In Brazil, about 190 "racial" categories were detected by the Census of 1976.[19]

The "whiten ideology" has deep roots in Latin America and on its racial classification. Blacks made up 25% of the population of Buenos Aires in 1810, 1822 and 1838. In 1887, the government decided to cease asking Argentine citizens about their race. According to Laura López, it was a way to "hide" the Black population, not only from the Census, but also from the public opinion.[20] Nowadays, 87% of Argentines self-report to be "White".[21] Chile does not ask its citizens about race, but some studies concluded that Whites make up the majority would exceed 52,7% to 64% of the Chilean population.[12][22][23] while the CIA World Factbook described 95.4% of the population as white and mestizo.[24]

Recent censuses in Brazil are conducted on the basis of self-identification. In the 2000 census, 53% of Brazilians (approximately 93 million people in 2000; around 100 million as of 2006) were white and 39% pardo or multiracial Brazilians. White is applied as a term to people of European descent (including European Jews), and Middle Easterners of all faiths. According to IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics), Pardo is a broad classification that encompasses Brazilians of mixed race ancestry, mulattoes, and assimilated indigenous people ("caboclos"). The geneticist Sérgio Pena criticised foreign scholar Edward Telles for lumping "blacks" and "pardos" in the same category, given the predominant European ancestry of the "pardos" throughout Brazil. According to him, "the autosomal genetic analysis that we have performed in non related individuals from Rio de Janeiro shows that it does not make any sense to put "blacks" and "pardos" in the same category".[25]

A recent autosomal DNA study (2011), with nearly 1000 samples from all over Brazil ("whites", "pardos" and "blacks"), found out a major European contribution, followed by a high African contribution and an important Native American component.[26] "In all regions studied, the European ancestry was predominant, with proportions ranging from 60.6% in the Northeast to 77.7% in the South".[27] The 2011 autosomal study samples came from blood donors (the lowest classes constitute the great majority of blood donors in Brazil[28]), and also public health institutions personnel and health students. The study showed that Brazilians from different regions are more homogenous than previously thought by some based on the census alone. "Brazilian homogeneity is, therefore, a lot greater between Brazilian regions than within Brazilians region".[29]

Region[26] European African Native American
Northern Brazil 68,80% 10,50% 18,50%
Northeast of Brazil 60,10% 29,30% 8,90%
Southeast Brazil 74,20% 17,30% 7,30%
Southern Brazil 79,50% 10,30% 9,40%

Different ethnic groups contributed for the composition of the population of the Southern Cone. The original population, the Amerindians, was in large part exterminated. As in the rest of Latin America, in the first centuries of colonization the region was settled by Spanish and Portuguese colonizers and most of them were men. Soon after their arrival, an intensive mixture between those European men and the local Amerindian women began, producing a new population named Mestizo in Hispanophone countries and Caboclo or Mameluco in Brazil. Amerindian ancestry is widespread in the region, mostly through the maternal line, while European ancestry is mostly found on the paternal line. African ancestry is mostly found in Brazil.

An autosomal DNA study from 2009 found the composition of the Argentine population to be 78,50% European, 17,30% Native American, and 4,20% SSA African.[30]

A DNA study from 2009, published in the American Journal of Human Biology, showed the genetical composition of Uruguay to be mainly European, but with Native American (which varies from 1% to 20% in different parts of the country) and also SSA African (7% to 15% in different parts of the country). [31]

The Chilean population low genetic studies "the use of mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome test results show the following: The European component is predominant in the Chilean upper class,[32] the middle classes, 76.8%-72.3% European component[32][33] and 27.7%-23.2 of mixed aboriginal[32][33] and lower classes at 65%-62.9% European component[32][33] and 37.1%-35% mix of Aboriginal.[32][33]

Similar to the rest of Latin America, the genetic ancestry of the population of the Southern Cone reflects the History of the continent: the Iberian colonizers were mostly men who arrived without women. In consequence, they had children with the local Indian women or with African female slaves. The intense European immigration to this part of the World in the late 19th and early 20th centuries (particularly to Argentina, Uruguay, Chile and Southern Brazil)[34][35] [36] brought more European components to the local population (mainly Spaniards in Chile, Italians and Spanish in Argentina and Uruguay, while Italians and Germans in Southern Brazil and Southern of Chile).[37][38] European immigration was encouraged by local governments, among other reasons, to "whiten" the local population, which reflected the scientific racism that considered the Amerindian and African elements "inferior", while the European element was seen as "superior".[39] As a consequence, the White phenotype came to dominate these areas that received larger numbers of European immigrants. But the predominantly non-White majority before the mass European immigration did not disappear, of course, but was largely assimilated into the White population.

  Education and standards of living

The other conspicuous characteristic of the Southern Cone is its relatively high standard of living and quality of life. Chile's, Argentina’s, and Uruguay's HDIs—(0.805), (0.795), and (0.783)—are the highest in Latin America, similar to those of the richest countries in Eastern Europe, such as Slovenia, Poland or Hungary.[40] Uruguay, where illiteracy technically does not exist, reaches the same level in this area, even considering that it faces restrictions to its industrial and economic growth. The Southern Cone is the most prosperous macro-region in Latin America. It has high life expectancy, access to health care and education.[41][dead link] From an economic and liberal point of view the region has been praised for its significant participation in the global markets, and its "emerging economy" profile.[41] More troubling are high levels of income inequality.[42]

Summary of socio-economic performance indicators for Latin American countries
Country GDP per
capita
(PPP)[43]
(2011 estimates)

USD
Income
equality[44]
(2011)

Gini index
Poverty
Index[45]
(2007)

HPI-1 %
Human
Develop.[46]
(2010 estimates)

HDI
Quality
of life[47]
(2005)

index
Annual
economic
growth[48]
(2010)

%
Envirnm.
Perform.[49]
(2008)
EPI
FSI[50]
2011
CPI[51]
2010
IEF[52]
2011
GPI[53]
2011
DI[54]
2010
Southern Cone 16,338 46.8 3.3 0.795 (H) 6.766 7.6 82.5 42.6 5.7 69.7 1.694 7.54
Mexico 15,121 51.7 5.9 0.770 (H) 6.542 5.4 79.8 75.1 3.1 67.8 2.362 6.93
South America 9,019 51.7 9.1 0.705 (H) 6.000 6.0 79.4 77.3 2.9 55.7 2.190 6.19
Central America 7,553 52.2 12.6 0.662 (M) 5.897 3.8 79.3 70.6 3.4 63.3 2.077 6.53

Southern Cone =  Argentina  Chile  Uruguay

Mexico =  Mexico

South America =  Colombia  Venezuela  Paraguay  Ecuador  Peru  Bolivia  Brazil

Central America =  Costa Rica  Panama  Nicaragua  Honduras  El Salvador  Guatemala

  Politics

During the second half of 20th century, these countries were in some periods ruled by right-wing juntas, military nationalistic dictatorships. Around the 1970s, these regimes collaborated in Plan Cóndor against leftist opposition, including urban guerrillas.[55] However, by the early 1980s Argentina and Uruguay restored their democracies; Chile followed suit in 1990.

  Dictatorships

Timeline

  Usage of the term

When entire countries are considered, generally only Argentina, Uruguay and Chile are included in the Southern Cone. If the term is applied to countries under military dictatorship during the middle of 20th century, Brazil is included, although most of its territory is geographically outside the Southern Cone.

The southernmost states of Brazil (the states of São Paulo, Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul) are generally included because they share the same characteristics as Uruguay, Argentina and Chile: above-average standard of living, mild climate, high level of industrialization, and strong European immigration.[citation needed]

  References

  1. ^ This North American density figure is based on a total land area of 4,944,081sq km
  2. ^ a b Steven, F. (2001). "Regional Integration and Democratic Consolidation in the Southern Cone of Latin America". Democratization (Routledge) 14: 75–100. ISBN 978-950-738-053-2. http://books.google.com/?id=npOUfgC8qkMC&pg=PA3&dq=%22cono+sur%22+chile+argentina+bolivia+peru+paraguay+uruguay. Retrieved 12 May 2009. 
  3. ^ Cómo hacer pesar las diferencias del Cono Sur
  4. ^ http://www.marketresearch.com/product/display.asp?productid=1696455
  5. ^ Encyclopedia of world environmental history. pp. 1142. 
  6. ^ "Convergence and intonation: historical evidence from Argentine Spanish"
  7. ^ "Buenos Aires residents speak with an intonation most closely resembling Neapolitan language"
  8. ^ http://ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=36670
  9. ^ University of Minnesota| Latin American Area Studies – Countries
  10. ^ GALLUP WorldView
  11. ^ a b Land areas and population estimates are taken from The 2008 World Factbook which currently uses July 2008 data, unless otherwise noted.
  12. ^ a b Fernández, Francisco Lizcano (2007). Composición Étnica de las Tres Áreas Culturales del Continente Americano al Comienzo del Siglo XXI. ISBN 978-970-757-052-8. http://books.google.com/?id=LcabJ98-t1wC&pg=PA93&lpg=PA93&dq=chile+60%25+blancos+Esteva-Fabregat. 
  13. ^ Argentina, como Chile y Uruguay, su población está formada casi exclusivamente por una población blanca e blanca mestiza procedente del sur de Europa, más del 90% E. García Zarza, 1992, 19.
  14. ^ SOCIAL IDENTITY Marta Fierro Social Psychologist.
  15. ^ massive immigration of European Argentina Uruguay Chile Brazil
  16. ^ Latinoamerica.
  17. ^ Hoy en día la población paraguaya es mestiza prácticamente en su totalidad.
  18. ^ Historia de las repúblicas de la Plata, Manuel González Llana
  19. ^ Interethnic variability and admixture in Latin America - social implications
  20. ^ Negros en el país: censan cuántos hay y cómo viven
  21. ^ Argentina
  22. ^ Genetic epidemiology of single gene defects in Chile.
  23. ^ Esteva-Fabregat (1988), Book: El mestizaje en lberoamérica "a white majority that would exceed 60% of the Chilean population".
  24. ^ World Fact Book Chile
  25. ^ [1]
  26. ^ a b http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0017063
  27. ^ http://www4.ensp.fiocruz.br/informe/anexos/ric.pdf
  28. ^ http://www.amigodoador.com.br/estatisticas.html Profile of the Brazilian blood donor
  29. ^ http://cienciahoje.uol.com.br/noticias/2011/02/nossa-heranca-europeia/?searchterm=Pena
  30. ^ http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-1809.2009.00556.x/pdf
  31. ^ http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/108068634/abstract/
  32. ^ a b c d e "El estrato socioeconómico alto se constituye mayoritariamente por una población caucásica y el estrato bajo por una mezcla de población caucásica 65% y amerindia 35% Revista médica de Chile". http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?pid=S0034-98872002000800006&script=sci_arttext. 
  33. ^ a b c d "Frequency of the hypervariable DNA loci D18S849, D3S1744, D12S1090 and D1S80 in a mixed ancestry population of Chilean blood donors M. Acuña1, H. Jorquera2, L. Cifuentes1 and L. Armanet3 1ICBM Genetic Program and Medical Technology School, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile". http://www.funpecrp.com.br/gmr/year2002/vol2-1/gmr0004_full_text.htm. 
  34. ^ Juan Bialet Massé en su informe sobre "El estado de las clases obreras en el interior del país"
  35. ^ SOCIAL IDENTITY Marta Fierro Social Psychologist.
  36. ^ Etnicidad y ciudadanía en América Latina.
  37. ^ German Embassy in Chile.
  38. ^ A Imigração Alemã no Brasil
  39. ^ RIBEIRO, Darcy. O Povo Brasileiro, Companhia de Bolso, fourth reprint, 2008 (2008).
  40. ^ [2]
  41. ^ a b HIRU
  42. ^ Leandro, "Inequality and Poverty in Latin America: A Long-Run Exploration"
  43. ^ GDP (PPP) per capita for 2011, World Economic Outlook Database, September 2011, International Monetary Fund, accessed on November 26, 2011.
  44. ^ Human Development Report, UNDP
  45. ^ UNDP Human Development Report 2008 Update. "Table 3: Human poverty index: developing countries" (PDF). http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2009_ES_Complete.pdf. Retrieved 2009-06-21.  page 13-16
  46. ^ UNDP Human Development Report 2011 Update. "Table 1: Human Development Index Trends" (PDF). http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2011_EN_Summary.pdf. Retrieved 2009-05-01.  page 25–26
  47. ^ The Economist Pocket World in Figures 2008. "Quality-of-life index The World in 2005" (PDF). http://www.economist.com/media/pdf/QUALITY_OF_LIFE.pdf. Retrieved 2008-03-13. 
  48. ^ GDP annual growth for 2010, World Economic Outlook Database, September 2011, International Monetary Fund, accessed on November 26, 2011.
  49. ^ Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy / Center for International Earth Science Information Network at Columbia University. "Environmental Performance Index 2008". http://epi.yale.edu/Home. Retrieved 2008-03-13. 
  50. ^ "Failed States Index Scores 2011". The Fund for Peace. 2011-06-21. http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2011/06/17/2011_failed_states_index_interactive_map_and_rankings. Retrieved 2011-11-26. 
  51. ^ http://www.transparency.org/policy_research/surveys_indices/cpi/2010/in_detail
  52. ^ "Country rankings for trade, business, fiscal, monetary, financial, labor and investment freedoms". Heritage.org. http://www.heritage.org/index/ranking.aspx. Retrieved 2011-11-26. 
  53. ^ "Rankings & Results « Vision of Humanity". Visionofhumanity.org. http://www.visionofhumanity.org/wp-content/uploads/PDF/2011/2011%20GPI%20Results%20Report.pdf. Retrieved 2011-11-26. 
  54. ^ "Democracy Index 2010" (PDF). http://graphics.eiu.com/PDF/Democracy_Index_2010_web.pdf. Retrieved 2011-01-07. 
  55. ^ Victor Flores Olea. "Editoriales - El Universal - 10 de abril 2006 : Operacion Condor". El Universal (Mexico). http://www.el-universal.com.mx/editoriales/34023.html. Retrieved 2009-03-24. 

  External links

Media related to Southern Cone at Wikimedia Commons

   
               

 

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