Survivor (U.S. TV series)
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Fan-made recreation of the logo for Survivor: Borneo.
|Created by||Charlie Parsons|
|Presented by||Jeff Probst|
|Country of origin||United States|
|No. of seasons||19|
|No. of episodes||259|
|Running time||42 minutes|
|Original run||May 31, 2000– present|
|Related shows||Expedition Robinson|
Survivor is an American version of the Survivor reality television game show, itself derived from the Swedish television series Expedition Robinson originally created in 1997 by Charlie Parsons, and first broadcast in May 2000. Mark Burnett produces the American series. Its host is the former game show emcee and news reporter, Jeff Probst. The CBS television network broadcasts the premier run of each season, and syndication to other cable networks follows. Russ Landau composed the theme song.
The show maroons a group of strangers (as one or more tribes) in a desolate locale, where they must provide food, water, fire, and shelter for themselves, while competing in challenges to earn either a reward, or an immunity from expulsion from the game in the next of the successive votes for elimination. While much rarer than elimination by vote, medical conditions, such as injury or infection, have eliminated several contestants. The last two or three survivors face a jury historically comprising of at least the last seven players voted off. That jury interrogates the final few, and then votes for the winner of the title of Sole Survivor and a million dollar prize.
The American version has been very successful. From the 2000-2001 through the 2005-2006 television seasons its first eleven seasons (competitions) rated amongst the top ten most watched shows. It is commonly considered the mother of American reality TV because it was the first highly-rated and profitable reality show on broadcast television in the USA, and is considered one of the most important shows of the first decade of the 21st century.
The show completed its nineteenth season, Survivor: Samoa, on December 20, 2009. Probst has signed a contract to host the show through its twentieth season. The 10th anniversary edition of the show was also filmed in Samoa. The show's second "All-Stars" season is titled Heroes vs. Villains. The twentieth season will premiere February 11, 2010. In January 2010, CBS ordered two more seasons, the 21st and 22nd, making it television's longest-running reality competition series.
On November 4, 2009, it was announced that the show would be turned into a video game. The Survivor game would require players to participate in various challenges like those in the reality shows in order to win. A previous version of the game, in which the player could play as any of the 32 Pulau Tiga and Australian Outback cast members or create a character from scratch, was released on November 13, 2001, but received poor reviews.
Format and rules
The first U.S. season of Survivor followed the same general format as the Swedish series, but since then, the show has introduced several twists to the core rules to keep players on guard in newer seasons from relying on strategies present in previous seasons. These changes have included tribal switches, seasons starting with more than two tribes, the ability to exile a player from their tribe for a short time, and a hidden immunity idol that a player can use to save themselves at the tribal vote.
U.S. Survivor seasons
The United States version is produced by Mark Burnett and hosted by Jeff Probst. It airs Thursdays on CBS. Each competition is called a season, has a unique name, and lasts from 13 to 15 episodes. The first season of Survivor was broadcast as a summer replacement show in 2000. Starting with Survivor: The Australian Outback there have been two Survivor seasons aired during each U.S. television season.
|1||Survivor: Borneo||Pulau Tiga, Sabah, Borneo, Malaysia||Two tribes of eight||Richard Hatch||Kelly Wiglesworth||4-3||Only season to air on Wednesdays.|
|2||Survivor: The Australian Outback||Herbert River at Goshen Station, Queensland, Australia||Two tribes of eight||Tina Wesson||Colby Donaldson||4-3||Michael Skupin suffered burns and became the first contestant to be evacuated due to injuries; only season to film for more than 39 days, running 42 days.|
|3||Survivor: Africa||Shaba National Reserve, Kenya||Two tribes of eight||Ethan Zohn||Kim Johnson||5-2||First season to feature a tribal swap|
|4||Survivor: Marquesas||Nuku Hiva, Marquesas Islands||Two tribes of eight||Vecepia Towery||Neleh Dennis||4-3||The only time the infamous Purple Rock tie breaker was ever used|
|5||Survivor: Thailand||Ko Tarutao, Satun Province, Thailand||Two tribes of eight picked by the two oldest players, Jake and Jan||Brian Heidik||Clay Jordan||4-3||First to feature a fake merge and a delayed merge|
|6||Survivor: The Amazon||Rio Negro, Amazonas, Brazil||Two tribes of eight divided by gender||Jenna Morasca||Matthew Von Ertfelda||6-1||First time a reality show contestant competed with a disability - the hearing impaired Christy Smith|
|7||Survivor: Pearl Islands||Pearl Islands, Panama||Two tribes of eight||Sandra Diaz-Twine||Lillian Morris||6-1||First and only time players who had been voted out were allowed to return to the game as part of the Outcast Tribe; first season in which a player, Osten Taylor, quit the game|
|8||Survivor: All-Stars||Pearl Islands, Panama||Three tribes of six returning players||Amber Brkich||Rob Mariano||4-3||Survivor: America's Tribal Council was held four days later, and a second million-dollar prize was awarded to Rupert Boneham for being voted by the viewers as their favorite contestant; Mariano proposed to Brkich during the Reunion.|
|9||Survivor: Vanuatu - Islands of Fire||Efate, Shefa Province, Vanuatu||Two tribes of nine divided by gender||Chris Daugherty||Twila Tanner||5-2||Chris was the only male remaining in the final seven; Chad Crittenden was the first amputee contestant.|
|10||Survivor: Palau||Koror, Palau, Micronesia||A schoolyard pick of two tribes of nine, starting with Ian and Jolanda; two eliminated without a tribe||Tom Westman||Katie Gallagher||6-1||Only season in which one of the tribes, Koror, won all the immunity challenges - Stephenie LaGrossa, the last member of the defeated tribe, Ulong, was simply absorbed into Koror.|
|11||Survivor: Guatemala - The Maya Empire||Laguna Yaxhá, Yaxhá-Nakúm-Naranjo National Park, Petén, Guatemala||Two tribes of nine, including Stephenie LaGrossa and Bobby Jon Drinkard from Palau||Danni Boatwright||Stephenie LaGrossa||6-1||First season to include a hidden immunity idol.|
|12||Survivor: Panama - Exile Island||Pearl Islands, Panama||Four tribes of four divided by age and gender||Aras Baskauskas||Danielle DiLorenzo||5-2||First season to include Exile Island throughout the show and first to offer the hidden Immunity Idol throughout, which could only be found by being exiled to Exile Island.|
|13||Survivor: Cook Islands||Aitutaki, Cook Islands||Four tribes of five divided by ethnicity: African Americans, Caucasians, Hispanics, and Asians||Yul Kwon||Ozzy Lusth|
|5-4-0||Both Exile Island and the Hidden Immunity Idol were used throughout the season; first time three castaways were involved in the final vote, with a jury composed of nine members|
|14||Survivor: Fiji||Macuata, Vanua Levu, Fiji||Two tribes of nine divided by Sylvia, who herself joined Ravu after the first tribal council||Earl Cole||Cassandra Franklin|
Dre "Dreamz" Herd
|9-0-0||First time the total number of castaways was an odd number (19), due to the last minute withdrawal of one contestant. As part of the twist to this season, one tribe enjoyed much luxuries while the other had virtually nothing; first unanimous victory.|
|15||Survivor: China||Zhelin Reservoir, Jiujiang, Jiangxi, People's Republic of China||Two tribes of eight||Todd Herzog||Courtney Yates|
|4-2-1||A twist involving kidnapping players from the opposing tribe replaced Exile Island|
|16||Survivor: Micronesia - Fans vs Favorites||Koror, Palau, Micronesia||Two tribes of ten: fans against popular past contestants||Parvati Shallow||Amanda Kimmel||5-3||Two contestants, one from each tribe, were sent to Exile Island; first season to have three castaways leave due to reasons other than being voted out.|
|17||Survivor: Gabon - Earth's Last Eden||Wonga-Wongue Presidential Reserve, Estuaire, Gabon||A schoolyard pick of two tribes of nine, starting with the oldest players, Bob & Gillian||Robert "Bob" Crowley||Susie Smith|
Jessica "Sugar" Kiper
|4-3-0||First season shot and aired in HD. The show premiered on September 25 as a two-hour event. On Exile Island, the player selected could choose the clue to the Hidden Immunity Idol or take comfort of a hammock, pillows and fresh fruit.|
|18||Survivor: Tocantins - The Brazilian Highlands||Jalapão, Tocantins, Brazil||Two tribes of eight||James "J.T." Thomas Jr.||Stephen Fishbach||7-0||Two players were sent to exile, where one would receive a clue to the hidden immunity idol|
|19||Survivor: Samoa||Upolu, Samoa||Two tribes of ten||Natalie White||Russell Hantz|
|7-2-0||The tribe who won reward sent one of their castaways to accompany the losing tribe back to their campsite and observe them until the next immunity challenge.|
|20||Survivor: Heroes vs. Villains||Upolu, Samoa||Two tribes of ten returning players, deemed as "heroes" or "villains"||TBD||TBD||TBD|
U.S. television ratings
Seasonal rankings (based on average total viewers per episode) of the United States version of Survivor on CBS.
Note: Each U.S. network television season starts in late September and ends in late May, which coincides with the completion of May sweeps.
Survivor: Borneo doesn't have a ranking because it aired in the summer of 2000. It would have ranked #2 in the 1999-2000 U.S. television season, assuming it would have attained the exact same viewership numbers as it did in the summer of 2000.
|Program||Timeslot (ET/PT)||Premiered||Ended||TV Season||Rank||Viewers|
|Survivor: Borneo||Wednesday 8:00PM||May 31, 2000||15.51||August 23, 2000||51.69||36.70||1999-2000||#2||28.30|
|Survivor: The Australian Outback||Thursday 8:00PM||January 28, 2001||45.371||May 3, 2001||36.35||28.01||2000-2001||#1||29.80|
|Survivor: Africa||October 11, 2001||23.84||January 10, 2002||27.26||19.05||2001-2002||#5||20.69|
|Survivor: Marquesas||February 28, 2002||23.19||May 19, 2002||25.87||17.89||#4||20.77|
|Survivor: Thailand||September 19, 2002||23.05||December 19, 2002||24.08||20.43||2002-2003||#6||21.21|
|Survivor: The Amazon||February 13, 2003||23.26||May 11, 2003||22.29||17.65||#8||19.97|
|Survivor: Pearl Islands||September 18, 2003||21.50||December 14, 2003||25.23||21.87||2003-2004||#6||20.72|
|Survivor: All-Stars||February 1, 2004||33.541||May 9, 2004||24.76||23.92||#3||21.49|
|Survivor: Vanuatu||September 16, 2004||20.06||December 12, 2004||19.72||15.23||2004-2005||#6||19.64|
|Survivor: Palau||February 17, 2005||23.66||May 15, 2005||20.80||15.48||#5||20.91|
|Survivor: Guatemala||September 15, 2005||18.41||December 11, 2005||21.18||15.21||2005-2006||#8||18.30|
|Survivor: Panama||February 2, 2006||19.20||May 14, 2006||17.07||11.65||#11||16.82|
|Survivor: Cook Islands||September 14, 2006||18.00||December 17, 2006||16.42||13.53||2006-2007||#13||15.75|
|Survivor: Fiji||February 8, 2007||16.68||May 13, 2007||13.63||11.43||#15||14.83|
|Survivor: China||September 20, 2007||15.35||December 16, 2007||15.10||12.22||2007-2008||#8||15.18|
|Survivor: Micronesia||February 7, 2008||14.02||May 11, 2008||12.92||10.84||#11||13.51|
|Survivor: Gabon||September 25, 2008||13.05||December 14, 2008||13.77||11.74||2008-2009||#15||13.81|
|Survivor: Tocantins||February 12, 2009||13.80||May 17, 2009||12.94||11.59||#19||12.92|
|Survivor: Samoa||September 17, 2009||11.66||December 20, 2009||13.97||11.68||2009-2010||13.45|
|Survivor: Heroes vs. Villains||February 11, 2010|
^1 The season premieres of Survivor: The Australian Outback and Survivor: All-Stars each aired after a Super Bowl. Survivor seasons (competitions) broadcast in winter/spring have had episodes moved to Wednesdays at 8:00pm to avoid conflicts with broadcasts of the first two weeks of the NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship. For Survivor: Marquesas and every competition beginning with Survivor: The Amazon, the finale was broadcast Sunday Night at 8:00pm. In addition, for the spring Survivor season (second competition of the television season), this finale has almost always coincided with Mother's Day in the United States (2009 was an exception).
The American version of Survivor has been shot in many locations around the world since the first season, favoring warm, tropical climates.
|Continent||Locations (Season number)|
|Africa||Kenya (3), Gabon (17)|
|Asia||Borneo (1), China (15), Thailand (5)|
|Oceania||Australia (2), Cook Islands (13), Fiji (14), Marquesas (4), Palau (10, 16), Samoa (19, 20), Vanuatu (9)|
|North America (Central America)||Guatemala (11), Panama (7, 8, 12)|
|South America||Brazil (6, 18)|
At the end of each U.S. Survivor series from Survivor: Africa onward, various Survivor props and memorabilia are auctioned online for charity. The most common recipient has been the Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation. Most recently, proceeds have gone toward The Serpentine Project, a charity founded by Jeff Probst, dedicated to helping those transitioning out of foster care upon emancipation at eighteen years of age. Items up for auction have included flags, mats, tree mails, contestant torches, contestant clothing, autographed items, immunity idols and the voting urn.
Controversies and legal action
Turmoil between players is commonplace for any reality series, but Survivor has had a few instances which went beyond mere intertribal squabbles. More recently, there have been debates, some even prior to the series' premiere, regarding the formatting of the show:
- In February 2001, Borneo player Stacey Stillman filed a lawsuit claiming producers interfered in the process of the game by persuading two members of her tribe (Sean Kenniff and Dirk Been) to vote her off instead of Rudy Boesch.
- During a reward trip, Colby Donaldson removed corals from the Great Barrier Reef. In the same trip, a helicopter involved in the production flew around protected sea bird rookeries.
- At the trivia immunity challenge for Africa's final four players, host Jeff Probst asked which female player in their season had no piercings. Kim Johnson answered Kelly Goldsmith, got the point, and went on to win the challenge, which pushed her to third and ultimately (after another immunity win) second place. Tom Buchanan was eliminated. Months later, the cast and producers (who were preparing for the live finale and reunion) watched the episode backstage. During the rebroadcast of the challenge, Lindsey Richter shouted to the TV that she had no piercings. Lex van den Berghe's answer had been Lindsey, yet the show had not awarded him a point, thus significantly changing the outcome of the game (van den Berghe was eliminated in third place). CBS later paid van den Berghe and Buchanan a settlement.
- In the fifth episode of the All-Star season, a naked Richard Hatch may or may not have come into contact with Sue Hawk after she blocked his path during an immunity challenge. Hatch was voted out that day for other reasons; Hawk quit the game a few days later (episode six). Hawk considered filing a lawsuit against the parties involved, but appeared with Hatch on The Early Show the morning after the sixth episode aired, stating she opted out of legal action because CBS had helped her "deal with the situation."
- In order to be sure to win a Reward Challenge in which the castaways competed to win a visit from their friends or loved ones, Pearl Islands Survivor Jonny "Fairplay" Dalton conspired beforehand with friend Dan Fields in what has been described by Probst as the greatest lie on Survivor to date. Fields told Dalton that his grandmother, Jean Cooke, had died, in order to win sympathy from his tribemates and subsequently the reward. In reality, Cooke had not died, a fact that only emerged to his tribemates once the episode had aired. When the show staff heard the report of Cooke's death, they called Dalton's family to offer condolences, only to have Cooke herself answer the phone. Dalton admitted in confessional after the challenge that his grandmother was alive and "probably watching Jerry Springer right now." On that season's reunion show, Jeff Probst had a short interview with Cooke, who was indeed alive and well.
- Rupert Boneham, originally on Survivor: Pearl Islands and then part of Survivor: All-Stars was an extremely popular player with television audiences, but finished eighth and fourth, respectively, in his appearances on the show. As part of Survivor: All-Stars, a special Survivor: America's Tribal Council contest for the 18 players was created, where the winner would be selected by the viewing audience and would receive US$1 million prize; Rupert won this prize, unsurprisingly, with more than 80% of the votes cast. Many long-time Survivor fans saw this as a way of diluting the overall concept of the show, that instead of outwitting, outplaying and outlasting your fellow tribe members to win the game, a player could now play specifically to gain popularity with the show's audience, regardless of how well he played the game, and still would be rewarded with a large prize.
- Richard Hatch, the winner of the first season of Survivor, was charged and found guilty in January 2006 of failing to report his winnings to the IRS to avoid taxes. He has been sentenced to four years, three months in prison.
- The 13th season of Survivor, known as Survivor: Cook Islands, began with tribes grouped according to race. Host Jeff Probst claims the choice "came from the criticism that Survivor was not ethnically diverse enough." Several long-term sponsors, including Campbell's Soup, Procter & Gamble, Home Depot, Coca Cola, and General Motors dropped their support of the show shortly after this announcement, leading to speculation that the decisions were in response to the controversy. Each of the companies has either denied the link or declined to comment.
- Mark Burnett has also received criticism for reenacting scenes with actor stand ins which he claims were used to increase production value and did not affect the outcome.
- The program angered its fan base when Jeff Probst revealed that Survivor: Fiji ignored the thousands of viewer applicants and instead used their own recruited players. It was revealed that Gary Stritesky was the only actual applicant chosen, while the rest used on the show were recruits. While Probst defended the process by claiming they wanted to find more diverse players, 10 of the recruits were from California (13 the previous season) and many were young unemployed actors found in places like bars and MySpace. One example was Mellisa McNulty, a Fiji recruit, who was unable to even make it to the island, quitting because of a panic attack merely five hours before departing.
- At the Survivor: China reunion show, Denise Martin told producers and the audience her unfortunate story of being demoted to a janitor from a lunch lady because of the distraction she was to students. Because of her claimed misfortune, Mark Burnett awarded Martin US$50,000. Martin ultimately recanted the story after the school district publicly stated that she had taken the custodial position before appearing on the show. She also decided to donate the $50,000 to charity.
- A brief uncensored shot of Marcus Lehman's genitals during the premiere episode of Survivor: Gabon has led to the show and network being asked to apologize for the incident.
The wild success of Survivor spawned a wide range of merchandise from the very first season. While early items available were limited to buffs, water bottles, hats, t-shirts, and other typical souvenir items, the marketability of the franchise has grown tremendously. Today, fans can find innumerable items, including computer and board games, interactive online games, mugs, tribal-themed jewelry, beach towels, dog tags, magnets, multi-function tools, DVD seasons, Survivor party kits, insider books, soundtracks, and more.
One of the more novel merchandising items has been the interactive Survivor: The Ride thrill ride at Great America in Santa Clara, California. The ride includes a rotating platform on which riders are divided into one of four "tribes." As the ride moves along an undulating track, riders can be sprayed by water guns hidden in oversized tribal masks while drums and other familiar Survivor musical accents play in the background. Other theming includes Survivor memorabilia throughout the queue line and other merchandise for sale in nearby gift shops.
|DVD name||Release date|
|Season One: The Greatest and Most Outrageous Moments||January 1, 2001|
|Season Two: The Greatest and Most Outrageous Moments||September 25, 2001|
|DVD name||Release date|
|The Complete First Season: Borneo||May 11, 2004|
|The Complete Second Season: Australian Outback||April 26, 2005|
|The Complete Seventh Season: Pearl Islands||February 7, 2006|
|The Complete Eighth Season: All-Stars||September 14, 2004|
|The Complete Ninth Season: Vanuatu||December 5, 2006|
|The Complete Tenth Season: Palau||August 29, 2006|
Complete seasons on iTunes
|Season 9: Vanuatu|
|Season 10: Palau|
|Season 11: Guatemala|
|Season 12: Panama|
|Season 13: Cook Islands|
|Season 14: Fiji|
|Season 15: China|
|Season 16: Micronesia|
|Season 17: Gabon|
|Season 18: Tocantins|
|Season 19: Samoa|
|Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Survivor (TV show)|
- Expedition Robinson
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- ^ "Zap2It: Tepid 'Survivor: Vanuatu' Premiere Still Beats NBC". September 17, 2004. http://tv.zap2it.com/tveditorial/tve_main/1,1002,271%7C90723%7C1%7C,00.html.
- ^ "Reality TV World: 'Survivor: Vanuatu' finale averages nearly 20 million viewers, but ABC's 'Housewives' still wins its hour". December 14, 2004. http://www.realitytvworld.com/news/survivor-vanuatu-finale-averages-nearly-20-million-viewers-but-abc-housewives-still-wins-its-hour-3123.php.
- ^ a b "Reality TV World: 'Survivor: Palau' debuts to the show's biggest ratings in years, destroys 'Joey'". February 21, 2005. http://www.realitytvworld.com/news/survivor-palau-debuts-show-biggest-ratings-in-years-destroys-joey-3258.php.
- ^ "Reality TV World: CBS's 'Survivor: Palau' finale averages 20.8 million viewers, but still trails ABC's 'Housewives'". May 19, 2005. http://www.realitytvworld.com/news/cbs-survivor-palau-finale-averages-208-million-viewers-but-still-trails-abc-housewives-3515.php.
- ^ a b "Zap2It: 'Guatemala' Finale Outrates Past Two 'Survivors'". December 12, 2005. http://tv.zap2it.com/tveditorial/tve_main/1,1002,271%7C99065%7C1%7C,00.html.
- ^ "Media Life Magazine: So spooky: Sci-fi me-toos start strong". September 21, 2005. http://www.medialifemagazine.com/cgi-bin/artman/exec/view.cgi?archive=47&num=221.
- ^ "Reality TV World: 'Survivor: Guatemala' ends with a bang, delivers best finale ratings since 'Survivor: All-Stars'". December 15, 2005. http://www.realitytvworld.com/news/survivor-guatemala-ends-with-bang-delivers-best-finale-ratings-since-survivor-all-stars-3883.php.
- ^ "E! Online: "Survivor" Aligns with "Stars"". February 7, 2006. http://www.eonline.com/News/Items/0,1,18316,00.html?newsrellink.
- ^ "Ratings for May 8-14, 2006". May 16, 2006. http://www.abcmedianet.com/pressrel/dispDNR.html?id=051606_06.
- ^ "Ratings for 2005-2006 season". May 31, 2006. http://www.abcmedianet.com/pressrel/dispDNR.html?id=053106_05.
- ^ "Mediaweek: The Programming Insider". September 20, 2006. http://www.mediaweek.com/mw/search/article_display.jsp?vnu_content_id=1003154229.
- ^ a b "2006-07 primetime wrap". Hollywood Reporter. May 25, 2007. http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/hr/content_display/television/features/e3ifbfdd1bcb53266ad8d9a71cad261604f.
- ^ ""Survivor" Heads For Fiji". January 12, 2007. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2007/01/12/earlyshow/series/survivor/main2354911.shtml.
- ^ "Sluggish start for 'Survivor'". Variety. September 21, 2007. http://www.variety.com/article/VR1117972478.html?categoryid=14&cs=1.
- ^ a b c http://abcmedianet.com/web/dnr/dispDNR.aspx?id=092308_04
- ^ "Zap2it - TV ratings". http://tv.zap2it.com/tveditorial/tve_main/1,1002,272%7C%7C%7Cseason,00.html.
- ^ ""SURVIVOR: MICRONESIA-FANS VS. FAVES" AND "THE 50TH ANNUAL GRAMMY AWARDS" BOOST CBS". The Futon Critic. February 12, 2008. http://www.thefutoncritic.com/news.aspx?id=20080212cbs03.
- ^ http://tvbythenumbers.com/2008/09/26/thursday-september-25-greys-anatomy-boosts-abc/
- ^ a b c d http://abcmedianet.com/web/dnr/dispDNR.aspx?id=031009_07
- ^ http://tocantins.survivor.com/survivor-tocantins-episode-1/2009.02.13/thursday-nielsen-tv-ratings-naacp-image-awards-private-practice-greys-anatomy-my-name-is-earl-ugly-betty-er-the-office-and-30-rock.html
- ^ http://abcmedianet.com/web/dnr/dispDNR.aspx?id=051909_05
- ^ http://www.abcmedianet.com/web/dnr/dispDNR.aspx?id=052709_07
- ^ Matt Mitovich (24 June 2009). "Fall TV: CBS Announces Premiere Dates". TV Guide Online. http://www.tvguide.com/News/FallTV-CBS-premieres-1007227.aspx. Retrieved 2009-06-24.
- ^ Seidman, Robert (2009-09-18). "Thursday night broadcast original final numbers". tvbythenumbers.com. http://tvbythenumbers.com/2009/09/18/thursday-night-broadcast-original-final-numbers/27689.
- ^ a b Seidman, Robert (2009-12-22). "TV Ratings: New episodes of Big Bang Theory, Two and a Half Men, Survivor and NCIS propel CBS to top of charts". tvbythenumbers.com. http://tvbythenumbers.com/2009/12/22/tv-ratings-new-episodes-of-big-bang-theory-two-and-a-half-men-survivor-and-ncis-propel-cbs-to-top-of-charts/36955. Retrieved 2009-12-22.
- ^ http://tvbythenumbers.com/2010/01/25/survivor-renewed-amazing-race-renewed-too/40042
- ^ "reality blurred: Colby's Great Barrier Reef coral theft, helicopter flight are being investigated". http://www.realityblurred.com/realitytv/archives/survivor_australia/2001_Apr_03_colbys_great_barrier.
- ^ "Reality News Online". http://www.realitynewsonline.com/cgi-bin/ae.pl?mode=1&article=article1619.art&page=1.
- ^ "Hawk And Hatch: Getting Past It: 'Survivor' Contestant Quits Game, Claims 'Violated' By Another Player". http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/03/04/earlyshow/series/survivor/main604082.shtml.
- ^ "Survivor: America’s Tribal Council – Why Rupert Won". http://www.realitynewsonline.com/cgi-bin/ae.pl?mode=4&article=article4488.art&page=1.
- ^ "Richard Hatch Hit With Tax Evasion Rap". The Smoking Gun. January 18, 2005. http://www.thesmokinggun.com/archive/0118051hatch1.html.
- ^ ""Will a Gimmick Help ‘Survivor’ Save Itself?"". New York Times. September 15, 2006. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/09/15/arts/television/15survivor.html?ref=arts. Retrieved September 21, 2006.
- ^ "More sponsors dump "Survivor" - AdJab". http://www.adjab.com/2006/09/01/more-sponsors-dump-survivor/.
- ^ General Motors also announced their discontinuation of sponsorship into the 13th seasons at nearly the same time as the announcement of the racial split, but the decision was made months prior to the announcement, and thus was purely coincidental. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/14589787/
- ^ "Real? Fake? Does it matter? Public becoming numb to falsities.(Knight Ridder Newspapers) - Knight Ridder/Tribune News Service - HighBeam Research (subscription required)". http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-76010964.html.
- ^ "New 'Survivor: Fiji' divides haves and have-nots "Survivor: Fiji" 8 - Oakland Tribune". http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4176/is_20070207/ai_n17202389.
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- ^ "Survivor Bombshell: Fiji's "Babe" Reveals Why She Bailed! - Celebrity and Entertainment News - TVGuide.com". http://www.tvguide.com/News/survivor-bombshell-fiji/070207-05.
- ^ "'Survivor' contestant apologizes for deception - Local News Updates - The Boston Globe". http://www.boston.com/news/local/breaking_news/2007/12/janitor_was_pro.html.
- ^ "Survivor: China's Denise Martin to donate Burnett's US$50,000 to charity". http://www.realitytvworld.com/news/survivor-china-denise-martin-donate-burnett-50000-charity-6285.php.
- ^ "PTC Blasts CBS for Nudity on "Survivor" Premiere". Parents Television Council. 2008-09-30. http://www.parentstv.org/PTC/news/release/2008/0930.asp. Retrieved 2008-10-01.
- ^ "Survivor: The Ride - LoveToKnow Themeparks". http://themeparks.lovetoknow.com/Survivor:_The_Ride.
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