» 
Arabic Bulgarian Chinese Croatian Czech Danish Dutch English Estonian Finnish French German Greek Hebrew Hindi Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Italian Japanese Korean Latvian Lithuanian Malagasy Norwegian Persian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swedish Thai Turkish Vietnamese
Arabic Bulgarian Chinese Croatian Czech Danish Dutch English Estonian Finnish French German Greek Hebrew Hindi Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Italian Japanese Korean Latvian Lithuanian Malagasy Norwegian Persian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swedish Thai Turkish Vietnamese

definitions - Tetanus

tetanus (n.)

1.a sustained muscular contraction resulting from a rapid series of nerve impulses

2.an acute and serious infection of the central nervous system caused by bacterial infection of open wounds; spasms of the jaw and laryngeal muscles may occur during the late stages

Tetanus (n.)

1.(MeSH)A disease caused by tetanospasmin, a powerful protein toxin produced by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI. Tetanus usually occurs after an acute injury, such as a puncture wound or laceration. Generalized tetanus, the most common form, is characterized by tetanic muscular contractions and hyperreflexia. Localized tetanus presents itself as a mild condition with manifestations restricted to muscles near the wound. It may progress to the generalized form.

   Advertizing ▼

Merriam Webster

TetanusTet"a*nus (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. �, fr. � stretched, � to stretch.]
1. (Med.) A painful and usually fatal disease, resulting generally from a wound, and having as its principal symptom persistent spasm of the voluntary muscles. When the muscles of the lower jaw are affected, it is called locked-jaw, or lickjaw, and it takes various names from the various incurvations of the body resulting from the spasm.

2. (Physiol.) That condition of a muscle in which it is in a state of continued vibratory contraction, as when stimulated by a series of induction shocks.

   Advertizing ▼

definition (more)

definition of Wikipedia

synonyms - Tetanus

tetanus (n.)

lockjaw

see also - Tetanus

tetanus (n.)

tetanic

phrases

analogical dictionary




Wikipedia

Tetanus

                   
Tetanus Bacteria
Classification and external resources

Muscular spasms (specifically opisthotonos) in a patient suffering from tetanus. Painting by Sir Charles Bell, 1809.
ICD-10 A33-A35
ICD-9 037, 771.3
DiseasesDB 2829
MedlinePlus 000615
eMedicine emerg/574
MeSH D013742

Tetanus (from Ancient Greek: τέτανος tetanos "taut", and τείνειν teinein "to stretch")[1] is a medical condition characterized by a prolonged contraction of skeletal muscle fibers. The primary symptoms are caused by tetanospasmin, a neurotoxin produced by the Gram-positive, rod-shaped, obligate anaerobic bacterium Clostridium tetani. Infection generally occurs through wound contamination and often involves a cut or deep puncture wound. As the infection progresses, muscle spasms develop in the jaw (thus the name "lockjaw") and elsewhere in the body.[2] Infection can be prevented by proper immunization and by post-exposure prophylaxis.[3]

Contents

  Signs and symptoms

Tetanus often begins with mild spasms in the jaw muscles (lockjaw). The spasms can also affect the chest, neck, back, and abdominal muscles. Back muscle spasms often cause arching, called opisthotonos. Sometimes the spasms affect muscles that help with breathing, which can lead to breathing problems. Prolonged muscular action causes sudden, powerful, and painful contractions of muscle groups. This is called tetany. These episodes can cause fractures and muscle tears. Other symptoms include drooling, excessive sweating, fever, hand or foot spasms, irritability, swallowing difficulty, uncontrolled urination or defecation.

  An infant suffering from neonatal tetanus.

Tetanus affects skeletal muscle, a type of striated muscle used in voluntary movement. The other type of striated muscle, cardiac or heart muscle, cannot be tetanized because of its intrinsic electrical properties. Mortality rates reported vary from 48% to 73%. In recent years,[when?] approximately 11% of reported tetanus cases have been fatal. The highest mortality rates are in unvaccinated people and people over 60 years of age.[3]

The incubation period of tetanus may be up to several months but is usually about eight days.[4][5] In general, the further the injury site is from the central nervous system, the longer the incubation period. The shorter the incubation period, the more severe the symptoms.[6] In neonatal tetanus, symptoms usually appear from 4 to 14 days after birth, averaging about 7 days. On the basis of clinical findings, four different forms of tetanus have been described.[3]

Generalized tetanus is the most common type of tetanus, representing about 80% of cases. The generalized form usually presents with a descending pattern. The first sign is trismus, or lockjaw, and the facial spasms called risus sardonicus, followed by stiffness of the neck, difficulty in swallowing, and rigidity of pectoral and calf muscles. Other symptoms include elevated temperature, sweating, elevated blood pressure, and episodic rapid heart rate. Spasms may occur frequently and last for several minutes with the body shaped into a characteristic form called opisthotonos. Spasms continue for up to 4 weeks, and complete recovery may take months.

Neonatal tetanus is a form of generalized tetanus that occurs in newborns. Infants who have not acquired passive immunity because the mother has never been immunized are at risk. It usually occurs through infection of the unhealed umbilical stump, particularly when the stump is cut with a non-sterile instrument. Neonatal tetanus is common in many developing countries and is responsible for about 14% (215,000) of all neonatal deaths, but is very rare in developed countries.[7]

Local tetanus is an uncommon form of the disease, in which patients have persistent contraction of muscles in the same anatomic area as the injury. The contractions may persist for many weeks before gradually subsiding. Local tetanus is generally milder; only about 1% of cases are fatal, but it may precede the onset of generalized tetanus.

Cephalic tetanus is a rare form[8] of the disease, occasionally occurring with otitis media (ear infections) in which C. tetani is present in the flora of the middle ear, or following injuries to the head. There is involvement of the cranial nerves, especially in the facial area.

  Cause

It is caused by the tetanus bacterium Clostridium tetani. Tetanus is often associated with rust, especially rusty nails, but this concept is somewhat misleading. Objects that accumulate rust are often found outdoors, or in places that harbor anaerobic bacteria, but the rust itself does not cause tetanus nor does it contain more C. tetani bacteria. The rough surface of rusty metal merely provides a prime habitat for a C. tetani endospore to reside, and the nail affords a means to puncture skin and deliver endospore into the wound. An endospore is a non-metabolizing survival structure that begins to metabolize and cause infection once in an adequate environment. Because C. tetani is an anaerobic bacterium, it and its endospores survive well in an environment that lacks oxygen. Hence, stepping on a nail (rusty or not) may result in a tetanus infection, as the low-oxygen (anaerobic) environment is provided by the same object that causes a puncture wound, delivering endospores to a suitable environment for growth.

  Diagnosis

There are currently[when?] no blood tests that can be used to diagnose tetanus. The diagnosis is based on the presentation of tetanus symptoms and does not depend upon isolation of the bacteria, which is recovered from the wound in only 30% of cases and can be isolated from patients without tetanus. Laboratory identification of C. tetani can be demonstrated only by production of tetanospasmin in mice.[3]

The "spatula test" is a clinical test for tetanus that involves touching the posterior pharyngeal wall with a sterile, soft-tipped instrument, and observing the effect. A positive test result is the involuntary contraction of the jaw (biting down on the "spatula"), and a negative test result would normally be a gag reflex attempting to expel the foreign object. A short report in The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene states that, in a patient research study, the spatula test had a high specificity (zero false-positive test results) and a high sensitivity (94% of infected patients produced a positive test result).[9]

  Prevention

Unlike many infectious diseases, recovery from naturally acquired tetanus does not usually result in immunity to tetanus. This is due to the extreme potency of the tetanospasmin toxin; even a lethal dose of tetanospasmin is insufficient to provoke an immune response.

Tetanus can be prevented by vaccination with tetanus toxoid.[10] The CDC recommends that adults receive a booster vaccine every ten years,[11] and standard care practice in many places is to give the booster to any patient with a puncture wound who is uncertain of when he or she was last vaccinated, or if he or she has had fewer than three lifetime doses of the vaccine. The booster may not prevent a potentially fatal case of tetanus from the current wound, however, as it can take up to two weeks for tetanus antibodies to form.[12] In children under the age of seven, the tetanus vaccine is often administered as a combined vaccine, DPT/DTaP vaccine, which also includes vaccines against diphtheria and pertussis. For adults and children over seven, the Td vaccine (tetanus and diphtheria) or Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis) is commonly used.[10]

The WHO certifies countries as having eliminated maternal or neonatal tetanus. Certification requires at least two years of rates < 1 case per 1000 live borns. In 1998 in Uganda, 3,433 tetanus cases were recorded in new-born babies; of these, 2,403 died. After a major public health effort Uganda in 2011 was certified as having eliminated tetanus.[13]


  Mild tetanus

Mild cases of tetanus can be treated with:

  Severe tetanus

Severe cases will require admission to intensive care. In addition to the measures listed above for mild tetanus:

Drugs such as diazepam or other muscle relaxants can be given to control the muscle spasms. In extreme cases it may be necessary to paralyze the patient with curare-like drugs and use a mechanical ventilator.

In order to survive a tetanus infection, the maintenance of an airway and proper nutrition are required. An intake of 3500-4000 calories, and at least 150 g of protein per day, is often given in liquid form through a tube directly into the stomach (percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy), or through a drip into a vein (parenteral nutrition). This high-caloric diet maintenance is required because of the increased metabolic strain brought on by the increased muscle activity. Full recovery takes 4 to 6 weeks because the body must regenerate destroyed nerve axon terminals.

  Epidemiology

  Disability-adjusted life year for tetanus per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004.
  no data
  ≤10
  10-25
  25-50
  50-75
  75-100
  100-125
  125-150
  150-200
  200-250
  250-500
  500-750
  ≥750
  Tetanus cases reported worldwide (1990-2004). Ranging from strongly prevalent (in dark red) to very few cases (in light yellow) (grey, no data).

Tetanus is an international health problem, as C. tetani spores are ubiquitous. The disease occurs almost exclusively in persons unvaccinated or inadequately immunized.[2] Tetanus occurs worldwide but is more common in hot, damp climates with soil rich in organic matter. This is particularly true with manure-treated soils, as the spores are widely distributed in the intestines and feces of many non-human animals such as horses, sheep, cattle, dogs, cats, rats, guinea pigs, and chickens. Spores can be introduced into the body through puncture wounds. In agricultural areas, a significant number of human adults may harbor the organism. The spores can also be found on skin surfaces and in contaminated heroin.[3] Heroin users, particularly those that inject the drug, appear to be at high risk for tetanus.

Tetanus – in particular, the neonatal form – remains a significant public health problem in non-industrialized countries. The World Health Organization estimates that 59,000 newborns worldwide died in 2008 as a result of neonatal tetanus.[14] In the United States, 50-100 people become infected with tetanus each year.[3] Nearly all of the cases in the United States occur in unimmunized individuals or individuals who have allowed their inoculations to lapse.[3]

Tetanus is the only vaccine-preventable disease that is infectious but is not contagious.[3]

  History

Tetanus was well known to ancient people who recognized the relationship between wounds and fatal muscle spasms.[15] In 1884, Arthur Nicolaier isolated the strychnine-like toxin of tetanus from free-living, anaerobic soil bacteria. The etiology of the disease was further elucidated in 1884 by Antonio Carle and Giorgio Rattone, who demonstrated the transmissibility of tetanus for the first time. They produced tetanus in rabbits by injecting pus from a patient with fatal tetanus into their sciatic nerves. In 1889, C. tetani was isolated from a human victim by Kitasato Shibasaburō, who later showed that the organism could produce disease when injected into animals, and that the toxin could be neutralized by specific antibodies. In 1897, Edmond Nocard showed that tetanus antitoxin induced passive immunity in humans, and could be used for prophylaxis and treatment. Tetanus toxoid vaccine was developed by P. Descombey in 1924, and was widely used to prevent tetanus induced by battle wounds during World War II.[3]

  Notable victims

  See also

  References

  1. ^ Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged 6th Edition 2003. William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd 1979, 1986 HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003: via http://www.thefreedictionary.com/tetanus
  2. ^ a b Wells CL, Wilkins TD (1996). "Clostridia: Sporeforming Anaerobic Bacilli". In Baron S, et al. Baron's Medical Microbiology. Univ of Texas Medical Branch. ISBN 0-9631172-1-1. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?rid=mmed.section.1099. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Tetanus" (PDF). CDC Pink Book. http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/pinkbook/downloads/tetanus.pdf. Retrieved 2007-01-26. 
  4. ^ Vandelaer J; Birmingham M; Gasse F; Kurian M; Shaw C; Garnier S (July 28, 2003). "Tetanus in developing countries: an update on the Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus Elimination Initiative". Vaccine 21 (24): 3442–5. DOI:10.1016/S0264-410X(03)00347-5. PMID 12850356. 
  5. ^ Brauner JS; Vieira SR; Bleck TP (July 2002). "Changes in severe accidental tetanus mortality in the ICU during two decades in Brazil". Intensive Care Medicine 28 (7): 930–5. DOI:10.1007/s00134-002-1332-4. PMID 12122532. 
  6. ^ Farrar JJ; Yen LM; Cook T; Fairweather N; Binh N; Parry J; Parry CM (September 2000). "Tetanus". Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 69 (3): 292–301. DOI:10.1136/jnnp.69.3.292. PMC 1737078. PMID 10945801. //www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1737078. 
  7. ^ "Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus Elimination by 2005". UNICEF. November 2000. http://www.unicef.org/immunization/files/MNTE_strategy_paper.pdf. Retrieved 2007-01-26. 
  8. ^ DS Asgaonkar, VK Kulkarni, S Yadav, A Dalvi (January 2002). "Cephalic Tetanus : A Rare Form of Localized Tetanus". Bombay Hospital Journal 44 (1). http://www.bhj.org/journal/2002_4401_jan/case_121.htm. Retrieved 2012-02-03. 
  9. ^ Apte NM, Karnad DR (October 1995). "Short Report: The Spatula Test: A Simple Bedside Test to Diagnose Tetanus". Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 53 (4): 386–7. PMID 7485691. http://www.ajtmh.org/cgi/content/abstract/53/4/386. Retrieved 2007-10-11. 
  10. ^ a b Hopkins, A.; Lahiri, T.; Salerno, R.; Heath, B. (1991). "Diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis: recommendation for vaccine use and other preventive measures. Recommendations of the Immunization Practices Advisory committee (ACIP)". MMWR Recomm Rep 40 (RR–10): 1–28. DOI:10.1542/peds.2006-0692. PMID 1865873. 
  11. ^ "CDC Features - Tetanus: Make Sure You and Your Child Are Fully Immunized". http://www.cdc.gov/Features/Tetanus/. Retrieved 2010-08-30. 
  12. ^ Porter JD, Perkin MA, Corbel MJ, Farrington CP, Watkins JT, Begg NT (1992). "Lack of early antitoxin response to tetanus booster". Vaccine 10 (5): 334–6. DOI:10.1016/0264-410X(92)90373-R. PMID 1574917. 
  13. ^ "Uganda: Nation Free of Maternal And Neonatal Tetanus, Unicef Reports". http://allafrica.com/stories/201107150259.html. Retrieved 2011-07-14. 
  14. ^ "Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus (MNT) elimination". WHO. http://www.who.int/immunization_monitoring/diseases/MNTE_initiative/en/index.html. Retrieved 2010-11-02. 
  15. ^ Pearce JM (1996). "Notes on tetanus (lockjaw)". J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 60 (3): 332. DOI:10.1136/jnnp.60.3.332. PMC 1073859. PMID 8609513. //www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1073859. 

  External links

  Media

   
               

 

All translations of Tetanus


sensagent's content

  • definitions
  • synonyms
  • antonyms
  • encyclopedia

Dictionary and translator for handheld

⇨ New : sensagent is now available on your handheld

   Advertising ▼

sensagent's office

Shortkey or widget. Free.

Windows Shortkey: sensagent. Free.

Vista Widget : sensagent. Free.

Webmaster Solution

Alexandria

A windows (pop-into) of information (full-content of Sensagent) triggered by double-clicking any word on your webpage. Give contextual explanation and translation from your sites !

Try here  or   get the code

SensagentBox

With a SensagentBox, visitors to your site can access reliable information on over 5 million pages provided by Sensagent.com. Choose the design that fits your site.

Business solution

Improve your site content

Add new content to your site from Sensagent by XML.

Crawl products or adds

Get XML access to reach the best products.

Index images and define metadata

Get XML access to fix the meaning of your metadata.


Please, email us to describe your idea.

WordGame

The English word games are:
○   Anagrams
○   Wildcard, crossword
○   Lettris
○   Boggle.

Lettris

Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.

boggle

Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !

English dictionary
Main references

Most English definitions are provided by WordNet .
English thesaurus is mainly derived from The Integral Dictionary (TID).
English Encyclopedia is licensed by Wikipedia (GNU).

Copyrights

The wordgames anagrams, crossword, Lettris and Boggle are provided by Memodata.
The web service Alexandria is granted from Memodata for the Ebay search.
The SensagentBox are offered by sensAgent.

Translation

Change the target language to find translations.
Tips: browse the semantic fields (see From ideas to words) in two languages to learn more.

last searches on the dictionary :

2684 online visitors

computed in 0.546s

   Advertising ▼

I would like to report:
section :
a spelling or a grammatical mistake
an offensive content(racist, pornographic, injurious, etc.)
a copyright violation
an error
a missing statement
other
please precise:

Advertize

Partnership

Company informations

My account

login

registration

   Advertising ▼

Medical Alert Emergency ID Bracelet Information Chain (6.49 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Medical Alert Emergency ID 24" Necklace Information Chain (6.49 USD)

Commercial use of this term