Soviet war crimes
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War crimes perpetrated by the armed forces of the Soviet Union from 1919 to 1991 include acts committed by the regular army — the Red Army (later called the Soviet Army) – as well as the NKVD, including the NKVD's Internal Troops. In some cases, these crimes may have been committed on express orders — as part of the early Soviet Government's policy of Red terror. In other instances, they were committed by regular army troops as retribution against military or civilian personnel of countries involved in conflict with (or the invasion of) the USSR, or those involved in national liberation movements.
Many of these incidents occurred in Central and Eastern Europe before and during World War II, and involved summary executions and mass murder of prisoners of war and mistreatment of civilians in Soviet occupied territories. Although there are documented cases of such incidents, no International Criminal Court or Soviet or Russian tribunal has ever charged any member of the Soviet armed forces with war crimes.
The Soviet State, warfare and war crimes
The Soviet Union did not recognize Imperial Russia's signing of the Hague Conventions (1899 and 1907) as binding, and refused to recognize them until 1955. This created a situation in which war crimes by Soviet armed forces could be eventually rationalized. By the same token Soviet refusal to recognize the Hague Conventions (1899 and 1907) also gave Nazi Germany the rationale for inhuman treatment of captured Soviet military personnel.
The Red Army and the pogroms
Although early Soviet leaders treated anti-Semitism with "utter contempt", and strong efforts were made by Soviet authorities to contain anti-Jewish bigotry, some Red Army units perpetrated pogroms during the Russian civil war, and the Soviet-Polish War of 1919-1920, notably at Baranovichi. However, only small number of pogroms are attributed to the Red Army, with the vast majority of pogroms in the period having been committed by anti-Communist and nationalist forces. The pogroms were vigorously condemned by the Red Army high command and guilty units were disarmed, while individual pogromists were court-martialed. Those found guilty were executed.
The Red Army and the NKVD
The Red Army often gave support to the NKVD, which had as one of its functions the implementation of political repressions. The main function of the NKVD was to protect the state security of the Soviet Union, which was accomplished by large scale political repressions against "class enemies". As an internal security force and prison guard contingent of the GULag, the Internal Troops played a role in both political repressions as well as war crimes during the periods of military hostilities throughout the Soviet history. Particularly, they were responsible for maintaining the regime in the GULAG, and for conducting the mass deportations and forced resettlement of several ethnic groups that the Soviet regime presumed to be hostile to its policies and likely to collaborate with the enemy (Chechens, Crimean Tatars, or Koreans for example).
During World War II, a series of mass executions were committed by the Soviet NKVD against prisoners in Eastern Europe, primarily Poland, the Baltic states, Romania, Ukraine and other parts of the Soviet Union as the Red Army withdrew after the German invasion in 1941 (see Operation Barbarossa). The overall death toll is estimated at around 100,000. There were numerous allegations of war crimes committed by Soviet armed forces, especially against captured Luftwaffe airmen during the initial phase of the war, and then periodically throughout the conflict, due to large civilian casualties of indiscriminate bombings by the Luftwaffe . NKVD Internal Troops were engaged alongside Red Army forces in combat, and NKVD units were used for rear area security, including as blocking units. In territory that was liberated or occupied, the NKVD carried out mass arrests, deportations, and executions. The targets included both collaborators with Germany and the members of non-Communist resistance movements such as the UPA in Ukraine, "Forest Brethren" in Lithuania, and Polish Armia Krajowa. The NKVD also summarily executed many Polish military officer prisoners in 1939–41.
After the final repulse of the German invasion of the Soviet Union, Soviet troops entered Germany, Romania, and Hungary in late 1944. Red Army soldiers were by then aware of the German Nazi war crimes, and often executed surrendering or captured German soldiers, in retaliation. There were numerous accounts of war crimes by Soviet armed forces — plunder, the murder of civilians, and rape. In both Soviet and current Russian history books on the "Great Patriotic War" these war crimes are rarely mentioned.
War crimes by Soviet armed forces against civilians and prisoners of war in the territories occupied by the USSR between 1939 and 1941 — (Western Ukraine, the Baltic states, and Bessarabia in Romania) — and further war crimes in 1944–45 have been present in the consciousness of these countries ever since. Since the fall of the Soviet Union, a more systematic, locally-controlled discussion of these events has taken place.. This is also true of the territories occupied by Soviet forces in Manchuria and the Kuril Islands after the Soviet Union refused to renew its neutrality pact with Japan in September 1945.
Estonia was formally annexed into the Soviet Union on August 6, 1940 and renamed the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic. In 1941, some 34,000 Estonians were drafted into the Red Army, of which less than 30% survived the war. After it became clear that the German invasion of Estonia would be successful, political prisoners who could not be evacuated were executed by the NKVD, so that they would not be able to make contact with the Nazi government. More than 300,000 citizens of Estonia, almost a third of the population at the time, were affected by deportation, arrests, execution and other acts of repression. As a result of the Soviet takeover, Estonia permanently lost at least 200,000 people or 20% of its population to repressions, exodus, and war.
Soviet political repressions in Estonia were met by an armed resistance by so-called forest brothers, mostly Estonian veterans of the Waffen-SS, Omakaitse civil defense organization and volunteers in the Finnish Infantry Regiment 200, who fought a guerrilla war which was not completely suppressed until the late 1950s. In addition to the expected human and material losses suffered due to fighting, until its end this conflict led to the deportation of tens of thousands of people, along with hundreds of political prisoners, and thousands of civilians lost their lives.
In 1939, Latvia fell victim to the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact between the USSR and Nazi Germany, leading to its annexation and incorporation into the Soviet Union on 5 August 1940. The establishment of a brutal puppet-state, the Latvian SSR, resulted in mass terror, the destruction of civil liberties, the economic system, the Latvian culture. In all, over 200,000 people suffered from Soviet repressions in Latvia, of which some 60% were deported to the Soviet GULAG in Siberia and the Far-East. The Soviet regime forced more than 260,000 Latvians to flee the country.
Lithuania, and the other Baltic States, fell victim to the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact. This agreement was signed between the USSR and Nazi Germany in 1939, leading first to Lithuania being invaded by the Red Army on 15 June 1940, and to its annexation and incorporation into the Soviet Union on 3 August 1940. The Soviet annexation resulted in mass terror, the destruction of civil liberties, the economic system, and Lithuanian culture. Between 1940-41, thousands of Lithuanians were arrested and hundreds of political prisoners were arbitrarily executed. More than 17,000 people were deported to Siberia in June 1941. After the German attack on the Soviet Union, the incipient Soviet political apparatus was either destroyed or retreated eastward. Lithuania was now occupied by Nazi Germany for a little over three years. In 1944, the Soviet occupation of Lithuania resumed following the German army's being expelled. Following World War II and the subsequent suppression of Lithuanian partisan resistance, Soviet authorities executed thousands of resistance fighters and civilians accused of aiding them. Some 300,000 Lithuanians were deported or sentenced to prison camps on political grounds. It is estimated that Lithuania lost almost 780,000 citizens as a result of Soviet occupation, of which around 440,000 were war refugees.
During the Lithuanian restoration of independence in 1990, the Soviet army killed 13 demonstrators in Vilnius.
In September 1939, the Red Army invaded eastern Poland and occupied it in accordance with the secret protocols of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact. Later, the Soviets forcefully occupied the Baltic States and parts of Romania, including Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, as well.
Soviet policy in all of these areas was harsh towards the people under its control, showing strong elements of ethnic cleansing. NKVD task forces followed the Red Army to remove "Soviet-hostile elements" from the conquered territories. Polish historian Tomasz Strzembosz has noted parallels between the Nazi Einsatzgruppen and these Soviet units. Many tried to escape from the Soviet NKVD; those who failed were taken into custody and afterwards deported to Siberia and vanished into the Gulag.
Torture was used on a wide scale in various prisons, especially those in small towns. Prisoners were scalded with boiling water in Bobrka; in Przemyslany, people had their noses, ears, and fingers cut off and eyes put out; in Czortkow, female inmates had their breasts cut off; and in Drohobycz, victims were bound together with barbed wire. Similar atrocities occurred in Sambor, Stanislawow, Stryj, and Zloczow. According to historian Jan T. Gross:
"We cannot escape the conclusion: Soviet state security organs tortured their prisoners not only to extract confessions but also to put them to death. Not that the NKVD had sadists in its ranks who had run amok; rather, this was a wide and systematic procedure."
During the years 1939-41, nearly 1.5 million inhabitants of the Soviet-controlled areas of former eastern Poland were deported, of whom 63.1% were Poles or other nationalities and 7.4% were Jews. Only a small number of these deportees survived the war. According to American professor Carroll Quigley, at least one third of the 320,000 Polish prisoners of war captured by the Red Army in 1939 were murdered.
In Poland, Nazi atrocities ended by late 1944, but they were replaced by Soviet oppression with the advance of Soviet forces. Soviet soldiers often engaged in plunder, rape, and other crimes against the Poles, causing the population to fear and hate the Soviet regime.
Soldiers of Poland's Home Army (Armia Krajowa) were persecuted, sometimes imprisoned and, in many cases, executed following staged trials. An example of this was the case of Witold Pilecki, the organizer of Auschwitz resistance.
Units of the Red Army carried out campaigns against Polish partisans and civilians. During the Augustów chase 1945, more than 2000 Poles were captured, and about 600 of them were killed. For more about this subject, see Cursed soldiers.
Polish sources claim that there are cases of mass rapes in Polish cities taken by the Red Army. In Kraków, Soviet entry into the city was accompanied by mass rapes of Polish women and girls, as well as the plunder of private property by Soviet soldiers. According to these sources, this behavior reached such a scale that even Polish communists installed by the Soviet Union were preparing a letter of protest to Joseph Stalin himself, while church masses were held in expectation of a Soviet withdrawal..
The Continuation War was fought between Finland and the Soviet Union between 1941-44. During the war, Soviet partisan units conducted raids into Finnish territory and attacked civilian targets such as villages. In November 2006, photographs showing atrocities were declassified by the Finnish authorities. These include images of slain women and children.   
Retreat by Soviet forces in 1941
Deportations, executions, and torture, hostage taking, and the burning of villages took place when the Red Army retreated before the advancing Axis forces in 1941. In the Baltic States, Belarus, Ukraine, and Bessarabia, the NKVD and attached units of the Red Army massacred prisoners and political opponents before fleeing from the advancing Axis forces
After the Battle of Stalingrad, a major turning point in the war, the Red Army steadily regained lost territory on the Eastern Front. This resulted in action against any accused of being collaborators during the German occupation. While in France this part of its history is generally well-documented, debated, and is the subject of academic review, very little is known or discussed about what happened in the path of the Red Army.
Hundreds of thousands of Ukrainians, Russians, Cossacks, and other nationalities and ethnicities were imprisoned or executed by the NKVD after having been forcibly repatriated by British, French, Canadian and American troops. Many of these were men who fought alongside the Axis forces in the vain expectation that they might secure their countries' independence from Soviet rule although quite a number were also recruited under duress. Some of those eventually repatriated had not previously been Soviet citizens amongst them many women and children. These people were often deemed by the Soviets to be traitors and "Nazi collaborators," and in many cases were shot immediately after being handed over by Allied troops, occurrences of which were reported at the time by British officers, protesting against having to take part. Further information may be found in Operation Keelhaul and in Nikolai Tolstoy's Victims of Yalta.
According to historian Norman Naimark, statements in Soviet troop newspapers and the orders of the Soviet high command were jointly responsible for the excesses of the Red Army. Propaganda proclaimed that the Red Army had entered Germany as an avenger to punish all Germans. Soviet author Ilya Ehrenburg wrote on January 31, 1945:
For the Germans, the organized evacuation of civilians before the advancing Red Army was delayed by the Nazi government, so as not to demoralize the troops, who were by now defending their own country. However, German civilians were well aware that the Red Army was attacking noncombatants from reports by their friends and relatives who had served on the Eastern front. Furthermore, Nazi propaganda — originally meant to stiffen civil resistance by describing in gory and embellished detail Red Army atrocities such as the Nemmersdorf massacre — often backfired and created panic. Whenever possible, as soon as Nazi officials left, civilians began to flee westward on their own initiative.
Fleeing before the advancing Red Army, large numbers of the inhabitants of the German provinces of East Prussia, Silesia, and Pomerania died during the evacuations, some from cold and starvation, and some when they were killed during combat operations. A significant percentage of this death toll, however, occurred when evacuation columns encountered units of the Red Army. Civilians were run over by tanks, shot, or otherwise murdered. Women and young girls were raped and left to die (as is explored firsthand in Alexander Solzhenitsyn's Prussian Nights). In addition, fighter bombers of the Soviet air force penetrated far behind the front lines and often attacked columns of evacuees.
The Red Army's violence against the local German population during the occupation of eastern Germany often led to incidents like that in Demmin, a small city conquered by the Soviets in the spring of 1945. Despite its surrender, nearly 900 civilians committed suicide, fueled by instances of pillaging, rape, and executions.
Although mass executions of civilians by the Red Army were seldom publicly reported, there is a known incident in Treuenbrietzen, where at least 88 male inhabitants were rounded up and shot on May 1, 1945. The incident took place after a victory celebration at which numerous girls from Treuenbrietzen were raped and a Red Army lieutenant-colonel was shot by an unknown assailant. Some sources claim as many as 1,000 civilians may have been executed during the incident.[notes 1]
A study published by the German government in 1989 estimated the death toll of German civilians in eastern Europe at 635,000. With 270,000 dying as the result of Soviet war crimes, 160,000 deaths occurring at the hands of various nationalities during the expulsion of Germans after World War II, and 205,000 deaths in the Forced labor of Germans in the Soviet Union These figures do not include at least 125,000 civilian deaths in the Battle of Berlin.
Following the Red Army's capture of Berlin in 1945, one of the largest incidents of mass rape took place. Soviet troops reportedly raped German women and girls as young as 8 years old. Estimates of the total number of victims range from tens of thousands to two million. After the summer of 1945, Soviet soldiers caught raping civilians were usually punished to some degree, ranging from arrest to execution. The rapes continued, however, until the winter of 1947-48, when Soviet occupation authorities finally confined Soviet troops to strictly guarded posts and camps,“ completely separating them from the residential population in the Soviet zone of Germany.
In The Russians in Germany: A History of the Soviet Zone of Occupation, 1945-1949, Norman Naimark wrote that not only did each victim have to carry the trauma for the rest of their days, but it also inflicted a massive collective trauma on the former country of East Germany (the German Democratic Republic). Naimark concluded that "The social psychology of women and men in the Soviet zone of occupation was marked by the crime of rape from the first days of occupation, through the founding of the GDR in the fall of 1949, until, one could argue, the present."
During the Siege of Budapest, Hungary, some 40,000 civilians were killed, with an unknown number dying from starvation and diseases. During the seige, an estimated 50,000 women and girls were raped:348-350[notes 2], though estimates vary from 5,000 to 200,000.:129 Hungarian girls were kidnapped and taken to Red Army quarters, where they were imprisoned, repeatedly raped, and sometimes murdered.:70-71 Even embassy staff from neutral countries were captured and raped, as documented when Soviet soldiers attacked the Swedish legation in Germany.
Hungarian Revolution (1956)
According to the United Nations Report of the Special Committee on the problem of Hungary (1957):
Soviet tanks fired indiscriminately at every building from which they believed themselves to be under fire.
The UN commission received numerous reports of Soviet mortar and artillery fire into inhabited quarters in the Buda section of the city despite no return fire and of "haphazard shooting at defenseless passers-by." According to many witnesses, Soviet troops fired upon people queueing outside stores. Most of the victims were said to be women and children. Many cases of Soviet fire upon ambulances and red cross vehicles were reported.
Although the Red Army crossed only a very small part of Yugoslavia in 1944, its activities there caused great concern for the Yugoslav communist partisans, who feared that the rapes and plundering by their Soviet allies would weaken their standing with the population. At least 121 cases of rape were documented later, 111 of which also involved murder. A total of 1,204 cases of looting with assault were documented. Stalin responded to a Yugoslav partisan leader's complaints about the Red Army's conduct by saying, "Can't he understand it if a soldier who has crossed thousands of kilometers through blood and fire and death has fun with a woman or takes some trifle?"
Slovak communist leader Vlado Clementis complained to Marshal I. S. Konev about the behavior of Soviet troops in Slovakia. Konev's response was to claim it was done mainly by Red Army deserters.
A number of rapes committed by the Soviet soldiers were recorded. Where Soviet soldiers advanced, women and girls fled from their villages and towns, leaving only boys and men to be found by the Soviet soldiers.
Destruction of cities and looting
On many occasions, Soviet soldiers set fire to buildings, villages, or parts of cities, shooting anybody trying to extinguish the flames. For example, on May 1, 1945, Soviet soldiers set fire to the city centre of Demmin and prevented the inhabitants from extinguishing the blaze. Of the historic buildings around the market place, only a steeple survived the inferno. Most Red Army atrocities took place only in what was regarded as hostile territory (see also Przyszowice massacre). Soldiers of the Red Army together with members of the NKVD frequently looted German transport trains in 1944 and 1945 in Poland.
Although a written order does not exist, there are several documents which describe the Red Army’s behavior. One of them is a report by the Swiss legation in Budapest, describing the Red Army's entry into the city in 1945. It states:
During the siege of Budapest and also during the following weeks, Russian troops looted the city freely. They entered practically every habitation, the very poorest as well as the richest. They took away everything they wanted, especially food, clothing and valuables. Every apartment, shop, bank, etc. was looted several times. Furniture and larger objects of art, etc. that could not be taken away were frequently simply destroyed. In many cases, after looting, the homes were also put on fire, causing a vast total loss. Bank safes were emptied without exception — even the British and American safes — and whatever was found was taken.
Walter Kilian, the first mayor of the Charlottenburg district in Berlin after the war, who was himself placed in office by the Soviets, reported extensive looting by Red Army soldiers in the area:
Individuals, department stores, shops, apartments ... all were robbed blind.
In the Soviet occupation zone, members of the SED reported to Stalin that looting and rape by Soviet soldiers could result in a negative reaction by the German population towards the Soviet Union and towards the future of socialism in East Germany. Stalin reacted angrily: "I shall not tolerate anybody dragging the honour of the Red Army through the mud."
Accordingly, all evidence — such as reports, photos, and other documents of looting, rape, the burning down of farms and villages by the Red Army — was deleted from all archives in the future GDR.
Treatment of prisoners of war
The Soviet Union did not recognize the entry of Imperial Russia to the Hague Conventions (1899 and 1907) as binding on itself, and refused to become a signatory until 1955. This allowed for the barbaric treatment of POWs on both the Polish and Soviet sides during the Polish-Soviet War of 1919-21. Moreover, the Soviet Union did not sign the Geneva Prisoners of War convention of 1929 until 1955. Accordingly, the Red Army was able to mistreat its prisoners of war, without any effective international pressure.
During 1941, after emergency landings, German flight crews were often shot after their capture. Torture, mutilation, and murder were frequently carried out on German aircrews. During the winter of 1941–42, the Red Army captured approximately 10,000 German soldiers each month, but the death rate became so high that the absolute number of the prisoners decreased (or was bureaucratically reduced). Soviet soldiers rarely bothered to take wounded Germans prisoner, instead shooting or clubbing them to death; Red Army hospitals would not treat injured prisoners. The murder of prisoners was often arranged through instructions, reports, and statements of Soviet commanders. German prisoners were not released after the war but many were kept in captivity until as late as 1956 under terrible conditions as part of the GULag.
Soviet sources list the deaths of 474,967 of the 2,652,672 German Armed Forces POW taken in the War. However, Dr. Rüdiger Overmans believes that it seems entirely plausible, while not provable, that an additional 1 million German military personnel listed as missing actually died in Soviet custody as POWs.
The Treuenbrietzen massacre took place during the last days of April and the first days of May 1945, after a tough battle in which the Red Army took and lost control of the village on more than one occasion. The Red Army rounded up around 1000 (mostly male) civilians and executed them in the nearby forest. These executions were made in retaliation for the death of a high-ranking Soviet officer during the battle for control of the village.
Discussion by historians[neutrality is disputed]
For decades, Western scholars have generally explained these atrocities in Germany and Hungary as revenge for German atrocities in the territory of the Soviet Union and for the mass killing of Soviet POWs[Need quotation on talk to verify] (3.6 million dead out of total a 5.2 million POWs) by German armed forces[Need quotation on talk to verify]. This explanation is now disputed by military writers such as Antony Beevor, at least with regard to the mass rapes. Beevor claims that Red Army soldiers also raped Russian and Polish women liberated from concentration camps, and contends that this undermines the revenge explanation. Beevor's claims have encountered vast criticism from historians in Russia and the Russian government. The Russian ambassador to the UK said "It is a disgrace to have anything to do with this clear case of slander against the people who saved the world from Nazism."[neutrality is disputed] O.A. Rzheshevsky, a professor and President of the Russian Association of World War II Historians, has charged that Beevor is merely resurrecting the discredited and racist views of Neo-Nazi historians, who depicted Soviet troops as subhuman "Asiatic hordes."  Other prominent historians, such as Richard Overy have criticized Russian outrage at the book and defended Beevor. Overy accused the Russians of refusing to acknowledge Soviet war crimes, "Partly this is because they felt that much of it was justified vengeance against an enemy who committed much worse, and partly it was because they were writing the victors' history"
Polish sources claim that there are cases of mass rapes in Polish cities liberated by the Red Army. In Kraków, the Soviet entry brought mass rapes of Polish women and girls, as well as the plunder of private property by Soviet soldiers. According to them, this behavior reached such a scale that even Polish communists installed by the Soviets prepared a letter of protest to Joseph Stalin, while church masses were held in expectation of a Soviet withdrawal..
- NKVD prisoner massacres
- Mass operations of the NKVD
- List of Soviet Union perpetrated war crimes
- Population transfer in the Soviet Union
- Mass graves in the Soviet Union
- Destruction battalions
- Nemmersdorf massacre
- Allied war crimes during World War II
- German war crimes
- War crimes of the Wehrmacht
- War crimes and atrocities of the Waffen-SS
- Japanese war crimes
- Japanese POWs in the Soviet Union
- Evacuation of East Prussia
- Forced labor of Germans in the Soviet Union
- Operation Frühlingserwachen
- Red Scare
- Soviet occupation
- A Terrible Revenge
- The forgotten victims of WWII: Masculinities and rape in Berlin, 1945, James W. Messerschmidt, University of Southern Maine
- Book Review: A Woman in Berlin: Eight Weeks in the Conquered City, ISBN 0-8050-7540-2
- Laws of War: Laws and Customs of War on Land (Hague IV); October 18, 1907
- Swiss legation report of the Russian invasion of Hungary in the spring of 1945
- German rape victims find a voice at last, Kate Connolly, The Observer, June 23, 2002
- "They raped every German female from eight to 80", Anthony Beevor, The Guardian, May 1, 2002
- Remembering Rape: Divided Social Memory and the Red Army in Hungary 1944–1945, James Mark, Past & Present (2005) (The crimes during the Battle of Budapest)
- Excerpt, Chapter one The Struggle for Europe: The Turbulent History of a Divided Continent 1945-2002 - William I. Hitchcock - 2003 - ISBN 0-385-49798-9 ( The occupation of East Prussia)
- Description of the atrocities of the Red Army in East Prussia, quotations from Ilya Ehrenburg, poems by anti-cruelty Red Army officers and details of suicides and rapings of German women and children in East Prussia.
- Book Review: The Siege of Budapest: 100 Days in World War II
- HNet review of The Russians in Germany: A History of the Soviet Zone of Occupation, 1945-1949.
- Mark Ealey: As World War II entered its final stages the belligerent powers committed one heinous act after another History News Network (Focus on the Asian front)
- 27 Jan 2002 on-line article regarding author Anthony Beevor's references to Soviet rapes in Germany
- ^ "Der Umgang mit den Denkmälern." Brandenburgische Landeszentrale für politische Bildung/Ministerium für Wissenschaft, Forschung und Kultur des Landes Brandenburg. Regina Scheer: Documentation of State headquarters for political education / ministry for science, research and culture of the State of Brandenburg, p. 89/90 
- ^ "The worst suffering of the Hungarian population is due to the rape of women. Rapes—affecting all age groups from ten to seventy are so common that very few women in Hungary have been spared." Swiss embassy report cited in Ungváry 2005, p.350. (Krisztian Ungvary The Siege of Budapest 2005)
- ^ a b  List of the Signatory and Contracting Powers of The Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 and Dates on Which the Convention(s) Took Effect for Each of Them
- ^ a b c William Korey. The Origins and Development of Soviet Anti-Semitism: An Analysis. Slavic Review, Vol. 31, No. 1 (Mar., 1972), pp. 111-135
- ^ John Doyle Klier, Shlomo Lambroza, Pogroms, Cambridge University Press, 2004, p294
- ^ United States Holocaust Museum, Pogroms
- ^ http://www.sovsekretno.ru/magazines/article/228
- ^ http://www.lechaim.ru/ARHIV/138/kardin.htm
- ^ Статья «Евреи Украины в 1914–1920 гг.» в Электронной еврейской энциклопедии
- ^ Henry Abramson, Jewish Representation in the Independent Ukrainian Governments of 1917-1920, Slavic review, Vol. 50, No. 3 (Autumn, 1991), pp. 542-550
- ^ Nora Levin The Jews in the Soviet Union Since 1917: Paradox of Survival NYU Press, 1991, ISBN 0814750516, 9780814750513, p.43
- ^ "Pogroms". The Jewish Virtual Library. 2009. Retrieved 5 September 2009.
- ^ de Zayas, Alfred M., The Wehrmacht War Crimes Bureau, 1939-1945, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, NE, 1989
- ^ Order No 270 in Russian language at internet-school.ru
- ^ Russians angry at war rape claims Telegraph.co.uk 01/25/2002
- ^ See also The Progress Report of Latvia's History Commission
- ^ see also: Mark Ealey, article on History News Network
- ^ Magnus Ilmjärv Hääletu alistumine, (Silent Submission), Tallinn, Argo, 2004, ISBN 9949-415-04-7
- ^ The Baltic Revolution: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and the Path to Independence by Anatol Lieven p. 424 ISBN 0300060785
- ^ Soviet crimes in Estonia
- ^ Valge raamat, pp. 25-30
- ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet occupation of Latvia, Wikipedia
- ^ Communist Crimes: Soviet war crimes in Latvia
- ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet occupation of Lithuania Soviet occupation of Lithuania], Wikipedia
- ^ Communist Crimes: Soviet war crimes in Lithuania
- ^ Sanford, George. "Katyn And The Soviet Massacre Of 1940: Truth, Justice And Memory". Routledge, 2005.
- ^ Interview with Tomasz Strzembosz: Die verschwiegene Kollaboration Transodra, 23. Dezember 2001, P. 2 (German)
- ^ a b Thomas Urban Der Verlust, P. 145, Verlag C. H. Beck 2004, ISBN 3406541569
- ^ a b Jan T. Gross. Revolution From Abroad: The Soviet Conquest of Poland's Western Ukraine and Western Belorussia. Princeton University Press, 2002. ISBN 0691096031 pp. 181-182
- ^ Poland's Holocaust, Tadeusz Piotrowski, 1998 ISBN 0-7864-0371-3, P.14
- ^ Carroll Quigley, Tragedy & Hope: A History of the World in Our Time, G. S. G. & Associates, Incorporated; New Ed edition, June 1975, ISBN 094500110X
- ^ Grzegorz Baziur Armia Czerwona na Pomorzu Gdańskim 1945-1947 „Biuletyn Instytutu Pamięci Narodowej” 2002, nr 7
- ^ Janusz Wróbel "Wyzwoliciele czy Okupanci Żołnierze Sowieccy w Łódzkim 1945-1946"„Biuletyn Instytutu Pamięci Narodowej” 2002, nr 7
- ^ Łukasz Kamiński "Obdarci,głodni,żli, Sowieci w oczach Polaków 1944-1948" Biuletyn Instytutu Pamięci Narodowej” 2002, nr 7
- ^ Mariusz Lesław Krogulski "Okupacja w imię sojuszu" Poland 2001
- ^ a b "Alma Mater 64(2004) – "OKUPOWANY KRAKÓW- z prorektorem Andrzejem Chwalbą rozmawia Rita Pagacz-Moczarska", 
- ^ Helsingin Sanomat - International Edition - Home - Too awful an image of war
- ^ Iltalehti | Kuvagalleria: Partisaani-iskut
- ^ Iltalehti | Kuvagalleria: Venäläiset desantit ja pakenijat
- ^ article by Bogdan Musial: Ostpolen beim Einmarsch der Wehrmacht nach dem 22. Juni 1941 on the website of "Historisches Centrum Hagen"
- ^ Bogdan Musial: Konterrevolutionäre Elemente sind zu erschießen, Propyläen 2000, ISBN 3549071264 (German)
- ^ Norman M. Naimark Cambridge: Belknap, 1995 ISBN 0-674-78405-7
- ^ original text "Day of the Account" (Russian)
- ^ a b c Antony Beevor, Berlin: The Downfall 1945, Penguin Books, 2002, ISBN 0-670-88695-5
- ^ a b Documentary on German public TV (ARD) of 2005
- ^ Thomas Darnstädt, Klaus Wiegrefe "Vater, erschieß mich!" in Die Flucht, S. 28/29 (Herausgeber Stefan Aust und Stephan Burgdorff), dtv und SPIEGEL-Buchverlag, ISBN 3423341815
- ^ article in Berliner Zeitung of 1998
- ^ Vertreibung und Vertreibungsverbrechen 1945-1978. Bericht des Bundesarchivs vom 28 Mai 1974. Archivalien und ausgewälte Erlebenisberichte, Bonn 1989.
- ^ Clodfelter, Michael, Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500-2000, 2nd Ed. ISBN 0-7864-1204-6
- ^ Hanna Schissler The Miracle Years: A Cultural History of West Germany, 1949-1968 
- ^ Norman M. Naimark. The Russians in Germany: A History of the Soviet Zone of Occupation, 1945-1949. Cambridge: Belknap, 1995 p. 92 ISBN 0-674-78405-7
- ^ Naimark. The Russians in Germany, p. 79
- ^ Norman M. Naimark. The Russians in Germany: A History of the Soviet Zone of Occupation, 1945-1949. Harvard University Press, 1995. ISBN 0-674-78405-7 pp. 132, 133.
- ^ James, Mark. "Remembering Rape: Divided Social Memory and the Red Army in Hungary 1944-1945". Past and Present (Oxford University Press) 188 (August 2005): 133-161. http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/past_and_present/v188/188.1mark.html.
- ^ Ungvary, Krisztian; Ladislaus Lob, and John Lukacs (April 11, 2005). The siege of Budapest: one hundred days in World War II. Yale University Press. pp. 512. ISBN 0300104685.
- ^ Bessel, Richard; Dirk Schumann (May 5, 2003) (in English). Life after death: approaches to a cultural and social history of Europe. Cambridge University Press. pp. 376. ISBN 0521009227. http://books.google.com/books?id=NilW70Yol74C.
- ^ Naimark, Norman M. (1995). The Russians in Germany: A History of the Soviet Zone of Occupation, 1945-1949. Cambridge: Belknap. ISBN 0-674-78405-7.
- ^ Birstein, Vadim (3 May 2002). "Johnson's Russia List". http://www.cdi.org/Russia/johnson/6225-9.cfm. Retrieved 2009-11-09.
- ^ (PDF) United Nations Report of the Special Committee on the problem of Hungary. 1957. http://mek.oszk.hu/01200/01274/01274.pdf.
- ^ a b c d e f Norman M. Naimark. The Russians in Germany: A History of the Soviet Zone of Occupation, 1945-1949. Cambridge: Belknap, 1995, ISBN 0-674-78405-7, pp. 70-71.
- ^ Report of the Swiss legation in Budapest of 1945
- ^ Hubertus Knabe: Tag der Befreiung? Das Kriegsende in Ostdeutschland (A day of liberation? The end of war in Eastern Germany), Propyläen 2005, ISBN 3549072457 (German)
- ^ a b Wolfgang Leonhard, Child of the Revolution ,Pathfinder Press, 1979, ISBN 0-906133-26-2
- ^ Norman M. Naimark. The Russians in Germany: A History of the Soviet Zone of Occupation, 1945-1949. Harvard University Press, 1995. ISBN 0-674-78405-7
- ^ Bergström 2007, p. 18.
- ^ Hall and Quinlan 2000, p. 53.
- ^ Hubertus Knabe Tag der Befreiung? Das Kriegsende in Ostdeutschland, Propyläen 2005, ISBN 3549072457
- ^ Rossiiskaia Akademiia nauk. Liudskie poteri SSSR v period vtoroi mirovoi voiny:sbornik statei. Sankt-Peterburg 1995 ISBN 5-86789-023-6
- ^ Rűdiger Overmans. Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Oldenbourg 2000. ISBN 3-486-56531-1
- ^ Claus-Dieter Steyer, "Stadt ohne Männer" (City without men) , Der Tagesspiegel at 
- ^ Red Army troops raped even Russian women as they freed them from camps
- ^ telegraph.co.uk
- ^ telegraph.co.uk
- ^ Review of Berlin: 1945[dubious ] (Russian))
- ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/1939174.stm Red Army rapists exposed
- ^ Hintergrund "Anonyma". Die ungeheure sexuelle Gewalt der Roten Armee (German)],  (Russian)
- Marta Hillers, A Woman in Berlin: Six Weeks in the Conquered City Translated by Anthes Bell, ISBN 0-8050-7540-2
- Antony Beevor, Berlin: The Downfall 1945, Penguin Books, 2002, ISBN 0-670-88695-5
- Bergstrom, Christer (2007). Barbarossa - The Air Battle: July-December 1941. London: Chervron/Ian Allen. ISBN 978-1-85780-270-2. Bergstrom does make a point of noting that crimes against PoWs, and specifically against captured aircrew, were pretty universal in WW II.
- Hall and Quinlan (2000). KG55. Red Kite. ISBN 0-9538061-0-3
- Max Hastings, Armageddon: The Battle for Germany, 1944-1945, Chapter 10: Blood and Ice: East Prussia ISBN 0-375-41433-9
- Fisch, Bernhard, Nemmersdorf, Oktober 1944. Was in Ostpreußen tatsächlich geschah. Berlin: 1997. ISBN 3-932180-26-7. (about most of the Nemmersdorf atrocity having been set up by Goebbels)
- John Toland, The Last 100 Days, Chapter Two: Five Minutes before Midnight ISBN 0-8129-6859-X
- Norman M. Naimark, The Russians in Germany: A History of the Soviet Zone of Occupation, 1945-1949. Harvard University Press, 1995. ISBN 0-674-78405-7
- Catherine Merridale, Ivan's War, the Red Army 1939-1945, London: Faber and Faber, 2005, ISBN 0-5712-1808-3
- Alfred-Maurice de Zayas, The Wehrmacht War Crimes Bureau, 1939-1945. Preface by Professor Howard Levie. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1989. ISBN 0-8032-9908-7. New revised edition with Picton Press, Rockland, Maine, ISBN 0-89725-421-X
- Alfred-Maurice de Zayas, A Terrible Revenge. The Ethnic Cleansing of the East European Germans, 1944-1950, St. Martin's Press, New York, 1994, ISBN 0-3121-2159-8
- * Elizabeth B. Walter, Barefoot in the Rubble 1997, ISBN 0-9657793-0-0