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Wikipedia

Stryker

                   
IAV Stryker
Stryker ICV front q.jpg
M1126 Stryker ICV
Type Armored fighting vehicle
Place of origin  Canada[1][2]
 United States
Service history
In service 2002-present
Used by United States, Canada
Production history
Manufacturer General Dynamics Land Systems–Canada[1][2]
Unit cost $3.8 million[3][verification needed]
Specifications
Weight ICV: 16.47 tonnes (18.16 short tons; 16.21 long tons)
MGS: 18.77 tonnes (20.69 short tons; 18.47 long tons)
Length 6.95 m (22 ft 10 in)
Width 2.72 m (8 ft 11 in)
Height 2.64 m (8 ft 8 in)
Crew Varies, usually 2
Passengers Varies
Armor 7.62 mm/14.5 mm resistant[4][5]
Main
armament
M2 .50 cal. machine gun or MK19 40 mm grenade launcher mounted in a PROTECTOR M151 remote weapon station (RWS) (ICV)
Secondary
armament
.50-cal M2 MG and M240 7.62 mm MG (MGS)
Engine Caterpillar C7
260 kW (350 hp)
Power/weight ICV: 15.8 kW/t (19.3 hp/sh tn)
Suspension 8×8 wheeled
Operational
range
500 km (310 mi)
Speed 100 km/h (62 mph)[4]

The IAV Stryker is a family of eight-wheeled,[6] 4-wheel-drive (8x4), armored fighting vehicles derived from the Canadian LAV III and produced by General Dynamics Land Systems, in use by the United States Army. The vehicle is named for two American servicemen who posthumously received the Medal of Honor: Private First Class Stuart S. Stryker, who died in World War II and Specialist Four Robert F. Stryker, who died in the Vietnam War.[7]

Contents

  Development history

  Background

In October 1999, General Eric Shinseki, then U.S. Army Chief of Staff, outlined a transformation plan for the army that would allow it to adapt to post-Cold War conditions. The plan, dubbed "Objective Force", would have the army adopt a flexible doctrine that would allow it to deploy quickly, and equipped for a variety of operations.[8] An early phase of the plan called for the introduction of an 'Interim Armored Vehicle' which was intended to fill the capability gap between heavy and lethal, but not easily deployable vehicles (such as the M2 Bradley), and easily deployed, but lightly armed and protected vehicles (such as the Humvee).[9] A variant of the Canadian LAV III offered by the General Dynamics-General Motors Defence Canada team was ultimately awarded the contract in November 2000.

  Production

The Stryker MGS moved into low-rate initial production in 2005 for evaluation.[10] General Dynamics Land Systems-Canada assembles the Stryker for the U.S. Army in a plant in London, Ontario.[2][1]

The vehicle is employed in Stryker Brigade Combat Teams, light and mobile units based on the Brigade Combat Team Doctrine that relies on vehicles connected by military C4I networks.

The Stryker has come under intense scrutiny from military experts since its introduction in the US Army; this has also been the subject of reporting in the mass media.

General Dynamics's Robotic Systems division was developing autonomous navigation for the Stryker and several other vehicles with a $237 million contract until the program was cut in July 2011.[11] TARDEC has also tested an active Magneto Rheological suspension, developed by MillenWorks for the Stryker, at the Yuma Proving Ground, which resulted in greater vehicle stability.[12]

  Upgrades

The US Army plans to improve its fleet of Stryker vehicles with the introduction of improved semi-active suspension, modifications reshaping the hull into a shallow V-shaped structure, to protect against improvised explosive devices. Also included are additional armor for the sides, redesigned hatches to minimize gaps in the armor, blast absorbing mine resistant seating, non-flammable tires, an upgrade to the remote weapon station that allows it to fire on the go, increased 500 amp power generation, a new solid state power distribution system and data bus, and the automotive and power plant systems improvements to support a 25% Gross Vehicle Weight increase. The upgraded V-hull will be part of the new StrykShield situational awareness kit, which will address many of these upgrades. Allegheny Technologies' ATI 500-MIL armor steel was designated the primary armored plating for the StrykShield package in 2008.[13]

The upgrade incorporating lessons learned from Afghanistan is designated LAV-H and General Dynamics had a technology demonstrator displayed at the 2007 Association of the United States Army (AUSA) Exposition.[14] In March 2010, it was reported that General Dynamics and Army were working to incorporate a double V-hull into the Stryker design.[15][16][17][18] In July 2010 the Army awarded a $30 million contract to GDLS to start production of the new hull.[19]

On 9 March 2011, the Department of Defense's director of operational test and evaluations testified that the new V-hull design was "not suitable" for long missions in Afghanistan's terrain. The issues are due to the tight driver's compartment and difficulty releasing the seat to extract an incapacitated driver. General Dynamics stated these issues would be corrected before the new Stryker version deploys.[20] The upgrade also adds significant weight to the vehicle, which can cause it to sink into soft ground.[21]

In July 2011, 450 Double V-Hull (DVH) variants of the Stryker vehicle was ordered; the total was increased to 742 a few months later and then to 760 in 2012. DVH Strykers include a new hull configuration, increased armor, upgraded suspension and braking systems, wider tires, blast –attenuating seats, and a height management system.[22][23][24]

  Future

The U.S. Army is seeking replacement of the M113 APC and derivatives by Stryker, MRAP, and Bradley Fighting Vehicle vehicles starting in 2017. In the long term the army is tentatively pursuing replacement with the 50+ ton Ground Combat Vehicle family of vehicles concept.[25][26]

  Design

  View into the rear compartment

The Stryker is based on the LAV III light-armored vehicle, which in turn was based on the Swiss MOWAG Piranha III 8x8.

The vehicle comes in several variants with a common engine, transmission, hydraulics, wheels, tires, differentials and transfer case. The M1130 Command Vehicle and M1133 Medical Evacuation Vehicle have an air conditioning unit mounted on the back. The medical vehicle also has a higher-capacity generator. A recent upgrade program provided a field retrofit kit to add air conditioning units to all variants, and production started in 2005 on the Mobile Gun System mounting an overhead GDLS 105 mm automatic gun.

  Engine and mechanical features

For its powerpack the Stryker uses a Caterpillar diesel engine common in U.S. Army medium-lift trucks, eliminating additional training for maintenance crews and allowing the use of common parts.[27] Because of obsolescence concerns, the Caterpillar 3126 engine was recently replaced by a Caterpillar C7 engine and the Allison 3200SP transmission.[28]

Pneumatic or hydraulic systems drive almost all of the vehicle's mechanical features; for example, a pneumatic system switches between 8X4 and 8X8 drive.

Designers strove to ease the maintainer's job, equipping most cables, hoses, and mechanical systems with quick-disconnecting mechanisms. The engine and transmission can be removed and reinstalled in approximately two hours, allowing repairs to the turbocharger and many other components to be done outside the vehicle.[citation needed]

  Command, control, and targeting

  Remote weapon system screen

Extensive computer support helps soldiers fight the enemy while reducing friendly fire incidents. Each vehicle can track friendly vehicles in the field as well as detected enemies. The driver and the vehicle commander (who also serves as the gunner) have periscopes that allow them to see outside the vehicle without exposing themselves to outside dangers. The vehicle commander also has access to a day-night thermal imaging camera which allows the vehicle commander to see what the driver sees. The vehicle commander has almost a 360-degree field of vision; the driver, a little more than 90 degrees.

Soldiers can practice training with the vehicles from computer training modules inside the vehicle.

General Dynamics Land Systems is developing a new Power and Data Management Architecture to handle computer upgrades.[29]

  Protection

  Stryker with slat armor, full Hull Protection Kit and commander's ballistic shield

The Stryker's hull is constructed from high-hardness steel which offers a basic level of protection against 14.5 mm rounds on the frontal arc, and all-around protection against 7.62 mm ball ammunition.[30] In addition to this, Strykers are also equipped with bolt-on ceramic armor which offers all-around protection against 14.5 mm, armor-piercing ammunition, and artillery fragments from 152 mm rounds.[27][31] Problems were encountered with the initial batch of ceramic armor when it was found that a number of panels failed in tests against 14.5 mm ammunition. Army officials determined that this was due to changes in the composition and size of the panels introduced by their manufacturer, IBD Deisenroth. A stopgap solution of adding an additional 3 mm of steel armor was introduced until a permanent solution could be found.[32] The issue was eventually resolved later in 2003 when DEW Engineering was selected as the new, exclusive supplier for the ceramic armor.[33]

  Stryker rolled over by a buried IED in 2007. All crew survived, but the vehicle required a factory rebuild before returning to service.[34]

In addition to the integral ceramic armor, optional packages have been developed. These include slat armor[35] and Stryker reactive armor tiles (SRAT) for protection against rocket propelled grenades and other projectiles, the hull protection kit (HPK), armored skirts for additional protection against improvised explosive devices, and a ballistic shield to protect the commander's hatch.[30]

The Stryker also incorporates an automatic fire-extinguishing system with sensors in the engine and troop compartments that activate one or more halon fire bottles, which can also be activated by the driver, externally mounted fuel tanks, and a CBRN (Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear) Warfare system which will keep the crew compartment airtight and positively pressurized.

There are plans to add the Boomerang anti-sniper system.[citation needed]

Reports from military personnel and analysts state that the Stryker is superior to other light military vehicles regarding survivability against IEDs (improvised explosive devices).[36][37]

  Armament

  M151 Protector with a M2 heavy machine gun on an M1126 Stryker ICV variant.

With the exception of some specialized variants, the primary armament of the Stryker is a Protector M151 Remote Weapon Station with .50-cal M2 machine gun, 7.62 mm M240 machine gun, or Mk-19 automatic grenade launcher. The choice of armament was driven by many factors. The US Army wanted a vehicle that could rapidly transport and protect infantry to and around battlefields.

  Mobility

  Strategic and operational

  Stryker unloading from a C-130

One of the key objectives outlined as part of the army transformation plan was the ability to deploy a brigade anywhere in the world within 96 hours, a division in 120 hours, and five divisions within 30 days. Operational mobility requirements dictated that the vehicle be transportable by C-130 aircraft.[8] While ultimately the Stryker's ability to be transported by C-130 has been demonstrated, there has been criticism about the Stryker's suitability for C-130 transport as the aircraft’s range may not meet its 1,000 mile goal. This is affected by many variables such as the particular C-130 variant and conditions at the departure airport.[38] The Stryker is too heavy (19–26 tons, depending on variant and add-on features) to be lifted by existing helicopters.

In August 2004, the US Air Force successfully air dropped an up-weighted Stryker Engineering Support Vehicle from a C-17.[39] This test was to determine the feasibility of air dropping a Stryker MGS. Even though this test was a success, none of the Stryker variants have been certified for airdrop.

  Tactical

The Stryker can alter the pressure in all eight tires to suit terrain conditions: highway, cross-country, mud/sand/snow, and emergency. The system warns the driver if the vehicle exceeds the recommended speed for its tire pressure, then automatically inflates the tires to the next higher pressure setting. The system can also warn the driver of a flat tire, although the Stryker is equipped with run-flat tire inserts that also serve as bead-locks, allowing the vehicle to move several miles before the tire completely deteriorates.

  U.S. Army and Indian Army troops with Stryker IFV during a bilateral training exercise

Some criticism of the Stryker continues a decades-long ongoing debate concerning whether tracked or wheeled vehicles are more effective.[40] Conventional tracks have superior off-road mobility, can pivot a vehicle in place, and are more resistant to battle damage. Wheeled vehicles are easier to maintain, and have higher road speeds. The US Army chose the Stryker over tracked vehicles due to these advantages.[41]

An additional issue is that rollover is a greater risk with the Stryker relative to other transport vehicles, due to their higher center of gravity. The high ground clearance, however, is likely to reduce the damage caused by land mines and improvised explosive devices on the vehicle.[42]

While not amphibious, the Stryker's watertight combat hatch seals allow it to ford water up to the tops of its wheels.

  Cost

The unit cost to purchase the initial Stryker ICVs (without add-ons, including the slat armor) was US$3 million in April 2002.[43] By May 2003, the regular production cost per vehicle was US$1.42 million.[44]

  Mission

  Stryker team members deploying from the rear ramp

The Stryker family of vehicles fill a role in the United States Army that is neither heavy nor light, but rather an attempt to create a force that can move infantry to the battlefield quickly and in relative security. Brigades that have been converted to Strykers have primarily been light, or, in the case of the 2nd Cavalry Regiment, unarmored Humvee-based cavalry scouts. For these units, the addition of Strykers has increased combat power by providing armor protection, a vehicle-borne weapon system to support each dismounted squad, and the speed and range to conduct missions far from the operating base.

Stryker units seem to be especially effective in urban areas, where vehicles can establish initial security positions near a building and dismount squads on a doorstep.[45]

The Stryker relies on its speed and communications for the majority of its defense against heavy weapon systems. It is not capable of engaging heavily armored units, relying on communication and other units to control threats outside of its classification. One variant is armed with anti-tank missiles.

However, at the National Training Center (Fort Irwin California) 3rd Brigade 2nd ID proved that, through the use of unconventional tactics and small dismounted teams armed with anti-armor weaponry, a Stryker unit could hold its own against a conventional armored unit, should the need arise.[citation needed] This situation is something that commanders would most likely avoid due to a higher casualty rate.

Brigades equipped with the Stryker are intended to be strategically mobile (i.e., capable of being rapidly deployed over long distances). As such, the Stryker was intentionally designed with a lower level of protection compared to tracked vehicles like the M2 Bradley, but with much lower logistic requirements.

  Service history

  Deployments

  M1126 Stryker ICV on patrol near Mosul, Iraq

Iraq War, 2003–2011:

  • The first Stryker brigades were deployed to Iraq in October 2003. 3rd Brigade, 2nd Infantry Division from Fort Lewis was the first to field and deploy the Stryker vehicle to combat in Iraq from November 2003 to November 2004.
  • 3rd Brigade was relieved by 1st Brigade, 25th Infantry Division (SBCT). 1st Brigade served in Iraq from October 2004 to October 2005. Units from this Brigade participated in the Battle of Mosul (2004) and were responsible for the first successful elections in January 2005. The Brigade was awarded the Valorous Unit Award for their tour in Iraq.
  • The 172nd Stryker Brigade Combat Team from Fairbanks, Alaska's Fort Wainwright began its initial deployment in August 2005 to Summer 2006. Their stay was subsequently extended for up to four months and they were reassigned to Baghdad. The Brigade was awarded the Valorous Unit Award for their tour in Iraq.
  • The 3rd Brigade, 2nd Infantry Division re-deployed to Iraq late Spring of 2006 and returned home in September 2007. Like its sister brigades it too was awarded the Valorous Unit Award for operations in Baqubah, Iraq.
  • As part of a three way move, upon redeployment from Iraq, the 1st Stryker Brigade, 25th Infantry Division and the 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment both cased their colors. The former 1st SBCT, 25th ID was redesignated as the new 2nd Stryker Cavalry Regiment in Vilseck, Germany and the former 2nd ACR was redesignated as the new 4th Stryker Brigade Combat Team, 2nd Infantry Division at Fort Lewis, Washington. During the same period of time, upon redeployment from Iraq, the 172nd Stryker Brigade Combat Team was deactivated and reactivated as the 1st Stryker Brigade Combat Team, 25th Infantry Division, in Fort Wainwright, Alaska.
  • In May 2007, the 4th Brigade 2nd Infantry Division deployed as part of the "surge" in Iraq. This deployment marked the first time the Stryker Mobile Gun System was deployed in Iraq. Also, the 4th Battalion, 9th Infantry Regiment (MANCHU), deployed Land Warrior for the first time in combat.
  • In August 2007, the 2nd Stryker Cavalry Regiment deployed to Baghdad for a 15-month tour, relieving 3rd BDE, 2ID.
  • In December 2007, the 2nd Brigade 25th Infantry division deployed to Iraq.
  • In September 2008, 1-25th Infantry based in Fort Wainwright, Alaska was deployed to Iraq.
  • In January 2009, the 56th Stryker Brigade Combat Team, 28th Infantry Division, from the Pennsylvania Army National Guard, was deployed to Iraq. The 56th SBCT is the only National Guard unit in the U.S. Army to field Strykers.
  • In August 2009, 3rd Brigade 2nd Infantry Division was again deployed to Iraq for a third tour.
  • In July 2010, 2nd Brigade 25th Infantry Division once again deployed to Iraq, relieving 3rd Brigade, 2nd ID. 2nd Brigade, becoming the first "Advise and Assist" Stryker brigade.

War in Afghanistan (2001-present):

  • The 5th Brigade 2nd Infantry Division was the first Stryker unit sent to Afghanistan, deployed in summer 2009, as part of a troop level increase. The brigade's 1st Battalion, 17th Infantry Regiment has suffered the heaviest losses of any Stryker battalion to date.[46]
  • In June 2010, the 2nd Stryker Cavalry Regiment deployed to Afghanistan relieving 5th Brigade 2nd Infantry Division.
  • In April 2011, 1st Brigade, 25th Infantry Division deployed to Afghanistan to relieve the 2nd Stryker Cavalry Regiment.

  Field reports

Since the Strykers have been in the current Iraqi conflict, many reports have come back on their performance. These reports have mostly been favorable. Stryker critics caution that any positive testimonial must be evaluated against the fact that five of the six planned Stryker brigades were previously foot-infantry units, hence the Stryker (or any armored vehicle) provides a great improvement on their former mobility and protection.[citation needed]

An article by Defense Industry Daily addresses both a negative Washington Post article and the surprise of Project On Government Oversight (POGO) at the positive reviews Stryker got from soldiers who had used it in combat.[47] It includes extensive additional quotes and experiences from soldiers and reporters who have served with Strykers in Iraq, and even a Russian analyst review. It concludes by discussing the broader lessons from these experiences that apply beyond the Stryker itself.[48]

Soldiers and officers who use Strykers defend them as very effective vehicles;[49] an article in the Washington Post states:

But in more than a dozen interviews, commanders, soldiers and mechanics who use the Stryker fleet daily in one of Iraq's most dangerous areas unanimously praised the vehicle. The defects outlined in the report were either wrong or relatively minor and did little to hamper the Stryker's effectiveness.[50]

In the same article, Col. Robert B. Brown, commander of the 1st Brigade, 25th Infantry Division (Stryker Brigade Combat Team), said that the Strykers saved the lives of at least 100 soldiers deployed in northern Iraq.[50]

The article also states that the bolt-on slat armor is effective ballistic protection, which, at the time of the article, was the main flaw cited by critics. A 2003 GAO report to Congress acknowledges that the suspension is a mobility limitation in wet conditions, especially with the added weight of the slat armor.[51]

Reports from military personnel and analysts indicate the Stryker is superior to other light military vehicles regarding survivability against IEDs (improvised explosive devices).[52][53] Although soldiers have anecdotally referred to Strykers as "Kevlar Coffins," blogger James Hasik believes that this nickname does not reflect poorly on the vehicle's protection.[54][55]

  Variants

The Stryker chassis' modular design supports a wide range of variants. The main chassis is the Infantry Carrier Vehicle (ICV). There have been no proposals yet for an Air Defense variant along the lines of LAV-25 LAV-AD Blazer turret, M6 Linebacker or AN/TWQ-1 Avenger vehicles.

The Stryker vehicles have the following configurations:[56]

  • M1126 Infantry Carrier Vehicle (ICV): Armored personnel carrier version that provides protected transport for 2 crew and a 9 man infantry squad, and can support dismounted infantry. Weighs 19 tons, communications include text and a map network between vehicles. It can be armed with 0.50 inch M2 Browning machine gun, 40 mm MK19 grenade launcher or 7.62 mm M240 machine gun.
  • M1127 Reconnaissance Vehicle (RV) used by RSTA Squadrons and battalion scouts, moving throughout the battlefield to gather and transmit real time intelligence/surveillance for situational awareness. The RV's purpose is to anticipate and avert threats, improving the brigade's decisiveness and freedom of maneuver.
  Mobile Gun System
  • M1128 Mobile Gun System (MGS) : Version armed with an 105 mm M68A1 rifled cannon (M68A1E4) (a lightweight version of the gun system used on the original M1 Abrams main battle tanks and the M60 Patton main battle tank), an M2 0.50 caliber commander's machine gun and two M6 smoke grenade launchers. The M68A1E4 also features a muzzle brake to assist with recoil and an autoloader, a rare feature on US tank guns. The main gun provides direct fires in support of infantry, engaging stationary and mobile enemy targets, such as bunkers to create a combined arms effect of overmatched firepower that improves survivability of the combat team. The MGS can fire one of its 18 ready 105 mm shells every 6 seconds, and carries 400 rounds of 0.50 caliber and 3,400 rounds of 7.62 mm, and the same C4ISR communications and driver's vision as the ICV. The MGS vehicle is a strengthened variant of the LAV III compared to the standard variant other Stryker vehicles are based on, but retains commonality across all vehicles in the family.
  120 mm mortar fired from Stryker MCV-B variant
  • M1129 Mortar Carrier (MC) armed with Soltam 120 mm Mortar supports infantry with screening obscurants, suppressive forces and on-call supporting fires (HE, illumination, IR illumination, smoke, precision guided, and DPICM cluster bombs). Precision Guided Mortar Munition (PGMM) attacks point targets at extended ranges with GPS guidance. Organic mortars provide responsive fire support to the maneuver commander and are an ideal system for indirect fire in complex terrain. Vehicles at battalion level also carry the 81mm mortar for dismounted use, while company mortar vehicles carry the 60mm mortar.[57]
  • M1130 Command Vehicle (CV) provides commanders with communication, data, and control functions to analyze and prepare information for combat missions; can also link to aircraft antenna/power for planning missions while enroute aboard aircraft. Situational awareness helps commanders to coordinate widely dispersed mobile units against decisive enemy points. Deployed as 3 vehicles per brigade HQ, 2 per battalion HQ and 2 per infantry company.
  • M1131 Fire Support Vehicle (FSV) is organic to maneuver companies and provides surveillance and communications (4 secure combat radio nets), with target acquisition/identification/tracking/designation being transmitted automatically to the shooting units.
  • M1132 Engineer Squad Vehicle (ESV) provides mobility and limited counter mobility support. Integrated into the ESV are obstacle neutralization and lane marking systems and mine detection devices. The ESV with its attachments provides a partial solution to the obstacle clearance role, primarily for clearance of hastily emplaced mines on hard surfaces and rubble, plus will enable the Engineer squad to control future robotic based systems.
  Interior of Medical Evacuation Vehicle
  • M1133 Medical Evacuation Vehicle (MEV) is the Battalion Aid Station for brigade units, providing treatment for serious injury and advanced trauma as an integrated part of the internetted combat forward formation. attendant’s seat that will allow the attendant to change position and visually monitor all patients while the vehicle is in motion. Medical personnel must be seated for safety while the vehicle is in motion, but able to visually monitor patients. Geneva Convention markings can be masked/removed as required.
  Anti-Tank Guided Missile Vehicle
  • M1134 Anti-Tank Guided Missile Vehicle (ATGM) is a missile vehicle armed with the TOW missile to reinforce the brigade's infantry and reconnaissance, providing long-range antitank fires against armour beyond tank gun effective range. The separate antitank company can also be used to shape the battlefield, reinforce the infantry battalions and reconnaissance squadron (e.g. counter-reconnaissance), serve as a reserve, and of course may counterattack. Vehicle commander independently locates secondary targets while gunner is engaging the primary. After ready rounds are fired, crewman will need to rearm the launcher. A vehicle commander, gunner, loader, and driver operate the ATGM in a tactical environment and to carry equipment if the missile launcher is used in a dismounted mode.
  • M1135 Nuclear, Biological, Chemical, Reconnaissance Vehicle (NBC RV) automatically integrates contamination information from detectors with input from navigation and meteorological systems and transmits digital NBC warning messages to warn follow-on forces. The core of the NBC RV is its on-board integrated NBC sensor suite and integrated meteor-ological system. An NBC positive overpressure system that minimizes cross-contamination of samples and detection instruments, provides crew protection, and allows extended operations at MOPP 0.
  • Mxxxx Self-Propelled Howitzer (SPH) This was a prototype vehicle with turret and ammunition developed by Denel Land Systems. Work stopped after the successful November 2005 demonstration of the prototype.[58]

  Operators

  Current operators

  Potential customers

Canada originally ordered 66 Stryker Mobile Gun System vehicles in 2003, which were expected to arrive in 2010. However, in 2006 the Canadian Forces asked its government to cancel the MGS acquisition. The MGS was originally intended to be used in the "Direct Fire Unit",[64] which will include Tow Under Armour (LAV III) and MMEV (ADATS on LAV III). The MGS was originally intended to provide the direct gun fire capabilities of the retiring Leopard C2 tanks.[65] However, with the recent demonstrated usefulness of tanks in Iraq and hurried deployment of Canadian Leopard C2 tanks to Afghanistan, combined with political changes in Canada and the Canadian military, the purchase of more modern tanks occurred with the announcement of the purchase of surplus Leopard 2s from the Netherlands.[66] The MMEV project has also since been canceled, and the TUA requirement cut in half.

Israel has received three Stryker variants for trials, the first of which were vehicles from early production and did not include add-on armor.[citation needed] A 2004 article in the Jerusalem Post cited an unnamed military source who said the deal was "buried for good", and speculated that the Stryker was not chosen due to a number of shortcomings. In 2008, the IDF began receiving the locally designed and produced Namer heavy armored personnel carriers instead.[67]

The Government of Iraq has requested, via the Foreign Military Sales program, the possible sale of 400 Stryker ICVs for use by the Iraqi National Police. The order would also include 8 heavy recovery vehicles for use with the Strykers.[68][69][70][71] The Chilean Navy has declared an interest in procuring a number of General Dynamics Land Systems (GDLS) Stryker 8x8 armoured vehicles for its marines.[72]

  See also

  References

  1. ^ a b c Products / LAVs, General Dynamics Land Systems – Canada, http://www.gdlscanada.com/Default.aspx?tabid=68 
  2. ^ a b c Facilities, General Dynamics Land Systems, http://www.gdls.com/facilities 
  3. ^ http://costofwar.com/en/publications/2011/analysis-fiscal-year-2012-pentagon-spending-request/
  4. ^ a b "Army Fact File - Stryker". http://www.army.mil/factfiles/equipment/wheeled/stryker.html. Retrieved 16 April 2008. 
  5. ^ "Stryker Armored personnel carrier". http://www.military-today.com/apc/stryker.htm. Retrieved 16 April 2008. 
  6. ^ http://www.tanknutdave.com/component/content/article/101
  7. ^ "Army Announces Name For Interim Armored Vehicle". U.S. Army. Retrieved 15 August 2007.
  8. ^ a b "Stryker". ArmedForces-int.com. 6 March 2006. http://www.armedforces-int.com/article/stryker-2.html. 
  9. ^ Captain S. Lucas (8 February 2005), HELL ON WHEELS: The U.S. Army’s Stryker Brigade Combat Team, pp. 1–2, http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA505224&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf 
  10. ^ "General Dynamics Delivers First Production Stryker MGS Vehicles". generaldynamics.com. http://www.generaldynamics.com/news/press_releases/2005/NewsRelease%20December%2015,%202005.htm. Retrieved 13 July 2008. 
  11. ^ Autonomous Navigation System (ANS)
  12. ^ Suspension test report, MillenWorks
  13. ^ U.S. Army Stryker Combat Vehicles to be Equipped with Allegheny Technologies' ATI 500-MIL Armor Steel
  14. ^ US Army Outlines Future Improvements for the Stryker. defense-update.com
  15. ^ Brannen, Kate. "U.S. Army 'Moving Rapidly' To Add V-Hull to Strykers". Defense News, 3 March 2010.
  16. ^ Rutherford, Emelie. "Army Weighing Quick Fielding of V-Hull Kits For IED-Prone Strykers". Defense Daily, 4 March 2010. subscription article.
  17. ^ "U.S. Army pushes Stryker modification". UPI, 11 March 2010.
  18. ^ Lee, Richard. "W-Shaped Hull Patent Application Publication".
  19. ^ "US Army Awards GD $30 M For Stryker Double-V Hull Production"
  20. ^ Tiron, Roxana. "Pentagon Tester Says General Dynamics’ New Stryker Needs Fix." Bloomberg News, 9 March 2011.
  21. ^ Ashton, Adam. "JBLM soldiers get experience with new, safer Stryker vehicles." The Olympian, 24 March 2012.
  22. ^ "US Army Moves Ahead with V-Hull Strykers"
  23. ^ "AUSA 2012: US Army Quantifies Stryker Double-V Hull"
  24. ^ "Army to field more 'double-V hull' Strykers"
  25. ^ Brannen, Kate. "Chiarelli: GCV usually will not weigh its max". Army Times Publishing Company. http://www.armytimes.com/news/2010/05/army_gcv_weight_052010w/. Retrieved 21 May 2010. 
  26. ^ 11 by 17.fm
  27. ^ a b "Stryker Armored Vehicle". globalsecurity.org. http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/ground/iav.htm. 
  28. ^ US Army Outlines Future Improvements for the Stryker. defense-update.com
  29. ^ "Stryker Armored Personnel Carrier". defense-update.com. http://www.defense-update.com/products/s/stryker.htm. 
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