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Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.
Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !
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Tips: browse the semantic fields (see From ideas to words) in two languages to learn more.
The TV Parental Guidelines system was first proposed on December 19, 1996 by the United States Congress, the television industry and the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), and went into effect by January 1, 1997 on most major U.S. broadcast and cable networks in response to public concerns of increasingly explicit sexual content, graphic violence and strong profanity in television programs. It was established as a voluntary-participation system, with ratings to be determined by the individually-participating broadcast and cable networks.
It was specifically designed to be used with the V-chip, which was mandated to be built into all television sets manufactured since 2000, but the guidelines themselves have no legal force, and are not used on news or sports programming.
(All ages 2 and older)
Whether animated or live-action, the themes and elements in this program are specifically designed for a very young audience, including children from ages 2–6. These programs are not expected to frighten younger children.
(Directed to children 7 and older)
Shows with this rating may or may not be appropriate for some children under the age of seven. They may contain crude or suggestive humor, mild fantasy violence (including excessive, cartoonish slapstick), or content considered too frightening or risque to be shown to children under seven years of age.
(Directed to children 7 and older with fantasy violence in shows)
TV-Y7-FV (Formerly TV-Y7-V) is a alternate version of TV-Y7, When a show has noticeably more fantasy violence than a program rated TV-Y7, it is assigned the TV-Y7-FV rating. Action-adventure shows may carry this rating. Most Japanese anime shows dubbed and aimed at children in the United States are given this rating.
Although shows with this rating are not necessarily targeted to children, they can be enjoyed by a variety of age groups. Networks that air informational, religious, how-to, or otherwise generally inoffensive content (such as the Food Network and HGTV) usually apply a blanket TV-G rating to all of their shows, unless otherwise noted. Programming directed at pre-teens and teens on Nickelodeon, Disney Channel, and TeenNick are rated TV-G for mild language and innuendo. During the 20th century, most cartoons used this rating as a sign that the show contained comic violence or animated smoking that was suitable for family viewing.
(Parental guidance suggested)
This rating signifies that the program may be unsuitable for younger children without the supervision of a parent. Many parents may want to watch it with their younger children. Various game shows and most reality shows are rated TV-PG for their suggestive dialog, suggestive humor, and/or coarse language. Many prime-time series are given this rating.
(Parents are strongly cautioned/May be unsuitable for children under 14 years of age)
Parents are strongly urged to exercise greater care in monitoring this program and are cautioned against letting children under 14 watch unattended. This rating may be accompanied by any of the following sub-ratings:
Many programs that air after 9 p.m. are rated TV-14. Live programming like televised awards ceremonies, concerts, and some specials are sometimes issued a general TV-14 rating, because of the possibility that profanity or suggestive dialog may occur.
(Mature audience/May be unsuitable for audiences under 17 years of age)
A TV-MA rating means the program may be unsuitable for those below 17. This rating was originally TV-M in early 1997 but was changed because of a trademark dispute and to remove confusion with the ESRB's "M for Mature" rating for video games. The program may contain extreme graphic violence, strong profanity, overtly sexual dialogue, very coarse language, nudity and/or strong sexual content. The vast majority of television shows that carry this rating are on cable and satellite TV; network television rarely airs any programming that would warrant such a rating, due to Federal Communications Commission indecency and obscenity guidelines that prevent most of this type of programming from airing on broadcast television. The film Schindler's List was the first network TV airing to display this rating, and the pilot episode of the CBS police drama Brooklyn South made this series the first network TV series to display the rating. Original programming airing in the late evening on some cable networks generally will carry this rating.
In the Telecommunications Act of 1996, the United States Congress called upon the entertainment industry to establish, within one year, a voluntary television rating system (the TV Parental Guidelines) to provide parents with advance information on material in television programming that might be unsuitable for their children. This rating system would work in conjunction with the V-Chip, a device in television sets that enables parents to block programming they determine to be inappropriate.
On February 29, 1996, all segments of the entertainment industry, led by the National Association of Broadcasters (NAB), the National Cable & Telecommunications Association (NCTA), and the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA), joined together and voluntarily pledged to create such a system. They agreed that the guidelines would be applied by broadcast and cable networks in order to handle the huge amount of programming that must be reviewed—some 2,000 hours a day. The guidelines would be applied episodically to all programming with the exception of news, sports and advertising.
On December 19, 1996, the industry announced the creation of the TV Parental Guidelines, a voluntary system of guidelines providing parents with information to help them make more informed choices about the television programs their children watch. The guidelines were modeled after the MPAA movie ratings. The television industry agreed to insert a ratings icon on-screen at the beginning of all rated programs, and to encode the guidelines for use with the V-Chip.
The ratings system was based on age, with each category providing guidance about the intended audience for TV shows carrying that rating. Each ratings category also contained a description of the kind of content that might appear in programs with a particular rating. The ratings categories were separated into two groups: ratings for programming designed for children and ratings for programming designed for general audiences. The two children’s ratings were created based on input from children’s advocates who raised concerns about the special needs of young children. The children’s ratings were: TV-Y for programming designed for all children, and TV-Y7 for programming directed at children 7 or older. The “general audience” categories were as follows: TV-G (general audience – appropriate for all ages), TV-PG (parental guidance suggested – may be unsuitable for younger children), TV-14 (parents strongly cautioned – may be unsuitable for children under 14 years of age), and TV-M (for mature audiences only, may be unsuitable for children under 17).
The industry also created a Monitoring Board, composed of TV industry experts, to ensure accuracy, uniformity and consistency of the guidelines and to consider any public questions about the guideline applied to a particular program.
In response to calls to provide additional content information in the ratings system, on August 1, 1997, the television industry, in conjunction with representatives of children’s and medical advocacy groups, announced a revised rating system. Under this revised system, television programming would continue to fall into one of the six ratings categories (TV-Y, TV-Y7, TV-G, TV-PG, TV-14, TV-MA), but content descriptors of D (suggestive dialogue), L (language), S (sexual content), V (violence) and FV (fantasy violence – exclusively for the TV-Y7 category) would be added to the ratings where appropriate.
Further, the proposal stated that the icons and associated content symbols would appear for 15 seconds at the beginning of all rated programming, and that the size of the icons would be increased. The revised guidelines were supported by leading family and child advocacy groups, as well as television broadcasters, cable systems and networks, and television production companies. Finally, the revised proposal called for five representatives of the advocacy community to be added to the TV Parental Guidelines Monitoring Board. On March 12, 1998, the Federal Communications Commission found that the Industry Video Programming Rating System was acceptable, and adopted technical requirements for the V-Chip.
The ratings are sometimes accompanied by sub-ratings, depending on the amount of objectionable content in the program.
|Rating||Violence (V)||Language (L)||Sexual content (S)||Suggestive dialogue (D)||Fantasy violence (FV)|
|TV-Y7||(once used)||(unused)||(unused)||(unused)||(exclusive use)|
|TV-MA||(used)||(used)||(used)||(unofficial, used by some networks)||(unused)|
For the first 15 seconds of every rated program lasting a half-hour or less, a large rating icon appears in the upper-left hand corner of the screen, it was much smaller until June 2005. For every rated program running an hour or longer, a rating appears in the upper-left hand corner of the TV screen at the beginning of each half hour.
Starting in June 2005, many networks now display the ratings after every commercial break. ABC was one of the first television networks to display the program's rating after every commercial break in addition to at the beginning of the program.
Originally, the Franklin Gothic font was used for the TV rating icons, but upon the October 1998 revision of the system to redub the "TV-M" rating as "TV-MA" and the addition of the content descriptors, Helvetica became used as the default typeface for the TV rating icons. Regularly, the Helvetica font is used for rating icons with either white type on black blackground, or black type on white background, like the icons from top section. Unless a network has a separate high definition simulcast, generally all ratings icons appear in the 4:3 safe area of all television sets.