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Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.
Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !
Change the target language to find translations.
Tips: browse the semantic fields (see From ideas to words) in two languages to learn more.
1.of or relating to fabrics or fabric making"textile research"
1.artifact made by weaving or felting or knitting or crocheting natural or synthetic fibers"the fabric in the curtains was light and semitransparent" "woven cloth originated in Mesopotamia around 5000 BC" "she measured off enough material for a dre..."
TextileTex"tile (?), a. [L. textilis, fr. texere to weave: cf. F. textile. See Text.] Pertaining to weaving or to woven fabrics; as, textile arts; woven, capable of being woven; formed by weaving; as, textile fabrics.
Textile cone (Zoöl.), a beautiful cone shell (Conus textilis) in which the colors are arranged so that they resemble certain kinds of cloth.
TextileTex"tile, n. That which is, or may be, woven; a fabric made by weaving. Bacon.
1964 Textile 250 • Adire (textile art) • Ahmedabad Textile Industry's Research Association • Ahmedabad textile industry • All India Jute Textile Workers' Federation • All Pakistan Textile Mills Association • Allium textile • American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists • BZ University College of Textile Engineering and Technology • Bangladesh textile industry • Bias (textile) • Blocking (textile arts) • Bunting (textile) • Burnley, Nelson, Rossendale and District Textile Workers' Union • Calico (textile) • Cedar bark textile • China (Qingdao) International Textile Machinery Fair (QITMF) • Coimbatore District Textile Workers Union • College of Textile Engineering and Technology • Communal House of the Textile Institute • Compagnie malienne pour le développement du textile • Conductive textile • Conus textile • Dominion Textile • Dubai Textile Village • Far Eastern Textile • Fashion and Textile Museum • Fibre2fashion-B2B Portal For Garment, Textile, Fashion Industry • Frieze (textile) • General Textile Mills • Glossary of textile manufacturing • Glossary of textile terms • Govt. Central Textile Institute • Great Bombay Textile Strike • Gul Ahmed Textile Mills Limited • Hat and Fragrance Textile Gallery • Hmong textile art • Institute of Handloom and Textile Technology • International Federation Textile-Clothing • International Textile Group • International Textile, Garment and Leather Workers' Federation • James Giles (textile designer) • Jardin botanique textile • Lawrence textile strike • Lewis Textile Museum • List of textile companies in Turkey • Mary White (textile designer) • Modal (textile) • Moscow State Textile Academy • Moscow State Textile Institution • Moscow State Textile University • Motif (textile arts) • Museum of Technology and Textile Industry • Museum of Textile in Česká Skalice • Musée de la Mode et du Textile • Nap (textile) • National Committee of the Chinese Financial, Commercial, Light Industry, Textile and Tobacco Workers' Union • National Textile Association • National Textile Corporation • National Textile University • National Union of Dyers, Bleachers and Textile Workers • Net (textile) • Northern Ireland Textile Workers' Union • Northern Textile and Allied Workers' Union • Ostrow Textile Company • Ottoman (textile) • Pabna Textile Engineering College • Philadelphia Textile • Pidan (textile) • Pile (textile) • Pill (textile) • Pondicherry Textile Labour Union • Portadown Textile Workers' Union • Red Banner Textile Factory • Scottish Textile Workers' Union • Sheer (textile) • Southern African Clothing and Textile Workers Union • Southern Textile Association • Suzani textile • TUI of Agriculture, Food, Commerce, Textile and Allied Industries • Tanzania China Friendship Textile Company • Technical textile • Textile (disambiguation) • Textile (markup language) • Textile Bowl • Textile Center Building • Textile Conservation Centre • Textile District • Textile Institute • Textile Institute of Pakistan • Textile Journal • Textile Labelling Act (Germany) • Textile Machinery Makers Ltd • Textile Museum • Textile Museum (Jakarta) • Textile Museum of Canada • Textile Research Centre, Leiden • Textile Workers Union of America • Textile art • Textile art (disambiguation) • Textile arts • Textile bleaching • Textile dermatitis • Textile design • Textile finishing • Textile industry • Textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution • Textile manufacturing • Textile manufacturing by pre-industrial methods • Textile preservation • Textile printing • Textile processing • Textile recycling • Textile reinforced materials • Textile workers strike (1934) • Textile, Clothing and Footwear Union of Australia • The Passaic Textile Strike • Union of Needletrades, Industrial and Textile Employees • Units of textile measurement • Windham Textile and History Museum • Wrights (textile manufacturers)
relatif à (racine de FL) (fr)[Classe...]
étoffe et tissu (fr)[Classe]
fibre textile (fr)[Classe]
chose en étoffe (fr)[ClasseParExt.]
textiles et vêtements (fr)[Thème]
tissage (fr)[termes liés]
relatif à (fr)[Classe...]
tissage (fr)[termes liés]
toile (fr)[termes liés]
textile et vêtements (fr)[termes liés]
surface plane (horizontale, verticale, oblique) (fr)[ClasseParExt.]
fibre textile (fr)[Thème]
all, ensemble, unit, whole[Hyper.]
étoffe et tissu (fr)[Classe]
fibre textile (fr)[Classe]
chose en étoffe (fr)[ClasseParExt.]
tissage (fr)[termes liés]
A textile or cloth is a flexible woven material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres often referred to as thread or yarn. Yarn is produced by spinning raw fibres of wool, flax, cotton, or other material to produce long strands. Textiles are formed by weaving, knitting, crocheting, knotting, or pressing fibres together (felt).
The words fabric and cloth are used in textile assembly trades (such as tailoring and dressmaking) as synonyms for textile. However, there are subtle differences in these terms in specialized usage. Textile refers to any material made of interlacing fibres. Fabric refers to any material made through weaving, knitting, spreading, crocheting, or bonding that may be used in production of further goods (garments, etc.). Cloth may be used synonymously with fabric but often refers to a finished piece of fabric used for a specific purpose (e.g., table cloth).
The production of textiles is a craft whose speed and scale of production has been altered almost beyond recognition by industrialization and the introduction of modern manufacturing techniques. However, for the main types of textiles, plain weave, twill, or satin weave, there is little difference between the ancient and modern methods.
Incas have been crafting quipus (or khipus) made of fibres either from a protein, such as spun and plied thread like wool or hair from camelids such as alpacas, llamas, and camels or from a cellulose like cotton for thousands of years. Khipus are a series of knots along pieces of string. They have been believed to only have acted as a form of accounting, although new evidence conducted by Harvard professor, Gary Urton, indicates there may be more to the khipu than just numbers. Preservation of khipus found in museum and archive collections follow general textile preservation principles and practice.
During the 15th century, Textiles were the largest single industry. Before the 15th century textiles were only in a few towns but during, they shifted into districts like East Anglia, and the Cotswolds.
Textiles have an assortment of uses, the most common of which are for clothing and containers such as bags and baskets. In the household, they are used in carpeting, upholstered furnishings, window shades, towels, covering for tables, beds, and other flat surfaces, and in art. In the workplace, they are used in industrial and scientific processes such as filtering. Miscellaneous uses include flags, backpacks, tents, nets, cleaning devices such as handkerchiefs and rags, transportation devices such as balloons, kites, sails, and parachutes, in addition to strengthening in composite materials such as fibreglass and industrial geotextiles. Children can learn using textiles to make collages, sew, quilt, and toys.
Textiles used for industrial purposes, and chosen for characteristics other than their appearance, are commonly referred to as technical textiles. Technical textiles include textile structures for automotive applications, medical textiles (e.g. implants), geotextiles (reinforcement of embankments), agrotextiles (textiles for crop protection), protective clothing (e.g. against heat and radiation for fire fighter clothing, against molten metals for welders, stab protection, and bullet proof vests). In all these applications stringent performance requirements must be met. Woven of threads coated with zinc oxide nanowires, laboratory fabric has been shown capable of "self-powering nanosystems" using vibrations created by everyday actions like wind or body movements.
Fashion designers commonly rely on textile designs to set their fashion collections apart from others. Armani, the late Gianni Versace, and Emilio Pucci can be easily recognized by their signature print driven designs.
Textiles can be made from many materials. These materials come from four main sources: animal (wool, silk), plant (cotton, flax, jute), mineral (asbestos, glass fibre), and synthetic (nylon, polyester, acrylic). In the past, all textiles were made from natural fibres, including plant, animal, and mineral sources. In the 20th century, these were supplemented by artificial fibres made from petroleum.
Textiles are made in various strengths and degrees of durability, from the finest gossamer to the sturdiest canvas. The relative thickness of fibres in cloth is measured in deniers. Microfibre refers to fibres made of strands thinner than one denier.
Wool refers to the hair of the domestic goat or sheep, which is distinguished from other types of animal hair in that the individual strands are coated with scales and tightly crimped, and the wool as a whole is coated with a wax mixture known as lanolin (aka wool grease), which is waterproof and dirtproof. Woollen refers to a bulkier yarn produced from carded, non-parallel fibre, while worsted refers to a finer yarn which is spun from longer fibres which have been combed to be parallel. Wool is commonly used for warm clothing. Cashmere, the hair of the Indian cashmere goat, and mohair, the hair of the North African angora goat, are types of wool known for their softness.
Other animal textiles which are made from hair or fur are alpaca wool, vicuña wool, llama wool, and camel hair, generally used in the production of coats, jackets, ponchos, blankets, and other warm coverings. Angora refers to the long, thick, soft hair of the angora rabbit. Qiviut is the fine inner wool of the muskox.
Wadmal is a coarse cloth made of wool, produced in Scandinavia, mostly 1000~1500CE.
Silk is an animal textile made from the fibres of the cocoon of the Chinese silkworm which is spun into a smooth fabric prized for its softness. There are two main types of the silk: ‘mulberry silk’ produced by the Bombyx Mori, and ‘wild silk’ such as Tussah silk. Silkworm larvae produce the first type if cultivated in habitats with fresh mulberry leaves for consumption, while Tussah silk is produced by silkworms feeding purely on oak leaves. Around four fifths of the world’s silk production consists of cultivated silk.
Grass, rush, hemp, and sisal are all used in making rope. In the first two, the entire plant is used for this purpose, while in the last two, only fibres from the plant are utilized. Coir (coconut fibre) is used in making twine, and also in floormats, doormats, brushes, mattresses, floor tiles, and sacking.
Cotton, flax, jute, hemp, modal and even bamboo fibre are all used in clothing. Piña (pineapple fibre) and ramie are also fibres used in clothing, generally with a blend of other fibres such as cotton. Nettles have also been used to make a fibre and fabric very similar to hemp or flax. The use of milkweed stalk fibre has also been reported, but it tends to be somewhat weaker than other fibres like hemp or flax.
Seaweed is used in the production of textiles. A water-soluble fibre known as alginate is produced and is used as a holding fibre; when the cloth is finished, the alginate is dissolved, leaving an open area
Lyocell is a man-made fabric derived from wood pulp. It is often described as a man-made silk equivalent and is a tough fabric which is often blended with other fabrics – cotton for example.
Fibres from the stalks of plants, such as hemp, flax, and nettles, are also known as 'bast' fibres.
Asbestos and basalt fibre are used for vinyl tiles, sheeting, and adhesives, "transite" panels and siding, acoustical ceilings, stage curtains, and fire blankets.
Glass fibre is used in the production of spacesuits, ironing board and mattress covers, ropes and cables, reinforcement fibre for composite materials, insect netting, flame-retardant and protective fabric, soundproof, fireproof, and insulating fibres.
Metal fibre, metal foil, and metal wire have a variety of uses, including the production of cloth-of-gold and jewellery. Hardware cloth (US term only) is a coarse weave of steel wire, used in construction. It is much like standard window screening, but heavier and with a more open weave. It is sometimes used together with screening on the lower part of screen doors, to resist scratching by dogs.
All synthetic textiles are used primarily in the production of clothing.
Polyester fibre is used in all types of clothing, either alone or blended with fibres such as cotton.
Acrylic is a fibre used to imitate wools, including cashmere, and is often used in replacement of them.
Lurex is a metallic fibre used in clothing embellishment.
Milk proteins have also been used to create synthetic fabric. Milk or casein fibre cloth was developed during World War I in Germany, and further developed in Italy and America during the 1930s. Milk fibre fabric is not very durable and wrinkles easily, but has a pH similar to human skin and possesses anti-bacterial properties. It is marketed as a biodegradable, renewable synthetic fibre.
|Top ten exporters of textiles—2008
|People's Republic of China||65.3|
|Republic of China||9.2|
|United Arab Emirates||5.8|
Weaving is a textile production method which involves interlacing a set of longer threads (called the warp) with a set of crossing threads (called the weft). This is done on a frame or machine known as a loom, of which there are a number of types. Some weaving is still done by hand, but the vast majority is mechanised.
Knitting and crocheting involve interlacing loops of yarn, which are formed either on a knitting needle or on a crochet hook, together in a line. The two processes are different in that knitting has several active loops at one time, on the knitting needle waiting to interlock with another loop, while crocheting never has more than one active loop on the needle.
Spread Tow is a production method where the yarn are spread into thin tapes, and then the tapes are woven as warp and weft. This method is mostly used for composite materials; Spread Tow Fabrics can be made in carbon, aramide, etc.
Lace is made by interlocking threads together independently, using a backing and any of the methods described above, to create a fine fabric with open holes in the work. Lace can be made by either hand or machine.
Felting involves pressing a mat of fibres together, and working them together until they become tangled. A liquid, such as soapy water, is usually added to lubricate the fibres, and to open up the microscopic scales on strands of wool.
Nonwoven textiles are manufactured by the bonding of fibres to make fabric. Bonding may be thermal or mechanical, or adhesives can be used.
Textiles are often dyed, with fabrics available in almost every colour. The dying process often requires several dozen gallons of water for each pound of clothing. Coloured designs in textiles can be created by weaving together fibres of different colours (tartan or Uzbek Ikat), adding coloured stitches to finished fabric (embroidery), creating patterns by resist dyeing methods, tying off areas of cloth and dyeing the rest (tie-dyeing), or drawing wax designs on cloth and dyeing in between them (batik), or using various printing processes on finished fabric. Woodblock printing, still used in India and elsewhere today, is the oldest of these dating back to at least 220CE in China. Textiles are also sometimes bleached, making the textile pale or white.
Textiles are sometimes finished by chemical processes to change their characteristics. In the 19th century and early 20th century starching was commonly used to make clothing more resistant to stains and wrinkles. Since the 1990s, with advances in technologies such as permanent press process, finishing agents have been used to strengthen fabrics and make them wrinkle free. More recently, nanomaterials research has led to additional advancements, with companies such as Nano-Tex and NanoHorizons developing permanent treatments based on metallic nanoparticles for making textiles more resistant to things such as water, stains, wrinkles, and pathogens such as bacteria and fungi.
More so today than ever before, textiles receive a range of treatments before they reach the end-user. From formaldehyde finishes (to improve crease-resistance) to biocidic finishes and from flame retardants to dyeing of many types of fabric, the possibilities are almost endless. However, many of these finishes may also have detrimental effects on the end user. A number of disperse, acid and reactive dyes (for example) have been shown to be allergenic to sensitive individuals. Further to this, specific dyes within this group have also been shown to induce purpuric contact dermatitis.
Although formaldehyde levels in clothing are unlikely to be at levels high enough to cause an allergic reaction, due to the presence of such a chemical, quality control and testing are of utmost importance. Flame retardants (mainly in the brominated form) are also of concern where the environment, and their potential toxicity, are concerned. Testing for these additives is possible at a number of commercial laboratories, it is also possible to have textiles tested for according to the Oeko-tex certification standard which contains limits levels for the use of certain chemicals in textiles products.
|Look up cloth in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Textiles|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Fabrics|