1.thin sauce made of fermented soy beans
definition of Wikipedia
jus, suc, sauce (fr)[Classe]
condiment et épice d'origine végétale (fr)[ClasseParExt.]
soy sauce (n.)
||This article's lead section may not adequately summarize its contents. Please consider expanding the lead to provide an accessible overview of the article's key points. (May 2012)|
|A bottle of Japanese soy sauce|
|Traditional Chinese||1. 醬油
|Simplified Chinese||1. 酱油
|IPA||[pɛ́ ŋàɴ bjà jè]|
|Quốc ngữ||xì dầu or nước tương|
Soy sauce (also called soya sauce) is a condiment produced by fermenting soybeans with Aspergillus oryzae or Aspergillus sojae molds, along with water and salt. After the fermentation, which yields fermented soybean paste, the paste is pressed, and two substances are obtained: a liquid, which is the soy sauce, and a cake of (wheat and) soy residue, the latter being usually reused as animal feed. Most commonly, a grain is used together with the soybeans in the fermentation process, but not always. Also, some varieties use roasted grain. Soy sauce is a traditional ingredient in East and Southeast Asian cuisines, where it is used in cooking and as a condiment. It originated in China 2,800 years ago and spread throughout Asia. In more recent times, it is also used in Western cuisine and prepared foods. All varieties of soy sauce are salty, earthy, brownish liquids intended to season food while cooking or at the table.
Soy sauce originated in China 2,800 years ago and its use later spread to East and Southeast Asia. Like many salty condiments, soy sauce was probably originally a way to stretch salt, historically an expensive commodity. In Ancient China, fermented fish with salt was used as a condiment in which soybeans was included during the fermentation process. Eventually, this was replaced and the recipe for soy sauce, jiangyou (酱油), was created with soybeans as principal ingredient.
Records of the Dutch East India Company list soy sauce as a commodity in 1737, when seventy-five large barrels were shipped from Dejima, Japan, to Batavia (present-day Jakarta) on the island of Java. Thirty-five barrels from that shipment were then shipped to the Netherlands. In the 18th century, Isaac Titsingh published accounts of brewing soy sauce. Although earlier descriptions of soy sauce had been disseminated in the West, this was among the earliest to focus specifically on the brewing of the Japanese version. By the mid-19th century, the Japanese soy sauce gradually disappeared from the European market, and soy sauce became synonymous with the Chinese product. Europeans were unable to make soy sauce because they did not understand the function of Aspergillus oryzae, the fungus used in its brewing.
One 19th century writer records that in China, the best soy sauce is "made by boiling beans soft, adding an equal quantity of wheat or barley, and leaving the mass to ferment; a portion of salt and three times as much water are afterwards put in, and the whole compound left for two or three months when the liquid is pressed and strained".
Soy sauce may be made either by fermentation or by hydrolysis; some commercial sauces contain a mixture of fermented and chemical sauces.
Traditional soy sauces are made by mixing soybeans and grain with mold cultures such as Aspergillus oryzae and other related microorganisms and yeasts (the resulting mixture is called "koji" in Japan; the term "koji" is used both for the mixture of soybeans, wheat, and mold; as well as for only the mold). In older times, the mixture was then fermented naturally in giant urns and under the sun, which was believed to contribute additional flavors. Today, the mixture is generally placed in a temperature and humidity controlled incubation chamber.
The production process of traditional soy sauces consists of several steps taking months to complete:
Some brands of soy sauce are often made from acid-hydrolyzed soy protein instead of brewed with a traditional culture. This process may take only three days. Although they have a different flavor, aroma, and texture when compared to brewed soy sauces, they have a longer shelf-life and are more commonly produced for this reason. Some people feel the hydrolyzed sauces taste better, but some prefer the naturally brewed varieties. The clear plastic packets of dark sauce common with Chinese-style take out food typically use a hydrolyzed vegetable protein formula. Some higher-quality hydrolyzed vegetable protein products with no added salt, sugar or colorings are sold as low-sodium soy sauce alternatives called "liquid aminos" in health food stores, similar to the way salt substitutes are used. These products are, however not necessarily low in sodium.
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Soy sauce is widely used as a particularly important flavoring and has been integrated into the traditional cuisines of many East Asian and Southeast Asian cultures. Despite their rather similar appearance, soy sauces produced in different cultures and regions are different in taste, consistency, fragrance and saltiness. Soy sauce retains its quality longer when kept away from direct sunlight.
Chinese soy sauce, jiangyou (simpl.: 酱油 / trad.: 醬油) or chiyou (豉油), is primarily made from soybeans, with relatively low amounts of other grains. Chinese soy sauce can be roughly split into two classes which can be brewed or a blended.
Soy sauce that have been brewed directly from a fermentation process using wheat, soybeans, salt, and water without additional additives.
Additives with sweet or umami tastes are sometimes added to a finished brewed soy sauce to modify its taste and texture.
Buddhist monks from China introduced soy sauce into Japan in the 7th century, where it is known as shōyu (醤油 shōyu ). The Japanese word tamari is derived from the verb tamaru (溜る) that signifies "to accumulate", referring to the fact that tamari was traditionally a liquid byproduct produced during the fermentation of miso (type of seasoning). Japan is the leading producer of tamari.
Shōyu is traditionally divided into five main categories depending on differences in their ingredients and method of production. Most, but not all Japanese soy sauces include wheat as a primary ingredient, which tends to give them a slightly sweeter taste than their Chinese counterparts. They also tend towards an alcoholic sherry-like flavor, sometimes enhanced by the addition of small amounts of alcohol as a natural preservative. The widely varying flavors of these soy sauces are not always interchangeable, some recipes only call for one type or the other, much like a white wine cannot replace a red's flavor or beef stock does not produce the same results as fish stock.
Some soy sauces made in the Japanese way or styled after them contain about fifty percent wheat.
Soy sauce has a distinct basic taste called umami (旨 味, "pleasant savory taste") in Japanese, due to naturally occurring free glutamates. Umami was identified as a basic taste in 1908 by Kikunae Ikeda of the Tokyo Imperial University.
Newer varieties of Japanese soy sauce include:
All of these varieties are sold in the marketplace in three different grades according to how they were produced:
All the varieties and grades may be sold according to three official levels of quality:
Soy sauce is also commonly known as shoyu, and less commonly shōyu, in Hawaii and Brazil.
Most representations of Asian cuisine in Brazil (as the result of the diaspora Chinese and Koreans both do have valued cultural icons and there are Chinese restaurants in all major metropolises and most 400.000+ pop. cities in the Central-Southern half of the country) display as its ingredients, when it is necessary, Japanese-like soy sauce since it is widely popular and less expensive than imports. There are some differences from the shōyu in the Japanese market as for example Sakura, the market-leading Brazilian brand for soy sauce, features just a 35% less salt variety (instead of the Japanese standards 20% and 50%) and all of its soy sauce is gluten free (it does use maize instead of wheat in the fermentation process).
In Indonesia, soy sauce is known as kecap (also ketjap), which is a catch-all term for fermented sauces, and cognate to the English word "ketchup". Three common varieties of Indonesian soy-based kecap exist:
Korean soy sauce, (called Joseon ganjang, 조선간장, in Korean) is a byproduct of the production of doenjang (Korean fermented soybean paste). They are mainly used in making soups, seasoning, and dip sauce. Joseon ganjang, thin and dark brown in color, is made entirely of soy and brine, and has a saltiness that varies according to the producer. Wide scale use of Joseon ganjang has been somewhat superseded by cheaper factory-made Japanese style soy sauce, called waeganjang (hangul: 왜간장/倭: 간장). According to the 2001 national food consumption survey in Korea, traditional fermented ganjang comprised only 1.4% of soy sauce purchases.
Burma is a country with a high production of soy bean. Pickled bean curds (se-tou-fu), made from soy beans and usually more spicy than those in the neighbouring countries, is one of the staples in Myanmar. Export of bean is upwards of hundred tons a year. The Burmese soy sauce production dated back to the Bagan era in the 9th and 10th century. Scripts written in praise of pe ngan byar yay (ပဲငံပြာရည်, literally "bean fish sauce") were found. Production increased to its heights during the Konbaung dynasty, circa 1700, when there was a bolstered migration of ethnic groups from the north to boost and modify the production of silk in Amarapura. Thick soy sauce is called kya nyo (ကြာညို့, from Chinese jiangyou 醬油).
A soy sauce based product popular in the Philippines is called toyo, usually found alongside other sauces such as fish sauce (patis) and sugar cane vinegar (suka). The flavor of Philippine soy sauce is a combination of soybeans, wheat, salt, and caramel. It is thinner in texture and has a saltier taste than its South Asian counterparts, similar to Japanese shōyu. It is used as a marinade, an ingredient in cooked dishes, and a table condiment. It is usually mixed and served with calamansi (the combination is known as toyomansi' which can be comparable to ponzu sauce [Japanese soy sauce with lemon]'), a small Asian, lime-like citrus fruit.,
In Mandarin Chinese spoken in Malaysia and Singapore, soy sauce in general is refer as dòuyóu (豆油), a Mandarin transliteration of the Hokkien term for the sauce or jiàngyóu (醬油); light soy sauce is jiàngqīng (醬清). Angmo daoiu (紅毛豆油, lit. "foreigners' soy sauce") is the Hokkien name for Worcestershire sauce.
Malays from Malaysia, using the Malay dialect similar to Indonesian, use the word kicap for soy sauce. Kicap is traditionally of two types: kicap lemak (lit "fat/rich soy sauce") and kicap cair. Kicap lemak is similar to Indonesian kecap manis but with very much less sugar while kicap cair is the Malaysian equivalent of kecap asin.
The history of soy sauce making in Taiwan can be traced back to southeastern China, in the provinces of Fujian and Guangdong. Taiwanese soy sauce is known for its black bean variant, known as black bean soy sauce (黑豆蔭油), which takes longer to produce (about 6 months). Most major soy sauce makers in Taiwan, such as Kimlan (金蘭), Wan Ja Shan (萬家香), and President-Kikkoman (統萬), produce soy sauce made from soybeans and wheat. A few other makers, such as Wuan Chuang (丸莊), O'Long (黑龍), Tatung (大同) and Ruei Chun (瑞春) make black bean soy sauce.
In Vietnam, Chinese-style soy sauce is called xì dầu (derived from the Cantonese name 豉油) or nước tương. The term "soy sauce" could also imply other condiments and soy bean paste with thick consistency known as tương. Both are used mostly as a seasoning or dipping sauce for a number of dishes. Vietnamese cuisine itself favors fish sauce in cooking but nước tương has a clear presence in vegetarian cooking.
A study by the National University of Singapore showed that Chinese dark soy sauce contains 10 times the antioxidants of red wine, and can help prevent cardiovascular diseases. (However, it is unlikely to be used in nearly as great a quantity as wine.) Soy sauce is rich in lactic acid bacteria and of excellent anti-allergic potential.
Soy sauce contains ethyl carbamate.
Soy sauce does not contain the level of isoflavones associated with other soy products such as tofu or edamame. It can also be very salty, having a salt content of between 14%–18%. Low-sodium soy sauces are produced, but it is difficult to make soy sauce without using some quantity of salt as an antimicrobial agent.
100ml of soy sauce contains the following nutritional information according to the USDA:
Certain brands of soy sauce manufactured in mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Thailand have been found to contain carcinogens by the United Kingdom Food Standards Agency. The same carcinogens were found in soy sauces manufactured in Vietnam, causing a food scare in 2007.
Most varieties of soy sauce contain wheat, to which some people have a medical intolerance. However, some naturally brewed soy sauces made with wheat may be tolerated by people with a specific intolerance to gluten because gluten is not detectable in the finished product. Japanese tamari soy sauce is traditionally wheat-free, and some tamari available commercially today is wheat- and gluten-free.
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