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Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.
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1.a window made of stained glass
ornement architectural (fr)[ClasseParExt.]
chose en verre (fr)[ClasseParExt.]
objet décoratif (fr)[ClasseParExt.]
ouvrage de menuiserie (fr)[Classe]
chose en verre (fr)[ClasseParExt.]
leaded window; church window; stained-glass window[ClasseHyper.]
stained-glass window (n.)
The term stained glass can refer to the material of coloured glass or the craft of working with it. Throughout its thousand-year history, the term "stained glass" has been applied almost exclusively to the windows of churches and other significant buildings. Although traditionally made in flat panels and used as windows, the creations of modern stained glass artists also include three-dimensional structures and sculpture.
Modern vernacular usage has often extended the term "stained glass" to include domestic leadlight and objets d'art created from lead came and copper foil glasswork exemplified in the famous lamps of Louis Comfort Tiffany.
As a material stained glass is glass that has been coloured by adding metallic salts during its manufacture. The coloured glass is crafted into stained glass windows in which small pieces of glass are arranged to form patterns or pictures, held together (traditionally) by strips of lead and supported by a rigid frame. Painted details and yellow stain are often used to enhance the design. The term stained glass is also applied to windows in which the colours have been painted onto the glass and then fused to the glass in a kiln.
Stained glass, as an art and a craft, requires the artistic skill to conceive an appropriate and workable design, and the engineering skills to assemble the piece. A window must fit snugly into the space for which it is made, must resist wind and rain, and also, especially in the larger windows, must support its own weight. Many large windows have withstood the test of time and remained substantially intact since the late Middle Ages. In Western Europe they constitute the major form of pictorial art to have survived. In this context, the purpose of a stained glass window is not to allow those within a building to see the world outside or even primarily to admit light but rather to control it. For this reason stained glass windows have been described as 'illuminated wall decorations'.
The design of a window may be non-figurative or figurative; may incorporate narratives drawn from the Bible, history, or literature; may represent saints or patrons, or use symbolic motifs, in particular armorial. Windows within a building may be thematic, for example: within a church - episodes from the life of Christ; within a parliament building - shields of the constituencies; within a college hall - figures representing the arts and sciences; or within a home - flora, fauna, or landscape.
From the 10th or 11th century, when stained glass began to flourish as an art, glass factories were set up where there was a ready supply of silica, the essential product of glass manufacture. Glass was usually coloured by adding metallic oxides to the glass while in a molten state in a clay pot over a furnace. Glass coloured in this way was known as pot metal. Copper oxides were added to produce green, cobalt for blue, and gold was added to produce red glass. Much modern red glass is produced using ingredients less expensive than gold and giving a brighter red of a more vermilion shade.
Cylinder glassThis glass was collected from the pot into a molten ball and blown, while being continually manipulated until it formed a large cylindrical bottle shape of even diameter and wall-thickness. It was then cut open, laid flat and annealed to make it stable. This is the type of glass most commonly used for ancient stained glass windows.
Crown glassThis glass was partly blown into a hollow vessel, then put onto a revolving table which could be rapidly spun like a potter's wheel. The centrifugal force caused the molten material to flatten and spread outwards. It could then be cut into small sheets. This glass could be made coloured and used for stained glass windows, but is typically associated with small paned windows of 16th and 17th century houses. The concentric, curving ripples are characteristic of this process. The center of each piece of glass received less force during the spinning, and thus produced was a thicker piece. These centres were for the special effect created by their lumpy, refractive quality. They are known as bull's eyes and are feature of late 19th century domestic leadlight and are sometimes also used with cathedral glass or quarry glass in non-pictorial church windows of that date.
Table glassThis glass was produced by pouring molten glass onto a metal table and sometimes rolling it with a large metal cylinder. The glass thus produced is heavily textured by the reaction of the glass with the cold metal. Glass of this appearance is commercially produced and widely used today, under the name of cathedral glass, although it was not the type of glass favoured for stained glass in ancient cathedrals. It has been much used for lead lighting in churches in the 20th century. Modern glass made by this technique is often heavily patterned by the use of an engrave metal roller.
Flashed glassRed pot metal glass was often undesirably dark in colour and prohibitively expensive. The method developed to produce red glass was called flashing. In this procedure, a semi-molten cylinder of clear glass was dipped into a pot of red glass so that the red glass formed a thin coating. The laminated glass thus formed was cut, flattened and heat annealed.
There are a number of advantages to this technique. It allows a variety in the depth of red ranging from very dark and almost opaque, through ruby red to pale and sometimes streaky red that was often used for thin border pieces. The other advantage was that the red of double-layered glass could be engraved or abraded to allow light to shine through the clear glass underneath. In the late Medieval period, this method was often employed to add rich patterns to the robes of Saints. The other advantage, much exploited by late Victorian and early 20th century artists, was that sheets could be flashed in which the depth of colour varied across the sheet. This was applied to a range of colours. Some stained glass studios, notably Lavers, Barraud and Westlake in England, made extensive use of large segments of irregularly flashed glass in robes and draperies.
Modern production of traditional glassThere are a number of glass factories, notably in Germany, USA, England, France, Poland and Russia, which produce high quality glass by traditional methods. Such glass is produced primarily for the restoration of older windows from 1920s and before. The production of new windows in traditional Victorian, Arts and Crafts and early 20th century styles often uses traditional glass. Modern stained glass windows also often use a variety of these different types of glass, or employ commercially made glass.
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Maquette by Heaton, Butler and Bayne, 19th century English manufacturers
A set of glaziers' tools
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Colours and mediums for painting on glass
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A palette and tools to prepare colours for painting on glass
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European panel, 1564, with typical painted details, extensive silver stain, Cousin's rose on the face, and flashed ruby glass with abraded white motif
Detail from a 19th or 20th century window in Eyneburg, Belgium, showing detailed polychrome painting of face.
Coloured glass has been produced since ancient times. Both the Egyptians and the Romans excelled at the manufacture of small coloured glass objects. The British Museum holds two of the finest Roman pieces, the Lycurgus Cup, which is a murky mustard colour but glows purple-red to transmitted light, and the Portland vase which is midnight blue, with a carved white overlay.
In Early Christian churches of the 4th and 5th centuries there are many remaining windows which are filled with ornate patterns of thinly-sliced alabaster set into wooden frames, giving a stained-glass like effect. Evidence of stained glass windows in churches and monasteries within Britain can be found as early as the 7th century. Benedict Biscop’s monasteries in Monkwearmouth and Jarrow have revealed hundreds of pieces of coloured glass and lead from as early as 680 CE. Stained glass was also used by Islamic architects in Southwest Asia by the 8th century, when the alchemist Geber, in Kitab al-Durra al-Maknuna, gives 46 original recipes for producing coloured glass and describes the production of cutting glass into artificial gemstones. 
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A perfume flask from 100 BCE-200 CE
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The Portland Vase, a rare example of Roman flashed glass
An alabaster window in Orvieto Cathedral, Italy
For further infornation about stained glass technology:
Stained glass, as an art form, reached its height in the Middle Ages when it became a major pictorial form and was used to illustrate the narratives of the Bible to a largely illiterate populace.
In the Romanesque and Early Gothic period, from about 950 AD to 1240 AD, the untraceried windows demanded large expanses of glass which of necessity were supported by robust iron frames, such as may be seen at Chartres Cathedral and at the eastern end of Canterbury Cathedral. As Gothic architecture developed into a more ornate form, windows grew larger, affording greater illumination to the interiors, but were divided into sections by vertical shafts and tracery of stone. The elaboration of form reached its height of complexity in the Flamboyant style in Europe and windows grew still larger with the development of the Perpendicular style in England.
Integrated with the lofty verticals of Gothic cathedrals and parish churches, the glass designs became more daring. The circular form, or rose window developed in France from relatively simple windows with pierced openings through slabs of thin stone to wheel windows, as exemplified by that in the West front of Chartres Cathedral, and ultimately to designs of enormous complexity, the tracery being drafted from hundreds of different points, such as those at Sainte-Chapelle, Paris and the "Bishop's Eye" at Lincoln Cathedral.
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Daniel from Augsburg Cathedral, early 12th c. One of the oldest examples in situ.
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Detail of a 13th-century window from Chartres Cathedral
Detail of a window of St George by Hans Acker (1440) in Ulm Minster, Germany
Christ in Majesty from Strasbourg Cathedral
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The North Transept windows from Chartres Cathedral
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The Poor Man's Bible window at Canterbury Cathedral, 13th c.
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The west window of York Minster
The rose window from Sainte-Chapelle, 15th c.
In Europe, stained glass continued to be produced with the style evolving from the Gothic to the Classical style, which is widely represented in Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands, despite the rise of Protestantism. In France, much glass of this period was produced at the Limoges factory, and in Italy at Murano, where stained glass and faceted lead crystal are often coupled together in the same window. Ultimately, the French Revolution brought about the neglect or destruction of many windows in France.At the Reformation, in England large numbers of Medieval and Renaissance windows were smashed and replaced with plain glass. The Dissolution of the Monasteries under Henry VIII and the injunctions of Oliver Cromwell against "abused images" (the object of veneration) resulted in the loss of thousands of windows. Few remain undamaged; of them the windows in the private chapel at Hengrave Hall in Suffolk are among the finest. With the latter wave of destruction the traditional methods of working with stained glass died and were not to be rediscovered in England until the early 19th century. See Stained glass - British glass, 1811-1918 for more details.
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Ghent Cathedral, Belgium, 16th century
Drawsko Pomorskie Church, a good example of heraldic glass
Les Andelys, Normandy, 16th century
The Catholic revival in England, gaining force in the early 19th century, with its renewed interest in the medieval church brought a revival of church building in the Gothic style, claimed by John Ruskin to be "the true Catholic style". The architectural movement was led by Augustus Welby Pugin. Many new churches were planted in large towns and many old churches were restored. This brought about a great demand for the revival of the art of stained glass window making.
Among the earliest 19th century English manufacturers and designers are William Warrington and John Hardman of Birmingham whose nephew, John Hardman Powell, who had a commercial eye and exhibited works at the Philadelphia Exhibition of 1873, influencing stained glass in the United States of America. Other manufacturers include William Wailes, Ward and Hughes, Clayton and Bell, Heaton, Butler and Bayne and Charles Eamer Kempe. A Scottish designer, Daniel Cottier, opened firms in Australia and the US.
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One of England's largest windows, the east window of Lincoln Cathedral, Ward and Nixon (1855), is a formal arrangement of small narrative scenes in roundels
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William Wailes. This window has the bright pastel colour, a wealth of inventive ornament and stereotypical gestures of windows by this firm. St Mary's, Chilham
In France there was a greater continuity of stained glass production than in England. In the early 19th century most stained glass was made of large panes that were extensively painted and fired, the designs often being copied directly from oil paintings by famous artists. In 1824 the Sevres Porcelain factory began producing stained glass to supply the increasing demand. In France many churches and cathedrals suffered despoilation during the French Revolution. During the 19th century a great number of churches were restored by Viollet-le-Duc. Many of France's finest ancient windows were restored at this time. From 1839 onwards much stained glass was produced that very closely imitates medieval glass, both in the artwork and in the nature of the glass itself. The pioneers were Henri Gèrente and Andre Lusson. Other glass was designed in a more Classical manner, and characterised by the brilliant cerulean colour of the blue backgrounds (as against the purple-blue of the glass of Chartres) and the use of pink and mauve glass.
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Detail of a "Tree of Jesse" window in Reims Cathedral designed in the 13th century style by L. Steiheil and painted by Coffetier for Viollet-le-Duc, (1861)
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St Louis administering Justice by Lobin in the painterly style. (1809) Church of St Medard, Thouars.
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West window from Saint-Urbain, Troyes, (about 1900)
During the mid to late 19th century, many of Germany's ancient buildings were restored, and some, such as Cologne Cathedral were completed in the medieval style. There was a great demand for stained glass. The designs for many windows were based directly on the work of famous engravers such as Albrecht Dürer. Original designs often imitate this style. Much 19th century German glass has large sections of painted detail rather than outlines and details dependent on the lead. The Royal Bavarian Glass painting Studio was founded by Ludwig I in 1827. A major firm was Mayer of Munich which commenced glass production in 1860, and is still operating as Franz Mayer of Munich, Inc.. German stained glass found a market across Europe, in America and Australia. Stained glass studios were also founded in Italy and Belgium at this time.
A painted memorial window, Castle Bodenstein, Germany, early 19th century
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Post-Reformation window in the Memorial Church, Speyer, Germany
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An early 20th century window in the 17th century style, St Maurice's Church, Olomouc, Czech Republic
Notable American practitioners include John La Farge (1835-1910) who invented opalescent glass and for which he received a US patent February 24, 1880, and Louis Comfort Tiffany (1848-1933), who received several patents for variations of the same opalescent process in November of the same year and is believed to have invented the copper foil method as an alternative to lead, and used it extensively in windows, lamps and other decorations.
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Window by Louis Comfort Tiffany with opalescent glass, asymmetric design and casual combination of flashed, painted and pot metal glass within the formal framework of supporting bars
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The Holy City by Louis Comfort Tiffany (1905). This 58-panel window has brilliant red, orange, and yellow etched glass for the sunrise, with textured glass used to create the effect of moving water.
Among the most innovative English designers were the Pre-Raphaelites, William Morris (1834-1898) and Edward Burne-Jones (1833-1898), whose work heralds Art Nouveau. Art Nouveau or Belle Epoch stained glass design flourished in France, and Eastern Europe, where it can be identified by the use of curvings sinous lines in the lead, and swirling motifs. In France it is seen in the work of Francis Chigot of Limoges. In Britain it appears in the refined and formal leadlight designs of Charles Rennie Macintosh.
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David's charge to Solomon shows the strongly linear design and use of flashed glass for which Burne-Jones' designs are famous. Trinity Church, Boston, US, (1882)
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Art Nouveau by Jacques Grüber, the glass harmonising with the curving architectural forms that surround it, Musée de l'École de Nancy (1904).
Many 19th-century firms failed early in the twentieth century as the Gothic movement had been superseded by newer styles. At the same time there were also some interesting developments where stained glass artists took studios in shared facilities. Examples include the Glass House in London set up by Mary Lowndes and A.J. Drury and An Túr Gloine in Dublin, which was run by Sarah Purser.
A revival occurred in the middle of the century because of the desire to restore the thousands of church windows throughout Europe, destroyed as a result of bombing during the World War II. German artists led the way. Much work of the period is mundane and often was not made by its designers but industrially produced.
Other artists sought to transform an ancient art form into a contemporary one, sometimes using only traditional techniques but often exploring the medium of glass in different ways and in combination with different materials. The use of slab glass set in concrete was another 20th-century innovation. Gemmail, a technique developed by the French artist Jean Crotti in 1936 and perfected in the 1950s, is a type of stained glass where adjacent pieces of glass are overlapped, without using lead nervures to join the pieces, allowing for a greater diversity and subtlety of colour.Many famous works by late 19th- and early 20th-century painters, notably Picasso, have been reproduced in gemmail. A major exponent of this technique is the German artist Walter Womacka.
Among the early well-known 20th-century artists who experimented with stained glass as an Abstract art form were Theo van Doesburg and Piet Mondrian. In the 1960s and 70s the Expressionist painter Marc Chagall produced designs for many stained glass windows that are intensely coloured and crammed with symbolic details. Important 20th-century stained glass artists include Douglas Strachan, Ervin Bossanyi, Louis Davis,Wilhelmina Geddes, Karl Parsons, Patrick Reyntiens, Ludwig Schaffrath, Johannes Shreiter, Judith Schaechter, Paul Woodroffe, Jean René Bazaine at Saint Séverin and the Loire Studio of Gabriel Loire at Chartres. The Luxus Keibel studio in Mexico specialises in domestic stained glass in both contemporary and 19th century styles. The west windows of England's Manchester Cathedral, by Tony Hollaway, are some of the most notable examples of symbolic work.
In the US, there is a 100-year-old trade organization, The Stained Glass Association of America, whose purpose is to function as a publicly recognized organization to assure survival of the craft by offering guidelines, instruction and training to craftspersons. The SGAA also sees its role as defending and protecting its craft against regulations that might restrict its freedom as an architectural art form. The current president is B. Gunar Gruenke of the Conrad Schmitt Studios. Today there are academic establishments that teach the traditional skills. One of these is Florida State University's Master Craftsman Program who recently completed a 30 ft high stained-glass windows installed in Bobby Bowden Field at Doak Campbell Stadium.
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Abstract expressionism at Meiningen Catholic Church.
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One of four 64 metres (210 ft)-high stained glass panels, Rio de Janeiro Cathedral, Brazil
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Postmodernist symbolism, Tree of Life at Christinae church, Alingsås, Sweden.
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The Bald Eagle, a good example of the product of commercial studios working with traditional techniques, Dryden High School, USA
St. Walburge, Lorraine designer Gabriel Loire, mid-20th c., combines traditional pot metal and leading with modern design, achieving an overall appearance that acknowledges the Medieval origins.
Figurative design using the lead lines and minimal glass paint in the 13th century manner combined with the texture of Cathedral glass, Ins, Switzerland
Stained glass windows were commonly used in churches for decorative and informative purposes. Many windows are donated to churches by members of the congregation as memorials of loved ones. For more information on the use of stained glass to depict religious subjects, see Poor Man's Bible
Stained glass windows in houses were particularly popular in Victorian era and many domestic examples survive. In their simplest form they typically depict birds and flowers in small panels, often surrounded with machine-made cathedral glass, which, despite what the name suggests, is pale-coloured and textured. Some large homes have splendid examples of secular pictorial glass. Many small houses of the 19th and early 20th centuries have leadlight windows.
Public and commercial use of stained glass
Town halls, schools, colleges and other public buildings often incorporate stained glass or leadlighting.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Stained glass|
|This biographical article needs additional citations for verification. Please help by adding reliable sources. Contentious material about living persons that is unsourced or poorly sourced must be removed immediately, especially if potentially libelous or harmful. (July 2007)|
|Born||August 22, 1963|
|Origin||Dawson Springs, Kentucky, United States|
|Associated acts||Jason Grainger, Amanda Marshall|
Mila Mason (born August 22, 1963 in Dawson Springs, Kentucky) is an American country music artist. She made her debut on the country music scene in 1996 with the release of her debut album That's Enough of That, which produced three hit singles on the Billboard Hot Country Singles & Tracks (now Hot Country Songs) charts, including its title track. The album was followed by 1998's The Strong One, from which two more singles were released. Mason did not record another album until 2003's Stained Glass Window, on the independent Twinbeat label.
|This section requires expansion with:|
Mila's mother, Diane, was a singer who had performed in Las Vegas, Nevada and toured throughout Europe. When Mila was 17 years old, she and her mother moved to Nashville, Tennessee. It was there that Mason decided to pursue a career in songwriting. She later took up a job as a demo singer, before being discovered by record producer Blake Mevis in 1993. In turn, Mevis sent some of Mason's material to Bryan Switzer, who was then the vice president of Atlantic Records.
In 1996, Mason was signed to Atlantic Records, with her debut single "That's Enough of That" reaching Top 20 on the Billboard Hot Country Songs charts. An album of the same name followed soon afterward, producing two more singles: a #21-peaking cover of Canadian singer Amanda Marshall's "Dark Horse", followed by "That's the Kinda Love (That I'm Talking About)" at #59.
Mason released her second album, The Strong One, in 1998. This album produced a #31 in lead-off single "Closer to Heaven", followed by the title track at #57 and then "This Heart" which failed to chart. Dissatisfied by the direction that her career had taken, Mila exited Atlantic's roster in 1998, taking time off to work on her songwriting. She also married Jason Grainger in the early 2000s, and co-wrote Mindy McCready's 2002 single "Maybe, Maybe Not".
By 2003, she signed to the independent Twinbeat Records label, recording the album Stained Glass Window. Grainger contributed to several of the songs on this album. This album also included her own version of "Maybe, Maybe Not." She also became one of the first songwriters signed to the Nashville division of the Brumley Music Group, an independent country music and gospel music publishing company.
|Year||Album details||Peak chart positions|
|US Country||US Heat||CAN Country|
|1997||That's Enough of That||43||37||20|
|1998||The Strong One||38||31||—|
|2003||Stained Glass Window||—||—||—|
|US Country||CAN Country|
|1996||"That's Enough of That"||18||34||That's Enough of That|
|"That's the Kinda Love (That I'm Talkin' About)"||59||66|
|"Closer to Heaven"||31||45||The Strong One|
|1998||"The Strong One"||57||30|
|2003||"Maybe, Maybe Not"||—||—||Stained Glass Window|
The program ran from September 26, 1948 until October 16, 1949. It was a thirty minute show, which originally ran from 6:30 PM until 7:00, then moved to 7:15-7:45, then finally to 7:00-7:30. It contained dramatizations, and discussions of moral problems. It was the very first religious program on ABC.