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In logic a statement is a declarative sentence that is either true or false. A statement is distinct from a sentence in that a sentence is only one formulation of a statement, whereas there may be many other formulations expressing the same statement. The term "statement" may to refer to a sentence or the idea expressed by a sentence. Philosopher of language, Peter Strawson has advocated the use of the term "statement" in preference to proposition.
Examples of sentences that are (or make) statements:
- "Socrates is a man."
- "A triangle has three sides."
- "Paris is the capital of Spain."
The first two (make statements that) are true, the third is (or makes a statement that is) false.
Examples of sentences that are not (or do not make) statements:
- "Who are you?"
- "Greeness perambulates"
- "I had one grunch but the eggplant over there."
The first two examples are not declarative sentences and are therefore (or do not make) statements.The third and forth are declarative sentences but, lacking meaning, are neither true nor false and therefore are not (or do not make) statements.
Statement as an abstract entity
In some term "statement" is introduced in order to distinguish a sentence from its information content. A statement is regarded as the information content of an (information-bearing) sentence. Thus, a sentence is related to the statement it bears like a numeral to the number it refers to. Statements are abstract, logical entities, while sentences are grammatical ones.
- A. G. Hamilton, Logic for Mathematicians, Cambridge University Press, 1980, ISBN 0521292913.
- Rouse, David L., "Sentences, Statements and Arguments" (PDF), A Practical Introduction to Formal Logic, http://people.uvawise.edu/philosophy/Logic%20Text/Contents.htm
- Ruzsa, Imre (2000), [Expression error: Missing operand for > Bevezetés a modern logikába], Osiris tankönyvek, Budapest: Osiris, ISBN 963 379 978 3